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Digitized by tine Internet Arcliive 

in 2009 witli funding from 

CARLI: Consortium of Academic and Researcli Libraries in Illinois 



http://www.archive.org/details/opencourt3_1889caru 



//. 



The Open Court. 



A 



AA/^EEKLY MAGAZINE 



Devoted to the V/ork of Conciliating 



1--.TV. 



Religion with Science. 



Vol. IIL ; 85^7-^^ 



CHICAGO : 

The Open Court Publishing Company 

1 889-QO. 



.-^^^' 



^ 



GENEEAL INDEX. 



VOLUME III. 



ESSAYS AND CONTRIBUTIONS. 



Age, Youth and Old . Felix L. Oswald 1683, 

Agnosticism and the Theory of Life. M. C. 0' Byrne 

Agnosticism, Of Christianity and. Paul R. Shipman 

Alchemy, A Dream of. George M. Gould 

Allegiance, Dilemma of a Double. The Samoa Question from an Ethical 

Standpoint. M. M. Trumbull 

American Life, Superstition in. L. J. Vance 1823, 1951, 

Animal and Vegetable Life, Retrogression in. August Weismann 

1801, 1827, 1840, 

Arnold, A Tribute to Matthew. The Lord Chief Justice of England 

Arts, Need of an American Department of Public Instruction and 

Fine . F. de Gissac 

Aryas, The Cradle of the. Max Mflller 

Aspects, Christian and Human. W.R.Thayer 1491. 1500, 

Attention, The Morbid States of. Th. Ribot 

Attention, The Psychology of. Th. Ribot t777, 1792, 1831, 1S39, 

Attention, Voluntary. Th. Ribot 

Autoplastic Synthesis of the Universe, The. R. Lewins 



Beetho 



ma. Philipp Spitta.... 
, Making. A Criticism 
, Makitig. An Answer ■ 



Bread De 
Bread De 
Whee 
Bread Cheap, Making. A Rejoinde 



if Wheelbarrow. A Sympathize 
3 the Criticism of "A Sympathi: 



) Wheelbarrow. Sympathi; 



Carlyle's Religion. With Reminiscences of his Talk Thereon. M. D. 

Conway 

Carter, Councillor, of Virginia, The Recantation of. M. D. Conway 

Celibacy and its Effects on the Individual. Mrs. Susan Channing 

Children, The Preservation of Moral Purity in. A. H. Heinemann 

Christian and Human, Aspects. W.R.Thayer 1491, 1500, 

Christianity and Agnosticism, Of. Paul R. Shipman 

Church and Science, The Lutheran. An Address delivered at the Laying 

of the Corner-stone of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, La Salle. 

Edward C. Hegeler 

Colored Citizens, Shall be Banished ? F. May Holland. 



Comte, August, And Philosophy 
posing to Study Philosophy ir 
Congress, The Waste of Time in. 
Consciousness, Double, Proof of i 
Consciousness, Personality, Indi 
Consciousness, The Graphi) 
Consciousnesses of Hysterii 



nany. 



A Lett! 

■. B. Wakema 

M, M. Trumbull 

1 Hysterical Individuals. , 
iduality, and. Th. Ribot.. 



nth Pro- 



The Role of Suggestio 



Convict Labor. Wheelbarrow 

Cradle of the Aryas, The. Max MCiller 

Crime, Development of the Forms of. Lud\^ 
" ' ' ' " ' ; work of "The Open Court," 



2019 
1778 
2087 
1765 



the 



nker ' 



Darwinian or Christian. Ludwig Noirfi 

Death, The Meaning oL Prof. Gaule 

Deity and the Universe. A Controversy. I. God in Evolution. C. Stani- 

land Wake. II. Slandering the Universe. T. B. Wakeman. . . . 1997, 
Dilemma of a Double Allegiance. The Samoa Question from an Ethical 

Standpoint. M. M. Trumbull 

Dilettanteism in Literature. Paul Carus 

Doctrine of Immortality, Extracts from Previous Essays of Mr. E. C. 

Hegeler, Illustrative of the 

Dollar, The Paper. Wheelbarrow 

Dollar, The Workingman's, Wheelbarrow 

Dragon Hunt in the Riviera, A. M. D. Conway 2081, 

Dreams and Visions. Felix L. Oswald i597. 

Dualism, Monism and. In Reply to the Criticisms of Mr. E. C. Hegeler. 

The Rev. H, H. Higgins 



2068 
i6og 
1657 
2100 
1647 



PAGE. 

Ecstasy. Th. Ribot 1970 

Electrical Experiments of Professor Hertz, The. T. J. McCormack 1705 

Electrical Waves and Rays. The Experiments of Prof. H. Hertz. T.J. Mc- 
Cormack 1679 

Ethical Evolution. E. D. Cope 1523 

Ethics and the Pursuit of Happiness. Dr. Franz Staudinger 2102 

Ethics, International Trade and International. Allen Pringle 1892 

Ethics of Party, The. M. M. Trumbull 2083 

Evolution, Ethical. E. D. Cope 1523 

Evolution, Monism and. Remarks by the Rev. H. H. Higgins and Mr. 

Edward C. Hegeler 1754 

Evolution of Morals, The. Frances Emily White 1775, 1788 

Evolution, The Need of an Academic Chair for the Teaching of. A Sug- 
gestion by ProL E. D. Cope :650 

Exposition. Sonie American Thoughts on the French. M. D. Conway 2004 

Eye, The Hysterical. A. Bmet 1763 

Facts and Truths. Col. Ingersoll's Science, W.M.Boucher 1620 

Faith, The Universal. A Monistic, Positive, Human, Constructive Re- 
ligion. T. B. Wakeman 1583 

Faith, M. Guyau's. Alfred Fouillte 1611 

Festival of Faith at Plymouth, A. M. D. Conway 1787 

Force. John B. Wood 1503 

Form as Reality. Extract from Mr. E. C. Hegeler's Essay, "The Soul," 

in No. 15 of The Open Court 1539 

Frankenstein, The Modern. George M. Gould 1745. I754 

"Freidenker." A Reuly to the Criticism of the upon the Address held 

at the Laying of the Corner-Stone of the LaSalle Lutheran Church. 

The Kernel of Religion. Edward C. Hegeler 2066 

French Exposition, Some American Thoughts on the. M. D. Conway... 2004 

French Philosophical Works, Recent. Lucien Arr^at 2108 

French Philosophy, Contemporaneous. Lucien Arr^at 1941 

God in Evolution. C. Staniland Wake 1997 

Good and Evil in Fiction, The Principles of. Cora H. Palmer 1502 

Graphic Method and the Doubling of Consciousness, The. A. Binet. . . . 1919 
Guyau's Faith, M. Alfred FouilWe 1611 

Happiness, Ethics, and the Pursuit of. Dr. Franz Staudinger 2102 

Hawthorne, Nathaniel, An Exhumed Sketch by. And Some Reflections 

Thereon. M. D Conway ' 1968 

Hegeler, Extracts from previous Essays of Mr. E. C. , Illustrative of the 

Doctrine of Immortality 2068 

Honest and Dishonest Wages. Wheelbarrow 1539^ 

Human, Aspects, Christian and. W.R.Thayer 1491, 1500, 1515 

Hypnotism and Modern Psychology. Dr. J. Luys 1835 

Hysterical Eye, The. A. Binet 1763 

Hysterical Individuals, Proof of Double Consciousness in. A. Binet.... 1739 
Hysterical Individuals, The Relations between the two Consciousnesses 

oL A. Bmet I75t 

Icelandic Literature, The 1966 

Immortality, Illustrative of the Doctrine of. Extracts from Previous 

Essays of Mr. E. C. Hegeler 2068 

Indo-European, Two Perils of the. E. D. Cope 2052, 2070 

Individuality, and Consciousness, Personality. Th. Ribot 1586 

Infidelity. R. B. Westbrook. [prora the J^'reet/i/niers' Afa^ranine.] 1709 

Instruction, Need of an American Department of Public and Fine Arts. 

F. de Gissac 2036 

International Trade and International Ethics. Allen Pringle 1892 

Israel, Rise of the People of. Carl Heinrich Cornill 1619, 1633, 1643 

Israel, The Conquest of Palestine and the Founding of the Kingdom of. 

Carl Heinrich Cornill 1643 

Israel, The Migrations of the Tribes of. Carl Heinrich Cornill 1633 

Kernel of Religion, The. A Reply to the Criticisms of the " Freidenker " 
upon the Address held at the Laying of the Corner-Stone of the La 
Salle Lutheran Church, Edward C. Hegeler 2069 



THE OPEN COURT— Index to Volume III, 



ESSAYS AND CONTRIBUTIONS— Continued. 



Labor, Convict. Wheelbarrow 

Language, No Mystery in. Max Miiller 

Language, The Analysis of. Max MuUer 

Language, The Lesson taught by the Science of. Max Muller.... 

Lexical, Points, Mathematical and. Paul R. Sh pman 

Liberal Religion, The Ground of all. F. E. Abbot. With Sup^lt 



2016 
2030 
2092 



Edil 



Literature, Modern 

Logic, Is a duali 

Lutheran Church ai 
of the 



Edward C. Hegele 



Icelandic 

itic Science. John Dewey 

d Science, The. An Address deli> 
of the Evangelical Lutheran C 



Makii 



Bread Cheap. A Rejoinder to Wheelbarrow on Making Bread 
Dear. By Sympathizer 

Making Bread Dear. A Criticism of Wheelbarrow. A Sympathizer. .. . : 

Making Bread Dear. An Answer to the Criticism of •• A Sympathizer." 
Wheelbarrow 

Man and Animal, The Difference between. Max Muller 

Man as a Microcosm. Car us Strrne 1^47, 

Manias, Passions and. Felix L. Oswald 15 13, 

Mathematical and Lexical, Points. Paul R. Shipman ; 

Meaning of Death, The. Prof. Gaule 

Mechanism or Sub-Consciousness ? A. Binet 

Microcosm, Man as a. Carus Sterne tS47> 

Micro-Oiganisms, The Psychic Life of. An Answer to the Criticisms of 
M. Alfred Binet. George John Romanes 

Micro-organisms, The Psychic Life of. A Reply to Mr. George John 
Romanes, A. Binet 

Micro-organisms, The Psychic Life of. A Rejoinder to M. Binet. G. J. 
Romanes : 

Micro-Organisms. Remarks upon Mr. Romanes's Rejoinder. A. Binet.. ; 

Monism and Dualism. In Reply to the Criticisms of Mr. E. C. Hegeler. 
H. H Higgins 

Monism and Evolution. Remarks by the Rev. H. H. Higgins and Mr. Ed- 
ward C. Hegeler 

Moon, News about the Planets and the. A Survey of the Latest Astro- 
nomical observations 

Moral? Is the Universe. A Letter trom Mr. Francis Ellingwood Abbot. 
With a Reply by Dr. Paul Carus 

Morality, the Basis of. A Criticism of " The Virtues and Their Reasons." 
C. Staniland Wake 

Moral Purity in Children, The Preservation of. A. H. Heinemann 

Morals, The Evolution of. Frances Emily White 1775, : 

Naden, Constance C. W. In Meraoriam. G. M. McC : 

Newspapers: Their Rights and Duties. Slason Thompson 



Occultist, An Open Letter from an. E. R. Garczynski 1965 

Only One World after all !— But that Infinite. T. B. Wakeman 1925 

" Open Court, The," A Criticism of the Work of. Hermann Boppe. From 

the "Freidenker." 2066 

Outer World, Sensation and the. A. Binet 1535 

Oxtord Movement, The Significance of the. W. R. Thayer 2054, 2076 



ADi' 



A Dh 



Paper Dollar, The. Wheelbarrow.. 
Parker, The Teachings of Theodore 

his Society. M.D.Conway 

Parker, The T ansient and the Permanent in Theo 

the Dissolution of his Society. M.D.Conway 

Parker's, Theodore, Optimism. A Discourse at the Dissolution of 

Society. M. D. Conway • 

Party, The Ethics of. M. M. Trumbull 

Passions and Manias. Felix L. Oswald i; 

Patronage and Prerogative. M. M. Trumbull 

Payment in Promises to Pay. Wheelbarrow 

Personality, Alterations of. Th. Ribot 

Personality, Individuality, and Consciousness. Tn. Rib.^t 

Personality, The Physical Bases of. Th. Ribot 

Philosophical Works, Recent French. Lucien Arreat 

Philosophy, Contemporaneous French. Lucien ArriSat 

Planets an.i the Moon, News about the. A Survey of the Latest Asir 

omical Observations 

Plymouth, A Festival of Faith at. M. D. Conway 

Poetry and Science. Calvin Thomas 

Points, Mathematical and Lexical. Paul R. Shipman 

Press, The, as it is. M. M. Trumbull 

Problematic Traditions. Felix L. Oswald 

Prussing, Ernst. A Funeral Address. W.M.Salter 

Psychology, Hypnotism and Modern. Dr. J. Luys 

Psychology, Aspects of Modern. Joseph Jastrow 



1609 
1669 
1631 



209t 

1703 
1695 

I5b6 
1658 



1787 
1727 
2092 
2060 
202S 
2023 
1835 
1907 



Psychology in France a 
Psychology in Germany 
Psychology in Great Br 
Psychology of Attentior 
~ ■ ■ 1 Children, The 



id Italy. Jo 
Joseph la 



•ityi 



eph Jastrow 1956 

trow 1935 

United States. Joseph Jastrow 2006 

.The. Th. Ribot 1777.1792,1831,1839,1868 

Preservation of Moral. A. H. Heinemann 1607 



cillor Carter of Virgin! 
-true ? John Ransom Bndf 
With Reminiscences of h,: 



The. M. D. Conway.. 



Recantation of Con 
Reincarnation, Is — 
Religion, Carlyle's. With Reminiscences of h,s Talk thereon. M. D. 

Conway 17 19 

Religion, Is Dead? C. P. Geoffrey 1943 

Religion, Old and New. W. D. Gunning 18S3 

Religion, "The Approaching New. J. C. F. Grurabine 1799 

Religion, The Coming. C. K. Whipple 1623 

Religion, The Ground of all Liberal. F. E. Abbjt. (From the Unitarian 

Revinu.) With Supplementary Editorial Comments 2012 

Religion. The Kernel of. A Reply to the Criticisms of the " Freirtenker " 

upon the Address held at the Laying of the Corner-Stone of the La 

Salle Lutheran Church. Edward C. Hegeler 2066 

Religion of George Washington. M. D. Conway .895 

Retrogression in Animal and Vegetable Life. August Weismann 

1801, 1827, 1840, 1855 

Riviera, A Dragon Hunt in the. M. D. Conway 2081, 2100 

Roadside Reveries. A Recluse ; 1877, 2106 

Michaelis 1731 



1487, 1547, 



Salvation, The Struggle for. 

Sanskrit, The Study of - 

Science, Poetry and. Calvin Thomas 

Science of Language, The Lesson Taught by. Ma 
Science, The Lutheran Church and. An Address d 

of ihe Corner-stone of the Evangelical Luthe 

Edward C. Hegeler. 

Secular Union. The American. Reports of its Am 

Sensation and the Outer World. A. Binet 

Sexual Characteristics. Felix L. Oswald 181, 

Significance of the Oxford Movement, The. W. R. Thayer 2054, 

Signing the Documen 
Sitaharanam, The ; oi 
Epic " Ramayana 



; Muller 

ilivered at the Laving 
•an Church, La Salle 

uai'coiigreVs'andRe 



elba 



An Episode from the Sanskr 
A. H. Gunlogsen. 1622, 1637, 1662, 1672, 1698, 



rse. T. B. \yakeman 
1 of Universities, The 
Reality. Extract frc 



Slandering the Unive 
Sociological Functio 
Soul, The. Form as 

in No. 15 of The Op 
Sub-Consciousness, Mechanism or? A. Bine 
Sub-Conscious States, The Intensity of. A 1 
Suggestion, The rOle of, in Phenomena of Dou 
Superstition in American Life. L. J. Vance. 
Synthesis, The Autoplastic of the Univers 

P. Ge ffrey. 



1720, 1734 1743 



Mr. E. C. Hegeler's Essay, 



. 2019 
1961 
2097 



Thanksgiving-Day. 

Thought thicker than Blood. Max Muller 2043 

Traditions, Problematic. Felix L Oswald 2028 

Truths and Fdcts. Col. Ingersoll's .Science. W.M.Boucher 1620 



al Faith, The. A Monistic, Positi 



, Constructive Reli- 



Universe, Slandering The. T. B. Wakeman 2000 

Universe M iral ? Is the. A Letter from Mr. Francis Ellingwood Abbot. 

With a Reply by Dr. Paul Carus 2049 

Universities, The Sociological Function of. M. I. Swift 2021 

Veda, The discovery of the. H. Oldenberg 1547 

Veda, The Interpretation of the— and the Hindu Epic. H. Oldenberg.. . 1561 

Vedic Epoch, History of the. H. Oldenberg 1573 

Vegetable Life, Retrogression in Animal and. August Weisinanii. 

1801, 1827, 1840, 1855 

Visions, Dreams and. Felix L. Oswald 1597, 1647 

1539 



Wages, Honest and Dishonest. Wheelbarrow 

Wagner, Richard. Paul Carus 

Washington, The Religion of George. M. D. Conway 

Waste of Time in Congress, The. M.M.Trumbull 

Waves and Rays, Electrical. The Experiments of Prof. H Hertz. Thou 

T McCormack 
Webster, Monistic Reiigion the Streiigth of Daniei. f. B. Wakeman 

Words and Work. Wheelbarrow 

Workingman's Dollar, The. Wheelbarrow 

World, Only One, after all I— But that Infiniie. T. B. Wakemau 



1679 
2093 
1814 
1657 



nd Old Age. Felix L. Oswald. 



EDITORIALS. 



PAGE. 

Agnosticism. A Defender of : Col. Robert 

G. Ingersoll 1554 

Agnosticism and August Comte's Positivism.. 1589 

Agnosticism, Two Errors of. In Reply to Mr. 

P. R. Shipman 1671 

Agnosticism, The Modesty of. In Reply to 

Criticisms of Fundamental Problems igyo 

Agnosticism and Monism. In Reply to Criti- 
.. cisms of Fundamental Problems 1893 

Animals and Plants, Soul-Life of 1914 



PAGE. 

Asceticism, Hedonism and ^. . . 1517 

Atonement, The Vicarious 1502 

Beam, The Mote and the 2099 

Catalepsy, and Somnambulism, Lethargy 1972 

Causation. Force and. Comment Upon Mr. 

John B. Wood's Essay 1505 

Central and Peripheral Soul-Life i93« 

Christmas 1991 



PAGE. 

Comte's, August, Agnosticism and Positiv- 
ism 1589 

Conquest of Death, The 1967 

Conservation of Energy. Vila ism and the 2047 

Creed but Faith. No 1577 

Creed, The Revision of a 2075 

Death, The Conquest of 1967 

Destructive or Constructive? In Answer to 

the Criticisms of Illiberal Liberals 2107 



THE OPEN COURT— Index to Volume III, 



EDITORIALS— Continued. 



Dilettanteism in Literatur. 
Double Personality and Do 
Dreams and Hallucination 



PAGE. 

,. 1708 
,. 1948 
. . 2024 



Eternal Youth. The Price of 1979 

Ethics, Formal Tliought and 1613 

Ethics and Natural Science 1563 

Facts, A Religion Based upon 210+ 

Faith. No Creed but 1577 

Folly, The Liberal's 2015 

Force and Causation. Comment upon Mr. 

John B Wood's Essay 1505 

Formal Thought and Ethics 1613 

Freedom, and Immortality, God 1625 

Freedom of Will and Responsibility 2095 

" Fundamental Problems," in Reply to Criti- 
cisms of 1893. 1904, 1917, 1990 



God, Freedo 



, and 



nortality 1625 



Hallucinations, Dreams and 2024 

Hedonism and Asceticism 1517 

Higher Humanity, An Instance of. The Man- 

of-War Trenton 1616 

Holy Ghost the, The Sin against igoi 

Human Soul. The 2003 

Huxley's Church. Prof 1590 

Hypnotism? What is., 1958 

Idealism and Realism. Relative to the Essay 
of M. Alfred Binet, " Sensation and the 

Outer World," 1553 

Ideal Newspaper. The Remarks of Mr. Henry 

E. Rood in the North American Re-view.xW 2014 

Immortality, God, Freedom, and 1625 

Immortality. Religion and 2087 

Ingersoll, Col. Robert G., A Defender of Ag- 
nosticism : 1554 

Lethargy, Catalepsy, and Somnambulism 1972 



Liberal Religion, The Ground of all. Notes 

upon that essay of F. E. Abbot 2012 

Liberal's Folly, The 2015 

Liberals, In Answer to the Criticisms of Il- 
liberal. Destructive or Constructive?... 2107 

Life, Organized and Non-Organized 2062 

Man-of-War Trenton, The. An Instance of 

Higher Humanity 1616 

Memory and Organized Substance 1900 

Metaph\ sicism 1995 

Modesty of Agnosticism. The 1990 

Monism, Odd views of. In Reply to Criticisms 

of "Fundamental Problems." 1917 

Mora! ? Is the Universe. Reply to Mr. Fran- 
cis Ellingwood Abbot 2049 

Mote and the Beam. The 2099 

Mysticism, The Value of 2039 

Natural Science. Ethics and 1563 

Newspaper, The Ideal. Remarks of Mr. Henry 

E. Rood in the A^orM American Revie'w.Wx 2014 

No Creed but Faith 1577 

Noumena, Phenomena and 1526 

Noumenal, The Oneness of the Phenomenal 

and the 1541 

Odd Views of Monism In Reply to Criticisms 

of Fundamental Problems 1917 

Onenessof the Phenomenal and the Noumena! 1541 

Organized and Non-Organized Life 2062 

Organized Substance, Memory and igoo 

Pain, Pleasure and 1987 

Peripheral Soul-Life. Central and 1938 

Personality and Double Soul, Double 1948 

Phenomena and Noumena 1526 

Phenomenal and the Noumenal, The Oneness 

of the 1541 

Plants, Soul-Life of Animals and 1914 

Pleasure and Pain 1987 

Positivism, Agnosticism and August Comte's. 1589 



PAGE, 

Realism. Idealism and. Relative to the Essay 
of M. Alfred Binet, " Sensation and the 

Outer World." 1553 

Reflex Motions, The Three Phases of 2084 

Religion and Immoitality 2087 

Religion Based upon Facts, A 2104 

Religion, Is dead ? 1943 

Religion of Resignation. The 2051 

Resignation. The Religion of 2051 

Responsibility. Freedom of Will and 2095 

Revision of a Creed, The 2075 

Science, Ethics and Natural , 1563 

Sin against the Holy Ghost. The. In Reply to 

Criticisms of Fundamental Problems 1904 

Somnambulism, Lethargy. Catalepsy, and 1972 

Soul, Double Personality and Double 1948 

Soul-Life, Central and Peripheral 1938 

Soul-Life, The Nature of 1926 

Soul-Life of Animals and Plants 1914 

Soul of the Universe, The 2071 

Soul, The Human 2003 

Space and Time 1600 

Suggestion and Suggestibility 2032 

Thanksgiving Day 1955 

Thought, The Nature of 2009 

Thought and Ethics, Formal 1613 

Time, Space and 1600 

Universe Moral ? Is the. Reply to Mr. Fran- 
cis Ellingwood Abbot 2049 

, The Soul of the 2071 

Atonement, The 1502 

Vitalism and the Conservation of Energy 2047 

Vocation, The 2027 

Wagner, Richard 1850 

Youth, The Price of Eternal 1979 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Agnosticism, Metaphysics, Etc. M. Corcoran 2038 

Binet, M., The Hypotheses of. Richard F. Smith 1816 

Brown's, Doctor, Book, Mrs. Ella E. Gibson on i6i6 

Bruno Celebration, Thoughts on the. John B. Shiple 1722 

Celibacy and Celibates, A Defence of. Clint D. Luce 1942 

Celibacy, Marriage vs. Reply to C. D. Luce. Mrs. Susan Channing 1976 

Citizenship and our Religions. W. B. T 2038 

Comtists and Agnostics. R. F. Smith 1626 

Dreams, Sleep, and Consciousness. G. M. Gould 1530 

Dreams, Sleep, and Consciousness. J. W. Redway 1542 . 

"Et Versa Vice." M. C. O'Byrne 1881 

Evolution, A Professorship of. E. P. Powell 1673 

Existence, Absolute (With Editorial Note.) P 1627 

Explanation, An. To Wheelbarrow. Hugh O. Pentecost r663 

God and Nature. W. A. Leonard. E. P. Powell iii 2074 

God in Evolution. In Reply to Mr. T. B. Wakeman. C. Staniiand Wake. 2026 

God, The Idea of. M. Corcoran iii 1690 

Goethe and the Marriage Relation. Prof. Calvin Thomas 2074 

Goethe a Safe Moral Guide. Prof. Calvin Thomas iii 2026 

Goethe as a Celibate and as a Moral Guide. Mrs. Susan Channing. .iii 2050 

Ground-Rent and Land-Values. Hugh O. Pentecost 1566 

Knowledge, Propositions and. A Criticism of Mr. Francis C. Russell's 

Remarks in No. 78. A. M. G 1531 

In Explanation of the Foregoing. Francis C. Russell 1531 

Marriage vs. Celibacy. A Reply to C. D. Luce. Mrs. Susan Channing. . 1976 

Matriarchy, What Was ? E. D. Cope 1518 

Mendacity of Old Soldiers. A Retort to the Communication of Dr. 

Horace Porter. M. M. Trumbull 1494 

Metaphysical Aspects. M.Corcoran 2002 

" Miscegenation " not a Danger in the South. E. E. Moise 2086 

Montreal, Philosophy at. Mary Morgan (Gowan Lea.) 1627 

Nature, God and. W. A. Leonard. E. P. Powell iii 2074' 

Negro Question, The. Elizabeth Oakes Smith iii 2110 

Pope. Alexander, The Monism of. Clinton Roosevelt 1675 

Positivism. Louis Belrose.Jr 1626 

Positivist and Monist, Not a Comtist nor Spencerian. T. B. Wakeman. . 1652 
Propositions and Knowledge. A Criticism of Mr. Francis C. Russell's Re- 
marks in No. 78. A. M. G 1531 

In Explanation of the Foregoing. Francis C. Russell 1531 

Religions, Citizenship and Our. W. B. T 2038 

Retrogression a Condition of Evolution. A. G. Jennings 1846 

Retrogression and Natural Selection. G. A. Osinga. With Note 1870 

Return of the Negroes to Africa. E. D. Cope 2110 

Science and Worship. M. Corcoran 1543 

Selfism— Pan-Ontism. Robert Lewins 1844 

SINGLE TAX DISCUSSION. 

A Question in Arithmetic. William C. Albro 1664 



507. 



How to Arrive at Land- Values. William C. Albro 

Mr. Conant'sCase Again. W. J. Atkinson 

Taxation and Production. W.J.Atkinson 

Individual Ownership. W. E. Brockaw 

Unearned Increment and Full Annual Value. W. E. Brock; 

No Justice in the Single-Tax. T. G. Conant 

The Injustice of the Single-Tax. T. G. Conant 

Throw Open Natural Opportunities. Benj. Doblin 

A Farmer on Henry George 

Mr. Conant's Case. James G. Kiernan 

All Value the Outcome of Society. Arthur R. Kimball 

A New Hampshire View of Eminent Domain. Arthur R. Kii 

Methods of Assessment. Jerome Lynch 

The Single-Tax. J. G. Malcolm 

The Masses Disinherited. Peter McGill 

The Spirit of Henry George's Work. Peter McGill 

A Case of Conscience. M. C. Q-Byrne 

Henry George's Mission. Observer 

Wheelbarrow's Error. Hugh O. Pentecost 

Land-Ownership and Control for Use. Theodore P. Perkins 

Ownership of Land. Theodore P. Perkins 

A Single-Tax Man in Disguise. A. H. Stephenson 

Frederick Pollock on the Ownership of Land. Morrison I. Swift... 

The Single-Tax Again. Tricycle 

Wheelbarrow and Land- Values. W. H. Van Ornum 

Three Statements. Mr. L. H. Weller 

Cheapen Land by Taxing It. Wheelbarrow 

Confiscation. A Reply to Mr. Hugh O. Pentecost. Wheelbarrow.. 

The Cutworm and the Weevil. Wheelbarrow 

Land Values and Paper Titles. Wheelbarrow 

Mr. Pentecost and Georgeism. A Rejoinder. Wheelbarrow 

Natural Opportunities and Tom's Boot. Wheelbarrow 

Private Property in Land. Wlieelbarrow 

Production and Land-Ownership. Wheelbarrow 

The Coming Fight for Confiscation. Wheelbarrow 

The Right of Eminent Domain. Wheelbarrow 

The Single-Tax and Georgeism. Wheelbarrow 

Users of Land, and Owners of Land. Wheelbarrow 

Who Makes the Land-Value of a Farm ? Wheelbarrow 

Land and Improvements. Thomas Williamson 

Land and Land- Values. Thomas Williamson 

The More Owners the Better. Wm. C. Wood 

The Right of Eminent Domain. In Reply to Wheelbarrow. Wm. C, 



PAG 

. 178 
. 1846 



1506 
1506 

1857 
1674 
1905 
IS06 
I650 

1578 
175a 
1844 
1768 



1664 
1495 
1857 



Wood. 



Wm. C.Wood 1817 

I the Single-Tax Question 

1590, 1699, 171 1 

Universe, The Slandered. T. B. Wakeman 2038 

Usefulness, Individual. Mary Cragge 1674 

" Versa Vice Et." M. C. O'Byrne 1881 



THE OPEN COURT— Index to Volume III, 



POETRY AND FICTION. 



Celibacy Controversy, A Contribution to the. 
I. Xantippe. 11. Khadeeja. Louis Belrose, 

Jr iv 2014 

Centennial Prayer. A. Louis Belrose, Jr. . .iii 1594 

Copernicus. Louis Belrose. Jr iii ,1822 

Cosmos. J. Beverly Robinsun iii 1C54 

Daisies. Eiissa M. Moore 1506 

Epitaph, Without An. A Sketch of Podolian 
Jewish Life. Fr -m the German of Karl 
Emil Franzos. Translated and Adapted 
by Mary Morgan (Gowan Lea. ) 1952 

Exile and the Leaf, The. Martha Agnes 

Rand iii 1798 

Farrar, To Archdeacon. Louis Belrose, Jr 1965 

Friar, The. By * * * 1577 

Gems from the German. Mary Morgan (Gow- 
an Lea.l 

Adaptation from an Old Song iii 1690 

By the Shore. Gotts halk 1638 

Early Sorrow. Moritz Hartmann 1722 

Farewell. Eichendorff iii 1762 

Good Deeds. Claudius iii 1762 

Hope. Ruckert iii 1738 

In Germany's Beautiful Land. Eichen- 



In My Bark. Meissner iii 1714 

In My Life So Drear and Lonely. Heine, iii 1750 

Joy. Schiller iii 1762 

Joy and Pain. Herm. Neumann 1638 

My Wish. .Von Platen iii 1690 

O Spring-Tide, Come! Ernst Schultze.. . 1722 

Rest. Tiedge iii 1714 

The Brook. Hoffmann von Falleisleben. iii 1738 

The Poet's Answer. Goethe iii 1714 

To A Rose. Chamisso 1722 

To Oneself. Paul Fleming iii 1762 

Whose Life is Sorrow. Von Platen 1638 

IE He Should Come. William Herbert Car- 
ruth 197S 

John Bright, To. Louis Belrose, Jr 1577 

Laureate, Lines to an American. Louis Bel- 
rose. Jr 17S0 

Letter. The. Mary Morgan (Gowan Lea.). iii 2062 

Littr^, To Mr. E. Louis Belrose, Jr 1663 

Longfellow. To , Hawthorne, andThoreau. 

Isaac K. Friedman iii 1618 

Lost Manuscript, The. Continued from Vol. I. 

Concluded p. 1822. pp. 1406, 1822 

Love-Longing Louis Belrose, Jr 1638 

Love's Intuition. Jobn Boss 1722 

March 4. Louis Belrose, Jr 1493 



PAGE. 

McKee, In Memory of Lieut. Hugh Wilson, 

Louis Belrose, Jr 1673 

Moods. Mary Morgan (Gowan Lea.) iii 1534 

Motto on our Coins, The. Louis Belrose, Jr.iii 1594 

Nine Xenions. By * * * iii 1534 

Parting, The. Mary Morgan {Gowan Lea.). iii 1990 

Rich Man's Question, The. Martha Agnes 

Rand iii 1738 

Song. Mary Morgan (Gowan Lea.) 1966 

Sonnet. Louis Belrose. Jr 1518 

Sonnet. Louis Belrose, Jr. 1577 

Sonnet. Louis Belrose. Jr 1626 

Sonnet. Louis Belrose, Jr 1804 

Sonnet. Louis Belrose. Jr iii iggo 

Sonnet. Louis Belrose, Jr 2002 

Sonnet. To . Louis Belrose, Jr 1879 

Sonnet. Mary Morgan ( Gowan Lea. ) 1942 

Soul, To The. W. D. Lighthall 1626 

Stones of Manhattan, The. Willis Fletcher 

Johnson 1518 

Swiss Scene. Louis Belrose, J r 1857 

Wasted Love. Louis Belrose, Jr 1506 

Without an Epitaph. A Sketch of Podolian 
Jewish Life. From the German of Karl 
Emil Franzos. Translated and Adapted 
by Mary Morgan (Gowan Lea. i 1952 



BOOK REVIEWS, NOTES, OBITUARIES. 



Academy, The iv 2074 

Academy of Natural Sciences. Proceedings of the Davenport iii -82 

Agnosticism, Faith and iv 2 '6 

Allen, Grant. " Force and Energy." iii 1534 

American Branch of the Society for Psychical Research iii ztio 

Am Ur Quell iii 1822 

Arena, The iii 2026 

Arreat, Lucien. La Morale dans le Drame. I'Epopee, et le Roman iii 1522 

Athenaium, The iv 2074 



=dse 



Beaunis, H. Les Sensations Interne! 
Bellamv, Edward. Looking Backwai 
Bickford. Luther H. A Hopeless Cai 
Biddle, Horace P. Elements of Kno% 
Bithell, R. The Worship of the Unk 

Bixby, James Thompson. Religion and Science as Allies 

Black, William Nelson. Ultimate Finance 

Blavatskv, M. P. The Key to Theosophy 

Books and Adverse Criticisms 

Boppe, Hermann. Der Staat und seine Widersacher, and " Die Den 

kratische Republik " 

BrigRS, Charles A. Whither ? 

Brownell, W. C. French Traits 

Browning, Robert. Asolando 

Brown-Sdquard Discovery, The 

Bunge, Prof. Vitalism and Mechanism, and The Alcohol Queslii 

and Heard . 



Butler, A, O. What Moses Saw 
Bryans, C, and F. J. R. Hendy. 

Abridgment of Mommsen's History. 



ry of ihe Roman i<epublii 



1 England u. An 



Cams, Dr. Gustav. Obituary 

Clark, Mr. Zenos. Obituary 

Clodd, Edward. The Story of Creation.— A Plain Account of Evolu 

Christianity and Buddhism 

Cohn, Gustav. Die heutige Nationalokonomie 
Cone. Rev. Orcllo. Manuals of Faith and Dav 
Cone, Rev. Orello. Universalism, What it is. and What it is good for i 

Cope, E. D. An Outline of the Philosophy of Evolution 

Coudert, Hon. Frederic R. The Limitations of Tolerati m. A Discussit 
between Col. Robert G. Ingersoll, Ex.-Gov. Ste^rart L. Woodford. 

Crawford, F. Marion. Sanf llario 

Crocker, J. H. The Root of the Tea.perance Problem 

Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences 

Davidson, Thomas. Prolegomena to In Memoriain - - - 

Dewey. J. Selections from the Writings of Geo. Mat 

for Weary Souls 

Diesterweg's Populftre H .mmelskunde und Mathemati ,1 

Drage, Geoffrey. Cyril 

Dubuc, Paul. Essai Sur la Methode en Metaphysique 



■582 
1978 
1582 



Donald, or He'ps 



he Geographic iii 



Edgeworthand Pericle 
Etr.ical Prize of the At 
Ethical Record, The, e 



, Controversy between. The Independent Pulpit iii 1630 

lerican Secular Union iii 1882 

id Dr. Abbot iv 2074 

Fairchild, Lee, and J. Edgerton. Poems 1930 

Fiske, John. The Critical Period of American History iii 161S 

Fouill^e, Alfred. La Morale. L'Art, et La Religion D'apres M. Guyau iii 1618 
Floude, J. A. The Two Chiefs of Dunboy, An Irish Romance of the last 
Century iii 1702 



PAGE. 

Gerhard, Frederick. The Coming Creed of the World. A Voice crying 

in the Wilderness iii 1798 

Gilli'and. M. S. The Future of Morality as affected by the Decay of Prev- 
alent Religious Beliefs 1603 

Gould. Determinism and Indeterminism iii 1750 

Griffith-Jones, G. C. The Excellent Religion iii 1942 

Groh, Israel. Did Man Fall ? iii i6t8 



Hackel, Ernst. Die Naturliche S^hiipfung-geschiohte i 

Halleck, Fitz-Green. Correction of misquotation from 

Hamilton, Henry. Virgil's Aeneid. Translated into English i 

Hardv, Arthur Sterburne. Passe Rose 

Heaven, Louise Palmer. Chata and Chanita i 

Henderson. W. J. The Story of Music i 

Hendy, F. J. R., and C. Bryans. The History of the Roman 'Republii 

Abridgment of Mommsen's History i 

Hertell, Thos. The Spirit of Truth 1 

Hirsch, Dr Obituary 

Horsford, Eben Norton. The Problem of the Northmen i 

Immortality, Tacitus's View of i 

Infinite. Meaning of the Word i 

Ingersoll, Col. Robert G., Hon. 

Woodford. The Limit 
Instruction, Historical, 



1966 



1846 

1726 

1834 
1714 



Jackson, A. W. The Immanent God 

JodI, Dr. Friedrich. Geschichte der Ethik in der Neu 

Laing, Samuel. Friendly Correspondence with Mr 



reii Philosophic i' 
Gladstone abou 



Lang. Mr. Andrew, on Hebrew Myths 
Lennstrand. Mr. Victor E. Persecutii 

Liberal Hymn Book 

Light on the Path 



Maiden, M 
Mantegazz 
McCosh, J 
McTaggart 
MiUler, Ma 



The Tartuffian Age 

indamental Truths 

; Absolute Relativism of. 
Lessons of Antiquity 



! C. W. In Me 



, 1918 
2074 
. 1546 



1870 
1870 



Park, Robt., On Faith as an Intellectual Function 

Patrick, G. T. W. The Fragments of the Work of Heraclitus of Ephe 

on Nature 

Paulhan, Fr. L'Activite Mentale et les Ele uents de L'Esprit 

Pauperism, Lunacy, and Crime 

Peck, John Lord. The Kingdom of the Unseltish, etc 

Psychical Research, American Branch of the Society for 

Putnam, Samuel P. The Glory o Infidelity 



1510 
1894 
1714 
1978 



Queensbury, Lord. The Spii 
Question, One 



t of the Matterho 



Randolph, Richard. Windfalls.— Sober Thoughts on Staple Themes, iii 
Raue, Dr. C. G. Psychology as a Natural Science, applied to the Solution 
of Occult Phenomena ,. .. iii : 



THE OPEN COURT— Index to Volume III. 



BOOK REVIEWS, NOTES, OBITUARIES-^Continuecl. 



Ritchie, Eliza. The Problem of Person alily 

Robinson, L. J. The Law of Husband and Wife. 
Roosevelt, Clinton. Principia of Social Sciencs. . 



Saint-Hilaire, J. Barthelemy. La Philosophie dans ses Rapports avec les 
Sciences el la Religion 

Salter, William Mackintire. Ethical Religion 

Samyn Adolphe. Monument FunSraire k Court Saint E.tienne iii 

Sawyer, L. A. The Bible 

Schaff, Philip. The Progress of Religious Freedom as shown in the History 
oftheTol( 



Ho 



Obit 



ary. 



Sigwart. Dr. Christoph. Die Logik 

Society Royale Malacoloeique 

Staudinger, Dr. Franz. Die Gesetze der Freiheit 

Staudinger, Dr. F. Sonst, Heute und Einst, in der Religion und Gesel 

schaft i 

Stearns, George. The Pericosmic Theory of Existence and its Sequel ii 

Stillman, James W. God and the Universe i 

Stockham, Cora L.. and Emily A. Kellogg. Mother's Portfolio i 

■■ Sun." The New York i 

Sunderland, J. F. The Liberal Christian Ministry ii 

"Supernatural Religion." By the Author of — -. A Reply to Dr. Lightfoot' 

Essays i 

Swing, Prof., and the Science of Thought 



1738 
1822 
1834 
1603 
2086 

1846 
1678 
1846 
1990 
2098 
igrS 

2038 



Tacitus's view of Immortality iii ,834 

Taylor, Winnie Louise. His Broken Sword iii 1570 

Thayer, W. R., and Agnosticism iv 2086 

Thorpe, Francis N. The Government of the People of The United 

States iii 1558 

Times and Days iii 1570 

Tuttle, Hudson. Studies in the Outlying Fields of Psychic Science. . .iii 1810 



1 R. Word Studii 



I the New Testament. 



Walke 



of 



The Ruins Revisited, and the World-Story Retold 

w asson, uavid Atwood. Essays Religious, Social, Political 

Watts, Chas. Agnosticism and Christian Theism. The Superstii 

the Christian Sunday. The Glory of Unbelief iii 

Watts, Chas. Evolution and Special Creation iii 

Wise, Isaac M. A Defense of Judaism versus Proselytizing Christianity iii 
Weeks, Caleb S. Human Life ; or "The Course of Time," as Seen ii 

the Open Light iii 

Woman's Suffrage Association iii 

Woodford, Ex Gov. Stewart L., Col. Robt. G. Ingersoll, Hon. Frederic R 

Coudert. The Limitations of Toleration. A Discussion between iii 

Woodhull, Zula Maud. The Proposal ii 

Wooley, Celia Parker. A Gill Graduate: ii: 



1786 
1822 
1786 



N. B, The Roman numerals i 



ndicate that the articles thus indexed are to be sought on the pages following the 



I Arabic numerals. 



The Open Court. 

A WEEKLY JOURNAL, 

Devoted to the Work of Conciliating Religion with Science. 



Entered at the Chicago Post-Office as Second-Class Ma 



-OFFICE, 169—175 LA SALLE STREET.- 



No". 79. Vol, III— I. 



GHICAGO, FEBRUARY 28, i! 



CONTKNTS 



THE STUDY OF SANSKRIT. H. Oldenberg. Trans- 
lated from the German 1487 

ASPECTS, CHRISTIAN AND HUMAN. William R. 

Thayer 1491 

POETRY. 

March 4. Louis Belrose, Jr 1493 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

Mendacity of Old Soldiers. A Retort to the Communi- 



cation of Dr. Horace Porter. Gen. M. M. Trumbull. 1494 

Land and Land-Values. Thomas Williamson 1495 

The Masses Disinherited. Peter McGill 1495 

A Single-Tax Man in Disguise. A. H. Stephenson. . . 1496 

FICTION. 

The Lost Manuscript. (Continued.) Gustav Freytag. 1496 

BOOK REVIEW^S. 

Scientific Religion. Laurence Oliphant. 



NEW PUBLICATION. 

THE 

Psychic Life of Micro-Organisms 

A Studv in Experimental Psychology 
By ALFRED BINET. 

Translated from the French with the Sanction of 
the Author. Treating of the following subjects: 

1. The Psychology of the Cell — Introductory. 

2. The Structural and Physiological Character of 
Proto-Organisnts : the Motory and Sensory Organs. 

3. The Psychology of Nutrition : Holophytic^ Sap- 
rophytic, and Aniuial Nutrition : Predatory Habits 
of Certain Animalcula. 

4. Colonies of Unicellular Organisms. 

5. Fecttndation of Proto-Organisins. 

6. Fecundation of Higher Ani?>tals and Plants. 

7. The Physiological Function of the Njicleus. 

8. Correspondence between Alfred Binet afid Ch. 
Richet {Professor of Physiology in the Faculty oj 
Medicine at Paris) respecting Cellular Psychology. 



The monograph of M. Binet is an important con- 
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Ribot, Hieckel, Engelmann, Espinas, Pouchet, We- 
ber, Pfeffer, Kent, Dujardin, Gruber, Nussbaum, 
BUtschli, Lieberkiihn. 

In a preface written especially for the American 
edition, M. Binet confutes the theory of the Englisli 
scientist, Mr. G. y, Romanes, that the first appear- 
ance of the various psychical and intellectual fac- 
ulties is assignable to different stages in the scale 
of zoological development. 

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Review of Recent Work of THE OPEN COURT. 

PSYCHOLOGY AND BIOLOGY. 

Experimental Psychology in France. Alfred 

BiNET No. 74. 

Dream, Sleep, and Consciousness. Dr. George 

M. Gould Nos. 74 and 75. 

The Conditions of Life. Prof. Wm. Preyer.No. 72. 
Body and Mind; or the Data of Moral Physiol- 
ogy. Felix L. Oswald, M. D. . . .Nos. 72, 75, 78. 
M. Binet's entertaining sketch of the state of Experimental 
Psychology in France is the only direct and convenient source 
from which the reader can obtain a comprehensive idea of the con- 
tributions the author's country is making to this branch of mental 
science. The work of psychologists in France is distinguished by 
its almost exclusive bearing upon the pathological phases of psy- 
chological phenomena. The greatest successes of MM. Ribot, 
Richet, Charcot, and others, have been in treating the diseases of 
the mind. 

The researches of Dr. Gould upon the nature of conscious- 
ness, as studied from the facts of sleep and dreams, are highly in- 
teresting, not only as affording suggestions of scientific value, but 
as exhibiting marks of an exact and cultivated introspective talent. 
The concluding essay upon " The Conditions of Life," by Prof . 
Preyer of Berlin, treats of some important distinctions of modern 
biology. 

Dr. Oswald's papers, in the series " Body and Mind," abound 
in entertaining and apt illustrations cited in support of his princi- 
ples of moral physiology. 

PHILOSOPHY. 

The Self-Evident. David Newport. 

The Unification of Religion and Philosophy. M. C. 
O'byrne. 

The Assay of Abstract Ideas. Editor. 
Friend David Newport contributes to No. 73 of The Open 
Court a forcible article discussing "The Self-Evident." Mr. 
Newport's treatment is marked by a theological tendency, and 
the points wherein the philosophy of The Open Court differs 
from the theology of the author are touched upon in the editorial 
note, "The Assay of Abstract Ideas." Mr. O'Byrne's article, 
in the same number, is a scholarly sketch of principles whereon 
to base the unification of the truths of religion and philosophy. 

Sensation and Memory. Editor No. 74. 

Cognition, Knowledge, and Truth. Editor. .No. 76. 

In these two discussions, the conditions and processes by which 

we start from the bare excitations of the sensory world and attain 

to knowledge, are unfolded. Sensation is the primal condition of 

all knowledge; the products of sensation are preserved and trans- 



mitted as psychological forms; the physchological law of this reten- 
tive power is memor}', from which source are evolved the different 
branches and varied forms of human thought. 

Axioms The Basis of Mathematics. Dr. Edward 
Brooks No. 76 

The Old AND THE New Mathematics. Editor. No. 77. 

A Flaw in the Foundation of Geometry. 

Hermann Grassmann No. 77, 

In No. 76, Dr. Edward Brooks of Philadelphia, takes excep- 
tion to an editorial thesis that " mathematics is unfortunately con- 
structed on axioms." To Dr. Brooks no other way of construction 
is possible. There exist " first truths or axioms which the mind 
has power to cognize," which are incapable of proof, and which 
every system, even though nominally rejecting them, nevertheless 
tacitly employs. The editorial answer to Dr. Brooks, in No. 77, 
is based upon the principles unfolded in the series of disquisitions 
on " Form and Formal Thought," in Nos. 64, 66, 67, and 69. Ax- 
ioms so called are the result of reasoning, and not the basis of it; 
the lav;s of formal thought determine the correctness and necessity 
of a proposition; conformity, in every instance, with these laws 
alone makes a truth universal; the relations of actual, material 
space have thus universally coincided with the laws of a formal 
system of third degree, and hence the rigidity and finality of those 
relations. In the same number, a translation from Hermann 
Grassmann's " Theory of Extension" is presented; it contains the 
fundamental points of departure of the new geometry from the old. 
No English version of this epoch-making work exists. The discus- 
sion will greatly interest those who have given their attention to 
the philosophy of mathematics. 

SOCIOLOGY AND ECONOMICS. 

Henry George and Land Taxation. Wheel- 
barrow No. 73. 

Symptoms of Social Degeneracy. Moncure D. 

Conway No. 74. 

Jim The Inventor. Wheelbarrow No. 76. 

A Generation Without Prospects. Morrison 

I. Swift No 72. 

Wheelbarrow opposes Mr. Henry George and the doctrine of 
Land Taxation with proper regard for the truth contained in the 
distinguished economist's theories. Objection is mainly taken to 
the universal curative power which the advocates of Land Taxa- 
tion claim for their remedy. In man's obedience to moral laws 
Wheelbarrow finds the only magic wherewith to change the face of 
society. 

"Symptoms of Social Degeneracy," Mr. Moncure D. Conway, 
finds to be not unfrequent even in American civilization. We are 
prone to emphasize the survivals of barbaric institutions in effete 
Europe, while overlooking the excresences of our own body politic. 
Lynch-Law, literary piracy, corruption in administrative circles, 
are signs of the decay of an ethical system and the theology that 
protects it. Worst of all, these evils are not unaccompanied with 
attempts at palliation. 

ESSAYS AND CRITICISM. 

The Ethics of Robert Burns. Gen. M. M. 

Trumbull No. 75. 

Truth and Fiction. M. Wilhelm Meyer... No. 76. 
" In ease, fire, and passion," says Allan Cunningham, "Burns 
was second to none but Shakespeare. " "He might have added," 
says Gen. Trumbull, "that as a lyric poet, as a national song 
writer, he was not excelled nor equalled by Shakespeare, nor by 
any other poet that was ever born. Burns had the divine gift of 
music in such excellence that he could put in tune all the different 
instruments of the great orchestra of man and force them all to vi- 
brate in harmony." 



The Open Court 



A. WEEKLY JOURNAL 



Devoted to the Work of Conciliating Religion -with Science. 



No. 79. (Vol. III.— I.) 



CHICAGO, FEBRUARY 28, li 



THE STUDY OF SANSKRIT.* 

BY H. OLDENBERG. 

The study of Sanskrit, the science of the antiquities 
of India, is about a century old. It was in the year 
1 784 that a number of men acting in Calcutta as judges 
or administrative officers of the East India Company, 
formed themselves into a scientific society, the Asiatic 
Society. We may say that the founding of the Asiatic 
Society was contemporaneous with the rise of a new 
branch of historical inquiry, the possibility of which 
preceding generations had barely or never thought of. 

Englishmen began the work; soon it was taken 
up by other nations; and in the course of time, in a 
much greater degree than is the case with the study 
of hieroglyphic and cuneiform inscriptions, it has be- 
come ever more distinctly a branch of inquirj' pecu- 
liarly German. 

The little band of workers who are busy in the 
workshops of this department of science, have not 
been accustomed to have the eyes of other men turned 
upon their doings — their successes and failures. But, 
in spite, nay, rather in consequence of this, it is right 
that an attempt should be made to invite even the 
most disinterested to an inspection of these places of 
industry, and to point out and show to them, piece by 
piece, the work, or at least part of the work, that has 
been done in them. 

There still lies formless in the workshops of this 
department of inquiry many a block of unhewn stone, 
which perhaps will forever resist the shaping hand. 
But still, under the active chisel, many a form has be- 
come visible, from whose features distant times and 
the past life of a strange people look down upon us — 
a people who are related to us, yet whose ways are 
so far removed in every respect from our ways. 

We shall first cast a glance at the beginning of In- 
dian research toward the close of the last century. We 
shall trace the way in which the new science, after the 
first hasty survey of its territory, at once concentrated 
its efforts to a more profound investigation of its sub- 
ject and advanced to an incomparably broader plane of 
study. We shall, above all, follow the difficult course 
pursued in the study of the Veda, the most important 
of the literary remains of ancient India, a production 
with which even the works of the oldest Buddhism 

* Translated from the Deutsche Rundschau. 



are not to be compared in point of historical impor- 
tance. Of the problems that this science encountered, 
of its aspirations, and of the successes that attended 
its efforts in solving difficult questions, we may venture 
to give a description, or at least an outline. 

* 

* * 

The first effective impulse to the study of Sanskrit 
and Sanskrit literature was given by Sir. William Jones, 
who, in 1783, embarked for India to assume the post 
of Judge of the Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort 
William. The honor of having inaugurated a new 
era of philological inquiry, was heightened by the 
lustre and charm of personal character which this 
gifted and versatile man exerted upon his contempo- 
raries. In prose and in verse Jones is extolled by his 
friends of both sexes as the phoenix of his time, " the 
most enlightened of the sons of men " — encomiums 
many of which a calmer and more distant observer 
would be inclined to modify. The correspondence 
and other memoranda of Jones, which exist in great 
abundance,* furnish the reader of to-day rather the 
picture of an indefatigable and euphuistic dilettante 
than that of an earnest investigator, — apart from thf 
fact that he was alike sadly deficient in discernmer 
and zeal. 

As a young man we find Jones engaged in reading 
and reproducing in English verse, the works of Per- 
sian and Arabian poets; occasionally also with glimpses 
into Chinese literature. Then, again, a project of his 
own, an heroic epic — a sort of new ^neid, for which, 
and certainly with ingenuity enough, the Phcenician 
mythological deities were impressed into service — 
was to celebrate the perfections of the English con- 
stitution. On the journey to India this man of thirty- 
seven sketched a catalogue of the works, which, God 
granting him life, he hoped to write after celebrated 
models. These models were carefully designated op- 
posite the separate projects of the outline. By the 
side of this heroic epic (after the pattern of Homer), 
we find a history of the war with America (after the 
patterns of Thucydides and Polybius), a philosophical 
and historical dialogue (after the pattern of Plato), 
and other plans of similar works. 

♦ Edited by his biographer, Lord Teignmouth, and often given with more 
completeness than appears advisable considering the panegyrical charac- 
ter of the biography. 



THE OPKN COURT. 



With this feehng of omnipotent self-assurance, 
wholly untroubled with doubts, Jones was placed in 
India before the task of opening a way into the gigan- 
tic masses of ah unknown literature, of a strange and 
beautiful poetry. He was as well qualified for the pur- 
pose (perhaps in a higher degree so) as many a more 
earnest and gifted scholar might have been. 

The situation of affairs which he found in India 
forced it upon the European rulers of the land as a 
duty, to acquaint themselves with the Sanskrit lan- 
guage and its literature. The rapid extension and at 
the same time the redoubled activity of the English 
rule made it inconceivable that the existence of the 
old, indigenous civilization, and literature of the na- 
tion could long remain ignored or merely superfici- 
ally recognized. 

Preeminently did this necessity assert itself in the 
administration of justice, where the policy of the East 
India Company imperatively demanded that the na- 
tives should be suffered to retain as many of their 
laws and customs as it were possible to concede them. 
Already, in an act of parliament passed in 1772 in re- 
gard to the affairs of the company, a measure had 
been incorporated, at the suggestion of Warren Hast- 
ings, providing that Mohammedan and Indian lawyers 
should take part in court proceedings, in order to give 
effect to native laws and assist in the formulation of 
judgments. The dependence that thus resulted, of 
European judges upon the reliability or unreliability 
of Indian pandits, must have been trying indeed, to the 
conscientious jurist; for the assertions of Indian coun- 
cillors as to the principles of the Law of inheritance, 
contract, etc., contained in the native books, were sub- 
ject to no control. 

Warren Hastings, in order to obviate the difficulty, 
had a digest made by several Brahmanical juris- 
consults from the old Sanskrit law books, and this was 
translated into English. The undertaking had but little 
success, principally because no European was to be 
found who could translate directly from the Sanskrit. 
A translation had first to be made from Sanskrit into 
Persian and from Persian again into English.* The 
necessity therefore of gaining direct access to the 
Sanskrit language was unquestionable. The under- 
taking was not an easy one, though it was still quite 
different from such apparently impossible feats of 
philological ingenuity as the deciphering of hiero- 
glyphic and cuneiform inscriptions. 

The knowledge and likewise the use of Sanskrit in 
India had lived on in unbroken tradition. f There were 
countless pandits who knew Sanskrit as well as the 
scholars of the Middle Ages knew Latin, and who 

'•Published in 1776, under the title, "A Code of Gentoo Law." 
IThis is the case at the present time. Compare, upon this point, Mas 
Miiller's " India what can it teach us " p. 78 et seq. 



were eminently competent to teach the language. It 
was easy to overcome the opposing Brahmanical pre- 
judices. To become master, however, of the obstacles 
which emanated from the indescribably intricate and 
perverted grammatical system* of the Hindus, offered 
. greater difficulties, which could be only overcome by 
patience and enthusiasm. 

Just at the first moments of this trouble came the 
arrival of Sir William Jones in India. Immediately 
he was the central figure. From him came the found- 
ing of the Asiatic Society; from him, the impulse to a 
new revision of the Hindu law of contract and inheri- 
tance, this time undertaken on a surer basis. He as- 
sembled about him competent Brahmans versed in 
Sanskrit. In the year 1790 he wrote: "Every day I 
talk Sanskrit with the pandits; I hope before I leave 
India to understand it as I understand Latin." 

It was not now a question of research, but of ac- 
quisition, of study; that clear and satisfactory results 
might rapidly be acquired, and that a proper selection 
of noteworthy productions of the Hindu mind might 
be made and presented before the eyes of all. Jones 
translated the most delightful of all Hindu dramas, 
the story of the touching fate of the penitent maiden, 
Sakuntala, who, in the sylvan quiet of her retreat was 
seen and loved by the kingly hunter, Dushjanta. This 
work, full of the most delicate sentiment, exhaling 
fragrance like the summer splendor of Indian Nature, 
was sung in his delicate rhythms by Kalidasa, of in- 
spired eloquence. f 

Still more important than the version of Sakuntala 
was the publication of a second great work, which 
Jones translated, the Laws of Manu. It seemed as 
though a Lycurgus of a primitive oriental era had 
come to light; for this wonderful picture of a strange 
people's life was ascribed to the remotest antiquity — a 
description of Brahmanical rule by the grace of Brah- 
ma, magnified and distorted by priestly pride, in which 
the people are nothing, the prince is little, the priest is 
everything. In the face of such an abruptly accumu- 
lated mass of unexpected revelations, respecting an an- 
cient civilization hitherto removed from all knowledge, 
how could one resist an attempt to give to that civili- 
zation and its language a place among known civili- 
zations and languages? Wherever the eye turned 
weighty and pregnant suggestions offered themselves, 



*The original complaint of Paulinus a S. Bartholo 
India about the time of Jones, is well known.— "The devil, with a phenomenal 
display of ingenuity and craft, had incited the Brahmanical sages to invent a 
language so rich and so complex, that its mysteries might be concealed not 
only from the people at large, but even from the very scholars who were 
conversant with it." 

+ It was formerly thought, for reasons that have not withstood the assault 
of criticism, that Kalidasa flourished in the first century before Christ; it was 
the custom to compare him to the Roman poets of the Augustan era, whose 
conteiuporaries he in that event would about have been. In point of fact he 
must be assigned to an era several centuries later, — about the sixth century 
after Christ, 



THE OREN COURT. 



and with them the temptation to let fancy stray in 
aimless sallies. What is more, Jones was in no wise 
the man to resist such a temptation. The vocabulary 
and the grammatical structure of Sanskrit convinced 
him that the ancient language of the Hindus was re- 
lated to those of the Greeks, Romans, and Germans, 
that it must have been derived with them from a com- 
mon mother tongue.* But side by side with the con- 
ception of this incomparably suggestive idea, innumer- 
able fanciful theories abound ih the works of Jones, 
concerning the relationship of the primitive peoples, 
where everything was found to be in some way related 
to everything else. Now the Hindu tongue was iden- 
tified with that of the Old Testament; now Hindu civ- 
ilization was brought into connection with South 
American civilization. Buddha was said to be Woden; 
and the pyramids and sphinxes of Egypt were claimed 
to show the stj'le of the same workmen who built the 
Hindu cave-temples and chiseled the ancient images 
of Buddha. 

Fortunately for the new study of Sanskrit, the con- 
tinuation of the work begun by Jones fell to one of the 
most cautious and comprehensive observer of facts 
that have ever devoted their attention and talent to 
the stud)' of oriental literatures. This was Henry 
Thomas Colebrooke (born 1765; went to India 1782), 
the most active in the active band of Indian adminis- 
trative officers. He officiated first as an officer of the 
government, and afterwards as judge, then as diplo- 
matist — a man well versed in Indian agriculture and 
Indian trade. One can scarcely regard without as- 
tonishment the multitude of disclosures which, during 
the long period he devoted to Sanskrit, he was able 
to make from his incomparable collection of manu- 
scripts. These to- day are among the principle treas- 
ures of the India Office Librar}'. From the province 
of Indian poetry, Colebrooke, who well knew the lim- 
its of his own power, kept aloof. But in the literature 
of law, grammar, philosophy, and astronomy, he had 
a wide reading, which in scope may never again be 
reached. He it was who made the first comprehen- 
sive disclosure in regard to the literature of the Veda. 

Colebrooke's investigations are poor in hypotheses; 
we may say he withheld too much from seeking to com- 
prehend the historical genesis of the subjects with 
which he dealt. But he established the actual foun- 
dation of broad provinces of Hindu research. He 
himself was filled with wonder at the ever impene- 
trable vistas of that literature which were revealed, 
and our own wonder is increased by the sure and pa- 

*The identity of Hindu words with those of Latin, Greek, and other lan- 
guages had been noticed by several before Jones, and likewise the correct ex- 
planation of this phenomenon, namely the kinship of the Hindu nation with 
the Latins and Greeks, had been declared by Father Pons as early af 1740. 
For fuller account, see Benfey, "History of the Science of Language," {Ge- 
schichte der Sprachivissenschaft\ pp. 222,333-341. 



tient toil with which he sought to penetrate into those 
distant parts. 

While Colebrooke was at the height of his activity, 
interest in Hindu inquiry began to be awakened in 
a country which has done more than any' other land 
to make of Hindu research a firm and well-established 
science — in Germany. 

For the discoveries of Jones and Colebrooke there 
could have been no more receptive soil than the Ger- 
many of that time, full of spirited interest in the old 
national poetry of all nations and occupied with the 
stirring movements rife in its own philosophy and lit- 
erature. Apparently, indeed, the latter were closely al- 
lied to the spirit of the distant Hindu literature; for 
here too oriental romanticism and poetical thought 
sought no less boldly than the absolute philosophy of 
Germany, to penetrate to the primal and formless 
source of all forms. From the beginning, poets stood 
in the foremost ranks among the Sanskritists of Ger- 
many; for instance, the two Schlegels and Friederich 
Riickert, and beside these, careful and unassuming, 
the great founder of grammatical science, Franz Bopp. 

In the year 1808 appeared Friedrich Schlegel's 
work, Ueber die Sprache unci Weisheit der Inder (The 
Language and Learning of the Hindus). From what 
was known to him of Hindu poetry and speculation, 
and according to his own ideas of the laws and aims 
of human inquiry, Schlegel, with a warm and fanciful 
eloquence, drew a picture of India as a land of exalted 
primitive wisdom. * Hindu religion and Hindu poetry 
he described as replete with exuberant power and 
light, in comparison with which even the noblest phi- 
losoph}' and poetry of Greece was but a feeble spark. 
The time from which the masterpieces of the Hindus 
dated, appeared to him a distant, gigantic, primeval 
age of spiritual culture. There was the home of those 
earnest teachings, full of gloomy tragedy, of the soul's 
migration, and of the dark fate which ordains for all 
beings their ways and their end: 

" Obedient to this purpose set, they wander; from God to plants: 
Here, in the abhorred world of existence, that ever moves to destruction." 

While Schlegel gave to the world this fanciful 
picture of Hindu wisdom, highly effective from its 
prophetic perspectives, but still wanting in sober 
truth, Bopp applied himself, more unassumingly, but 
with an incomparably deeper grasp and patient 
sagacity, to investigating the grammatical structure 
of Sanskrit; and, on the recognized fact of the rela- 
tionship of this language with the Persian and the 
principal European tongues, to establishing the science 
of comparative grammar. In the year i8i5 appeared 
his Conjugationssystem der Sanskritsprache in Ver- 
gleichung mit jenem der griechischen, laieinischen, per- 
sischen, und germatiischen Sprache (Conjugational Sys- 
tem of the Sanskrit Language in Comparison with that 



H90 



THE OPKN COURT 



of the Greek, Latin, Persian, and Teutonic Lan- 
guages). 

This was no longer merel}' an attempt to find indi- 
vidual similarities in the sounds of words of the rela- 
ted languages, but an attempt to trace back not only 
uniformities but also differences to their fixed laws; 
and thus in the life and growth of these languages, as 
they sprang from a common root and evolved them- 
selves into a rich complexity, to discover more and 
more the traces of a necessity dominated by definite 
principles. 

We can here only briefly touch upon the investi- 
gations made during the last seventy years, for which 
Bopp laid the foundation by the publication of his 
work. Rarely have such astonishing results been 
achieved by science as here. Elucidative of the early 
history of the languages of Homer and the old Italian 
monuments before they acquired the form in which 
we now find them written, the most unexpected wit- 
nesses were brought to give testimony; namely, the 
languages of the Hindus, the Germans, the Slavs, 
and the Celts. Of these related tongues, the one sheds 
light upon the obscure features of the others, just as 
natural history explains the stunted organs of some 
animals by pointing out the same organs in their orig- 
inal, perfect form, in other animals. 

The picture of the mother tongue, whose filial de- 
scendants are the languages of our linguistic family, 
was no longer seen in merely vague or doubtful fea- 
tures. The laws under whose dominion the system of 
sounds and forms in the separate, derived languages 
have been developed from the mother tongue, are be- 
ing ascertained ever more fully and formulated ever 
more sharply. 

From the very beginning the essential instrument, 
yes, the very foundation of this investigation, was the 
Sanskrit language. In the beginning, faith in the 
primitiveness of Sanskrit in comparison with the rela- 
ted languages was too strong. During the last few 
years, however, this erroneous conception has been 
fully rectified; and this in itself is a decided step in 
advance. We know now that the apparently simpler 
and clearer state of Sanskrit in sounds and forms is in 
many respects less primitive than the complicated re- 
lations of other languages, e. g., the Greek; and that 
we must often set out from these languages rather 
than from the Sanskrit, in order to make possible the 
explanation of Sanskrit forms. Thus Sanskrit now 
receives back the light which it has furnished for the 
historical understanding of the European languages.* 

'^ It may be permissible here to illustrate this reversion of methods in a sin- 
gle point that has become of especially great importance to grammar. 
The Greek has five short vowels, a, e, o, z, u. The Sanskrit has / and « corres- 
ponding to : and «; but to the three sounds, a, c, o corresponds in Sanskrit only 
a single vowel a. Thus, tor example, the Greek afo (English, from) reads in 
Sanskrit apa; the a of the first syllable, and the o of the second syllable of the 



I must not attempt to follow in detail the course 
which the science of comparative grammar, apart 
from its connection with Hindu research, has taken. 
While the two branches of the study were rapidly ad- 
vanced by Germans particularly, and likewise in France 
by the sagacious Bernouf, new material kept pouring 
in from India no less rapidly. In two countries on 
the outskirts of Indian civilization, in the Himalayan 
valleys of Nepal, and in Ceylon, the sacred literature 
of the Buddhists, which had disappeared in India 
proper, was brought to light in two collections, one in 
Sanskrit and one in the popular dialect Pali. The in- 
genuity of Prinseps succeeded in deciphering the 
oldest Indian written characters on inscriptions and 
coins. In Calcutta was undertaken and completed in 
thirty years the publication of the Mahabharata, a gi- 
gantic heroic poem of almost a hundred thousand 
couplets, in whose vast cantos with their labyrinth of 
episodes and sub-episodes many generations of poets 
have brought together legends of the heroes and days 
of the olden time, of their struggles and tribulations. 

The sum and substance of all this newly-acquired 
knowledge has been incorporated in the great work of 
a Norwegian, who became, in Germany, a German — in 
the Indische Alterthumskunde (Hindu Antiquities) of 
Christian Lassen. 

Lassen did not belong to the great pioneers of 
science, like Bopp. It must also be said that often 
that sagacity of philological thought is wanting in him, 
which sheds light on questions even where it affords 
no definite solution of them. And, indeed, was it not 
a herculean undertaking, a work like that of the Dana- 
ides, to explore the older periods of the Hindu past 
when, as the chief sources of information, one was 
solely limited to the great epic, and the lawbook, of 
Manu? Even a surer critical power than Lassen pos- 
sessed could not have discovered much of history in 
the nebulous confusion of legends, in the invented se- 

Greek word is thus represented in Sanskrit by a. Or, to use another example, 
the Greek wwniiJ (English, ro«>-,7^c) is in Sanskrit manas: Greek cpkeron (I 
carried)— rtA/;rt;-(i/«. What now is the original, ;. e.. what existed in the Indo- 
Germanic mother tongue for the three sounds of the Greek a, i\ o, or the single 
sound of the Sanskrit a? When scholars began to study comparative philology 
and to dissect Sanskrit forms they thought the a— and this was a conclusion 
apparently supported by the simplicity of the language— to be alone the orig- 
inal sound; and were led to believe that this vowel was later divided on Euro- 
pean soil into three sounds, «, c, o. Investigations of the most recent time — 
and for these we are to thank Amelung, Burgman, John Schmidt, and others- 
have shown that the development of the vowel system took the opposite course. 
The vowels n, <■, <; were already in the Indo Germanic mother tongue; and in 
Sanskrit, or mor^ accurately, before the time of Sanskrit, in the language which 
the ancestors of the Indians and Persians spoke when both formed one people, 
these vowels were merged into a single vowel Thus the e of esti and the o of 
apo are more original than the a of asti, apa. 

Now, we find in Sanskrit that where the Greek e corresponds to the San- 
skrit rt, certain consonants preceding this vowel, as. f'. ^., k, are affected in a 
different way by the latter, than in instances where for the a of Sanskrit the 
Greek a or i> is used. From the linguistic form of Sanskrit alone, which in the 
one case as in the other has n, it would not be intelligible why the li should 
each time meet a different fate. The Greek, in that it has preserved the orig- 
inal differences of the vowels, gives the key to an understanding of the peculiar 
transformations which have taken place in the ^--sound in large and important 
groups of Sanskrit words. 



THE OPKN COURT. 



1491 



ries of kings in Mahabharata, and in that colorless uni- 
formity which the style of the Hindu Virgils spreads 
unchangeably over the enormous periods of time of 
which they assume to inform us. In spite of this, Las- 
sen's Antiquities — the work of tireless diligence and 
rare learning — stands as a landmark in the history 
of Hindu investigations, uniting all the results of past 
time, and pointing out anew, by the very things in 
which it is lacking, still untried undertakings. 

Just at this time, however, when the first volume 
of Lassen's work, treating of the earliest periods, ap- 
peared, came the beginning of a movement which has 
severed the development of Hindu studies into two 
parts. New personalities appeared upon the scene 
and pushed to the front a new series of problems, for 
the solution of which an apparently inexhaustible, and 
to this day, in a certain sense, a still inexhaustible 
supply of freshly acquired material was offered. This 
was the most important acquisition that has ever been 
added to our knowledge of the world's literature 
through any one branch of oriental inquiry — the ac- 
quisition of the Veda for science. (To be continued.) 



ASPECTS, CHRISTIAN AND HUMAN. 

BY WILLIAM R. THAYER. 

Accustomed as we are to dub ourselves Christians, 
we are apt to take it for granted that those changes 
which have been wrought in modern society — for its 
improvement, as we hope — have proceeded from influ- 
ences essentially Christian; but the facts of history do 
not warrant this assumption. When civilization awoke 
in Italy during the 14th and 15th centuries, it was no 
Christian messenger, but a Classic, who roused the 
sleeper from the long night of monkish lethargy and the 
bloody nightmares of feudalism. The Reformation in 
Northern Europe was truly a Christian revival; but it 
could not have succeeded save for the preparation of 
the pagan renaissance which freed the intellect and 
stimulated criticism. When our American Republic 
was established, with a Constitution which, some com- 
plain, ignores God, its founders turned to antiquity, 
and especially to the records of the Greek common- 
wealths, for counsel and precedents: and the founders 
themselves — Jefferson, Franklin, perhaps even Wash- 
ington — should be classed among liberal thinkers, 
rather than among Christians. No disciple of Christ, 
but Voltaire, Rousseau, Diderot, and D'Alembert — 
avowed sceptics — launched the regenerative ideas in 
France, and Mirabeau, the skilfullestpilotof the French 
Revolution, stricken down as the ship entered the rap- 
ids, was an unbeliever: and in the excesses of that 
Revolution, the French attempted, almost childishly, 
to resuscitate the social and political systems of repub- 
lican Rome. Frederick the Great, who drilled Prussia 



in her role of unifier of Germany, scoffed at religion. 
Goethe, who raised the German into the company of 
the world-literatures, early cast aside the Christianity 
of his time, and was most powerfully quickened by 
Hellenic thought. 

Coming to our own century, how many of the 
leaders of broadest influence, how many of the per- 
sonages of typical significance, have worked con- 
sciously on Christian principles, or have professed 
themselves Christians? Byron, a most important symp- 
tom, "though he taught us little"; Shelley, the enthu- 
siastic lover of humanity, who saw the contagion, but 
died before he had discovered the antidote; Keats, 
the great soul, fired with Olympian draughts, — these 
were not Christians. Nor can we class as such those 
who have labored in other fields: Carlyle, Mill, Harriet 
Martineau, George Eliot, Darwin, Spencer. What 
Christian sect would welcome to its communion those 
of widest repute in France, — Hugo, George Sand, 
Balzac, Comte, Renan, Taine? In Russia, Pushkin and 
Turgeneff had no religion, and Tolstoy, who has lately 
earned from Christians the reputation of madman be- 
cause he has renounced wealth and aristocratic posi- 
tion to live in humility and poverty according to the 
letter of Christ's command, reveres only the human 
Christ. This is not the only instance when self-styled 
Christians have been startled to the verge of contempt 
by a Christ-like purpose. When Gladstone summa- 
rily ended an unjust war begun by his predecessor, he 
met with strange criticism from the Christian world: 
part of which sneered at his weakness and sentimental- 
ity, and part insinuated that this sanctimoniousness 
marked a shrewd political ruse. Yet Gladstone is almost 
the only Christian statesman of the age; Disraeli, who 
divided with him the admiration of Britons, was no 
Christian. Bismarck, the maker of United Germany 
and arbiter of Europe, not only does not himself prac- 
tice, but mocks as visionaries those who propose to 
practice the simplest of Christ's admonitions: "Do 
harm unto others before they can do harm unto you," 
is the Bismarckian version of the Golden Rule. Gam- 
betta, who for ten years embodied the political whims 
of the majority of Frenchmen, was an infidel. And if 
we search the religion of those diplomatists who have 
turned Europe into a vast camp, we shall not find Chris- 
tianity to be their inspiration. Look impartiall}' at the 
methods of trade and statecraft; how largely are they 
shaped by current creeds! There is more truth than he 
intended in the remark of that New York broker who 
said: "God can run things up-town on Sunday; but on 
week-days, in Wall Street, I take care of myself." 

So much must be said, not for the purpose of cheap- 
ening the preciousness of Christ's example, but for 
the purpose of seeing facts as they really are in Chris- 
tianity as an actual institution. As we are all care- 



1492 



THE OPEN COURT. 



lessly called Christians) we seldom inquire how many 
deserve the title, and we accept whatever makes for 
progress as the fruit of Christian endeavor. But even 
this cursory review shows that many men and women 
whose work benefited mankind, openly disavowed al- 
legiance to Christianity, and that their efforts were 
often hindered, often bitterly persecuted, by profes- 
sional Christians, who now accept the beneficent 
achievements, and forget the antagonism in belief. So 
Romanists have ever been eager to claim the most ve- 
hement infidels — the Voltaires and Leopardis — as- 
death-bed converts to Romanism. A futile deception! 
We rate an institution by the character and conduct 
of those who zealously work out its principles; not by 
the imposing list of illustrious men who figure as honor- 
ary members. Until those who are both lip and heari- 
Christians bravely face the fact that a large number of 
the most intelligent and virtuous men and women live 
and labor outside of the pale of Christianity, and until 
they seek resolutely and honestly for its causes, de- 
nunciations of infidelity from the pulpit and exhorta- 
tions to faith, will be as barren as they ' have been 
hitherto, and actual Christianity will deserve but a 
fraction of praise for making men purer, better, hap- 
pier. 

One of these causes is that the clergy of whatso- 
ever denomination are generally behind, rarely abreast, 
and never ahead of, the needs of the age. Depending 
chiefly on tradition, they are natural conservatives. 
They utter, not what has come as a direct inspiration 
to them, nor even what was revealed, vital and urgent, 
to Christ; but what Paul, Augustine, Aquinas, Calvin, 
Luther, Laud, Wesley, and others, thought about 
Christ's inspiration. They are echoes of echoes. The 
carcass of such opinions remains, a mummy em- 
balmed in dogmas: the spirit exhaled with the decease 
■of that society to which those opinions were particu- 
larly addressed. We are never careful enough in mak- 
ing allowance for the intangible potency of the Zeit- 
geist which diffuses a similarity of perceptionsthrough 
all the people of certain epochs or communities. The 
< same hot sun which pleaches the woods with leaves 
and the meadows with verdure in May, withers the 
foliage and seres the grass in August. Your ablest 
Grecian can never know what subtle meaning may 
have been associated in the mind of a Periclean 
Greek with a verse of Pindar or Aeschylus; the words 
stand, but the allusion has vanished, like the fragrance 
of a pressed flower. So, too, the texts of creeds sur- 
vive, but who shall conjure back those mental condi- 
tions to which those creeds came as the breath of life? 
We read the war-cries which roused English armies 
to indomitable enthusiasm at Crecy and Agincourt; 
we repeat the songs which, less than a generation ago, 
reverberated through the camps and battle-fields of 



the Potomac and Mississippi, — but we are only mildly 
thrilled. The Greek psean which terrified the barba- 
rians, has no terror for us. How many clergymen still 
mumble battle-calls which lost all vitalit}' to rally 
friends or frighten enemies, centuries and centuries 
ago? 

Regret it as we may, blind ourselves to it if we 
will, the primal, inexorable law of life is motion, is 
change. To march perpetually — that is the condition 
of our existence. Our bivouacs are but for a night; 
our halts but for a noon: then up, and onward. Dur- 
ing untold ages the army of mankind has pursued its 
way: led now by a Moses, it flounders through sandy 
deserts; led now by a Napoleon, it winds serpentine 
over Alpine passes; led now by a Darwin, it peers 
into geological quarries and explores prehistoric caves. 
Sometimes, in crossing a pleasant country, it dreams 
of a prosperous repose; anon, it pushes forward, per- 
haps to lose itself in a new wilderness, and the cry of 
the preacher floats mournfully upon the wind: "What 
profit hath a man of all his labor which he taketh un- 
der the sun?" Sometimes, it doubles on its tracks, and 
reads in a heap of blanched and crumbling bones the 
record of a battle fought long ago. That ancient myth 
of him who set forth in quest of the Lost Beautiful is no 
myth, but very reality, the prophetic chronicle of man- 
kind's career. The weary, the straggler, the disheartened, 
drop away, and are heard of no more. The indolent 
retreat to some Capua, where they too perish. Only 
the robust survive. Rest, the fair capital of the Prom- 
ised Land towards which we strain, flies ever before 
, us: scarcely at long intervals visible in alluring mirage 
above the horizon. "Thou shalt not pause," is the 
command issued to us all; and Time, the indefatig- 
able, runs beside us and sets the pace. 

Change, therefore, O clergy, is a law, you also 
cannot evade. Human nature, we affirm with reason, 
is always the same; but each individual is a new com- 
bination of its elements. Change crept in at his making, 
and must be respected. Likewise, the law of gravity 
is assumed to be fixed, but each manifestation of it 
differs from every other. The physicist subdues fric- 
tion to serve one purpose; attraction, centrifugality, 
tension, cohesion, to serve others: so should the 
moralist perceive that different virtues, and their com- 
plimentary vices, belong to different epochs and tem- 
peraments. And if he be wise, he will not equip him- 
self from the armory of superstition and miracles, in 
order to enter the lists against enemies in an age of 
criticism. 

During social and political upheavels, poets have 
been more alert than preachers to foresee the impend- 
ing change. In the generation before our Civil War, 
while as yet but faint support came to Abolitionists 
from northern pulpits, Lowell and Whittier were vent- 



THE OPEN COURT. 



1493 



ing in poems those torrents of indignation which, 
broadening and deepening, swelled into a flood before 
which the dam of slavery was swept into the abyss. 
The poet is free. No social tie binds him; no selfish 
interests intimidate him. What the voice in his in- 
most soul whispers, that he must utter, be the conse- 
quences what they may. Since the world e;cpects 
nothing from him, he does not — even insensibly — 
tune his words to the world's expectation. Like a 
heaven-deputed inspector, he passes through society, 
and reports upon it. Men involuntarily reveal their 
secrets to him; he observes their passions, he listens 
to their opinions: and when he publishes his report, 
they are surprised, and cry out incensed against this 
betrayal of confidences; or they deny that the case is 
as bad as he has stated. Free and fearless, then, must 
the poet be; himself often but half-aware of the mis- 
sion on which he is bent. 

But the clergyman enjoys no such freedom. His 
training, his associations, the invisible tethers of tradi- 
tion, determine and limit his activity. He relies upon 
established methods. His congregation, bred in a 
particular doctrine, chose him to preach to them be- 
cause he too was bred in that doctrine. Which of us 
is free from that intellectual vanity which is flattered 
by repeated and varied assurance that what we deem 
to be the truth, is the truth? Which of us is not 
tickled when our prejudices are justified to us every 
Sunday in the sermon, and every week-day in our fa- 
vorite newspaper? Be he never so honest, the pro- 
fessional preacher, no less than the professional poli- 
tician, will strike the chord which long experience has 
shown his hearers prefer. Every assembly re-acts 
upon a speaker by a process so subtle that no analysis 
has yet traced it: Actors assure us that when they 
enter the stage, they feel immediately whether the au- 
dience is with them or not. But besides this inevit- 
able hindrance to perfect freedom in clerical utterance, 
there are others quite as coercive. To all persons who 
thrive by existing institutions — in church, in govern- 
ment, in education, in commerce — the New is suspect. 
" We have tried the Old, and it has served thus far," 
say they; "novelties will certainly bring discomforts, 
perhaps danger, or disaster." Then, too, where heavy 
emoluments are attached to religious places, there 
will be a lively, unedifying scramble. Piety is not 
always the incentive which spurs men to take orders. 
How many aspirants in England are confirmed in their 
vocation by remembering that the Archbishop of 
Canterbury enjoys a stipend of twenty thousand 
pounds sterling, plus innumerable fat perquisites, and 
a social rank next to the royal family? Do all Romish 
priests forget that Cardinal Antonelli found religion 
so profitable, that he left a fortune of eighty million 
francs to be fought over by his illegitimate children 



after his death? My, imagination refuses to picture 
John the Baptist, -or Christ, or the sturdy fisherman 
Peter, as rnaster of Lambeth Palace, or sovereign of 
the Vatican: yet those who presume to call themselves 
the successors of Jesus, still trick out their presump- 
tion in these temporal, unreligious splendors. To the 
election of a pope there goes as much bickering, and 
jealousy, intrigue and wire-pulling, and often bribery, 
as to the nomination of an alderman at a ward-caucus; 
not fitness and holiness, but influence, but expediency, 
'but compromise, determine who shall wear that tiara, 
which, more wonderful than the wishing-cap of For- 
tunatus, suddenly endows its wearer with every virtue 
and with omniscience! And the incongruities of Angli- 
canism or of Romanism have their counterparts in the 
methods of the other Christian sects; and the exist- 
ence of such methods shows that to the vast majority 
of Christendom an immediate spiritual relation with 
the Supreme Spirit is still impossible, and will 
be impossible as long as men must be dazzled by the 
gilded mummeries and melodramatic pageants of feu- 
dal courts and modern theatres. As soon seek for 
justice from a Bourbon, or for mercy from a Romanoff, 
as for authentic, vital, religious inspiration from the 
prelates of Established Churches. Spiritual reforms 
begin outside of the congregation, as political reforms 
begin outside of Parliament and Congress. Not the 
preacher, but the poet; not the politiciaTi, but the un- 
trammelled agitator, — men whose tongues were free, 
and whose hearts were fearless, have been the heralds 
and champions of better things. 



MARCH 4. 

BY LOUIS BELROSE, JR. 

Our fathers, when the land Was young, 
Were like their children, good and bad: 

The names that live on every tongue, 
Were but the best they had. 

They knew and called the knave a knave; 

They knew and called the fool a fool ; 
And none so stupid but he gave 

His voice that wisdom rule. 

So master-builders raised the state 

On sure foundation, stone by stone; 
The worst ambition of the great 

Was such as men might own. 
But With the change of passing years 

From honest difference came the strife 
That filled the land with blood and tears. 

And sapped the nation's life. 

From out the vilest passions, freed 

By civil war and uncontrolled, 
We took to govern us the greed 

And worship of the greed of gold. 
Thrust from the temple of her choice. 

Fair freedom veils her face, and leaves 
The money-changers to rejoice — 

Who make her house a den of thieves. 



1494 



THE OPEN COURT. 



O, Spirit of the time gone by, 
When virtue was a jewel worn 

In public place — before the sky 

Had blushed for honor laughed to scorn; 

Hope of the valiant few that stand 
Against the rising tide for thee, 

Come forth with power in thy hand 
And turn despair to victory! 

Unfurl the banner in whose folds 

Are duty shining like a star. 
And courage of the heart that holds 

Nor needs the wasting goad of war. 

O, come with Wisdom by thy side; 

We grope for knowledge in the dark; 
We seek the way without a guide, 

And rush confused at every spark. 

Come with the sacred torch alight, 
Whose rays divide the false and true, 

That those who love may know the right. 
And those who will may do. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

MENDACITY OF OLD SOLDIERS. 

A RETORT TO THE COMMUNICATION OF DR. HORACE POTTER. 

To the Editor of The Open Court: — 

Since old Burton's quaint and wise ' ' Anatomy of Melancholy " 
was given to the world, we have had nothing quite so curious as 
Dr. Porter's pathology of martial mendacity. As an old soldier I 
shall stand by my order, and maintain that when "one of the 
great daily newspapers " charged the soldiers of the late war with 
chronic mendacity, the newspaper itself was mendacious. I con- 
fess that I have known a few old soldiers, who, as Falstaff says, 
were "given to lying," but they belonged to the war of 1812. Dr. 
Porter's diagnosis is worthless, because based on an imaginary dis- 
ease. It is a calumny on the veterans to say that they have an 
impediment in their veracity. 

I do not deny that some of us are afflicted with a "retrograde 
metamorphosis of our hemispherical ganglia," which I suppose is 
Greek for corns and bunions, but they are simply the result of 
hard marching in "contract" shoes. They provoke profanity oc- 
casionally when somebody treads on them, but not mendacity. 

I suppose the charge of mendacity grows out of the war his- 
tory published in the Century Magazme. Those pictoral fables 
were written by generals and admirals when debilitated by "neu- 
rokinesis. " The whole army ought not to be held responsible for 
their vivid imaginations. 

To excuse the old soldiers for ficticious faults because they 
suffer from " degeneration of nerve-structure" is like pitying an 
army mule for his bashful voice. The "nerve-structure" of the 
old veterans is of the firmest texture and best material. Every 
nerve is catgut. If we don't get what belongs to us it is not be- 
cause we lack the "nerve" to ask for it. It has been falsely 
charged upon us that we "want the earth." We do not; all we 
want is the American part of it, and we shall always have nerve 
enough to demand that. If there is one special quality that we 
excel in it is " nerve." If we have any spots about us particularly 
healthy they are our " nerve-centers." Dr. Porter need not worry 
himself about them. If he will diagnose us again he will find that 
our "cerebral neurine" is in fine condition. 

Mendacity is not a nervous disease. It is a vice predominant 
in children who are brought up in fear of punishment; in slaves, 
for the same reason. In fact, the reason why a gentleman resented 



the lie by a blow, or a challenge to mortal combat, was not that it 
reflected upon his moral character, but upon his birth, and his rank 
in society. Lying was the refuge of menials and serfs. To give a 
man the lie was to give him the ignoble status of a slave. Men- 
dacity also springs from cupidity, as in merchants and traders; 
from revenge, as in malicious persons; from political necessity or 
to excite curiosity, as in newspapers; and from hundreds of other 
causes, not at all related to nervous disease; nervousness may be 
the effect of lying, but it is not the cause of it. 

Lying is a moral weakness epidemic in civilized or commer- 
cial man. It is not an affection of the physical nerves. Traders 
are not especially nervous people, and yet no man but a fool pre- 
tends to rely on their mercantile word. Every buyer relies upon 
his own judgment as to the cost, quality, quantity, and purity of 
what he buys. Nearly every descriptive label in a store is a liar. 
Where is the garrulous old soldier who can compare in eloquent 
mendacity with a clerk in a dry-goods establishment or with a 
salesman in a clothing store? 

Farmers are not nervous people as a rule, and yet one of the 
chief luxuries of my early life was to sit on a rail fence and admire 
the mendacious genius of a couple of them when circumventing 
each other in a horse-trade. It was a treat that ranked next after 
Robinson Crusoe, and above Gulliver, Munchausen, or the Ara- 
bian Nights. For inventive reach, fertility of resource, nimble 
shifting, and efflorescent description sanctified by solemn oaths and 
strengthened by deceptive warranty, there is nothing in the story- 
books so ingenious in falsehood as a sweetly pastoral horse-trade. 
Overpowered by its rural simplicity the old soldiers tell truth in 
des^pair, because they know they cannot compete in mendacity 
with bucolic ability and skill. 

That one of the great daily newspapers of the country should 
reproach the old soldiers for their tendency to mendacity is a 
"raise" of such colossal daring and amount, that every old veteran 
lays down his hand and immediately quits the game. There is not 
an army corps that can compete in mendacity with any one of the 
great daily newspapers of the country. I know of nothing in moral 
existences that so much resembles Niagara Falls as the flood of 
mendacity which continually pours over the hard, rocky forehead 
of the daily press. I shudder when I think on the purgatory of 
editors. Every improvement of the printing-machine multiplies 
their punishment as it multiplies their mendacity. The plea of 
" neurokinesis " will not shorten their term by a single day. 

When an old veteran tells a lie, the recording angel debits 
it against him as one sin, but when an editor prints a lie, 
the falsehood is multiplied by the " sworn circulation " of his pa- 
per, and debited against him in gross. For instance, if the circu- 
lation is 20,000 copies, then every lie printed in any edition is prop- 
erly charged as 20,000 lies. 

I am well acquainted with the editor of one of the "great 
daily newspapers " whose printed falsehoods I will estimate at only 
ten per day, although the actual figures are very much higher than 
that. The daily circulation of his paper is about 20,000 copies, 
excepting Sundays, when it reaches 50,000. In the eternal domes- 
day book, or book of doom, he is charged with 200,000 acts of 
■ mendacity per daj' and half a million for every Sunday, He has 
been an editor for thirty years, so that it becomes a feat of loga- 
rithms to calculate the sum total of his delinquency. 

Now, if there is not in the moral universe any forgiveness of 
sins until expiation done, and if there is a purgatory to execute the 
law, wherein every soul must endure a certain term of imprison- 
ment for every sin done in the body, I tremble for my old friend, 
the editor, fte and I often spend a pleasant hour together smok- 
ing our cigars and settling the affairs of the nation, but I never 
shake hands with him at parting without a presentiment that when 
all the other editors of his generation have expiated their mendac- 
ity and have been received into paradise, he will still be "doing 



THE OPKN COURT. 



1495 



time," because the circulation of his paper is so much larger than 
theirs, and because he has been so much longer in the business. 

Besides, what harm is there in the romances old soldiers tell 
concerning " the battles, sieges, fortunes," which they have passed, 
unless indeed, like Othello, they enchant young ladies by the spell 
of them! A hundred of their ficticious tales of bravery and death 
are not so sinful all together as one calumny that wounds an inno- 
cent man or gives pain to his wife and children. Think of the 
load a man must carry to judgment who bears false witness against 
his neighbor two hundred thousand times a day, and a half a mil- 
lion times on Sundays; and yet there are editors who break the ninth 
commandment more times a day than that, and then have leisure 
to write editorial articles deploring the mendacity of old soldiers. 

M. M. Trumbull. 



LAND AND LAND VALUES. 

To the Editor ofTHZ Open Court: — 

Wheelbarrow says that Henry George " forgets that land has 
no value aside from labor." 

The writer mistakes, unintentionally, George's position. 
George says that almost all the value of land comes from the 
growth and labor of the community and not from the individual 
who legally owns the land. 

For example, in a community of 10,000 people the value of a 
man's bare land, exclusive of the improvements, etc. on it, comes 
from the labor and presence of the 10,000 people. The so-called 
owner creates, under favorable circumstances, only the one-ten- 
thousandth part of the increase, and, if he is an absentee landlord, 
he makes not even that fraction of the value. 

Now if you tax the value of land you are taxing the labor of 
the whole community, slightly, and the natural opportunity and 
growth of the community; but as the taxes are expended on the 
community — for the growth of the community — nobody is injured 
and t\i& gro'LUth pays /or the growth. 

Lynchburg, Va. Thomas Williamson. 



THE MASSES DISINHERJTED. 

To the Editor of The Open Court: — 

* * * Mr. George nowhere speaks of taxing land, what he 
would tax is land values, or the rental value of land. It may be 
asked what is meant by the rental value of land, and it is proper 
that it should be explained right here. Rent is the price paid for 
the privilege of access to the raw material of production, . for the 
mere privilege of getting hold of something not created by man, 
out of which labor and capital can create wealth. Now the first 
thing necessary to an understanding of what Mr. George advocates 
is to bear in mind that he never hinted at the abolition of rent, or 
to vary any of its economic effects whether good or bad. He sim- 
ply proposes to divert the flow of rent from private into public 
channels. Wheelbarrow's assertion, therefore, that " if only land 
should be taxed apart from improvements, many lots on the lake 
side of Chicago should be free of taxation, for they consist only of 
improvements " falls to the ground, because improvements upon 
land are now and would be then permitted only upon condition 
that their owner will pay the ground rent, that is the annual value 
of the use of that particular land, for the most valuable purpose to 
which any one cares to apply it. At present this rent is usually 
capitalized and is then called its price. But this is not always 
done. Some of the most desirable land in New York and Chicago, 
Philadelphia, London, and other great cities, is built upon by the 
lease-holders. The owner of the improvements pays the annual 
value of the land to the free-holder. Under Mr. George's system 
he would pay it to the municipality. In either case he must 
pay it or lose his improvements. 

Wheelbarrow further says: " Moreover, are not those who 
have invested their capital, /. e., their stored up labor, in land, en- 



titled to be protected in their possession acquired under our pres- 
ent system?" Well, who talks or thinks of disturbing them in 
their possession? Certainly not Mr. George. He demands that 
the landlord be left in undisturbed possession with every motive 
to collect his rent in full, but that the State shall then concentrate 
all its taxes upon the landlord, and compel him to pay over to the 
State all which he collects under the name of rent, except a com- 
mission sufficiently large to induce him to remain in the business 
of a landlord or rent collector. 

Again Wheelbarrow does not seem to see how any relief would 
be afforded the poor by this change in the method of taxation, 
and asserts that the consequences which Mr. George claims would 
result from a single tax on land values are " fantastical." Let us 
see if they are " fantastical." 

Whereas, under the present system, all tenants, that is to say 
the overwhelming majority of the people of any country, have to 
pay first, rent, and then an amount of taxes nearly equal to the 
rent in addition, the proposed change would leave them nothing to 
pay but their rent, while the men to whom they pay the rent 
woiild have to pay all taxes which the tenants now pay. In other 
words tenants, that is, the millions, God help them! whose toil is 
so illy requited, pay two taxes of nearly equal amount, one called 
rent and the other taxes. Under the system propounded by Mr. 
George they would pay only one tax instead of two, and thus half 
of their present burden would be lifted from their shoulders. 

But that would not be all. By abolishing taxes upon industry 
and the products of industry, and by concentrating them upon 
land values to their full amount, it will render it impossible for 
any man to exact from others a price for the privilege of using 
those bounties of nature in which all living men have an equal 
right of use, it will compel every individual controlling natural op- 
portunities to either utilize them or abandon them to others, thus 
providing opportunities of work for all men and secure to each the 
full reward of his labor. As a result of this is it too much to 
claim as Mr. George does, that involuntary poverty will be abol- 
ished and the greed, intemperance, and vice that spring from pov- 
erty and the dread of poverty, be swept away? I think not. ' 

Finally Wheelbarrow says: — "Land taxation, even if it had 
in its consequences all the impossible blessings it is supposed to 
have according to Mr. George, would be of no avail to him who 
believes that he is the mere product of circumstances, and who 
does not know that a man's character is the most important factor 
among the conditions that shape his fate. If a man is aware of 
that, he will dare to become the master of the circumstances that 
surround him. I know of one panacea only, it is man's obedience 
to the moral law." Indeed? 'Well, is not Mr. George's arguments 
from beginning to end a plea for the application of the " Moral 
Law?" All around us is distress and misery, want, poverty, and 
crime. In the very centres of our civilization to-day, ' ' women 
faint and little children moan." What is responsible for this? 
Surely the law. Either human law or Divine law that is certain. 
To say that it is in obedience to Divine law is in my opinion sim- 
ple blasphemy. No! the cause of that poverty, the cause of that 
starvation, distress, and monstrous want in the very centres of 
wealth, of ignorance in the midst of enlightenment, of the direct 
abasement and degradation in the midst of the highest civilization, 
comes from the single fundamental fact that the masses of the 
people have been disinherited. Charity ma)' exert itself and 
contribute its thousands, philanthropists may hold conventions. 
Schools and institutes for the education of the masses may be es- 
tablished. Knights of labor may agitate, petition, and strike. Min- 
isters of the gospel may wax eloquent on the sermon on the mount 
and the fadeless glory, and immortal beauty of Christ's message 
to men, but all in vain. It is like trying to sweep back the surges 
of the ocean with a broom, until you go to the root of the evil. So 
long as a man is a land animal, so long as he can only live on land 



1496 



THE OPEN COURT. 



and work on land; so long as all wealth is simply the raw material 
of the land worked up by human labor, then it is inevitable that 
if the land of any country be treated as the absolute property of 
one class of that country no matter how they advance, no matter 
what inventions may be made, what improvements may be carried 
out, there must be at the bottom of the Social Scale ignorance, 
degradation, vice, want, and starvation. 

This is as clear as the sun at noon-day. I suggest that Wheel- 
barrow read Progress and Poverty once more. 

Milwaukee, Feb. 6, 1889. Peter McGill. 



A SINGLE TAX MAN IN DISGUISE. 

To the Editor of The Open Court: — 

Dear Sir: — In your issue of January 17, I notice an article on 
Henry George and the single tax by " Wheelbarrow " which, what- 
ever may have been the motive of the writer, and I suspect that 
after all he may be a single tax man in disguise, scarcely does jus- 
tice to either Mr. George or the reform which he represents. 

In all that Wheelbarrow says about Mr. George's arguments 
which are based upon scriptural authority or theistic ideas, I can 
thoroughly agree with him. To those who dispute his premises 
such arguments are of course of little value, and if Mr. George 
rested his case here, his reasoning would be poor indeed. It must 
needs be a poor cause which cannot iind its justification in script- 
ure. But one of the strongest points about the single tax from the 
standpoint of those who reject faith and rely upon reason, is that 
a large proportion of the single tax men are those who reject either 
wholly or in part orthodox ideas on religion. 

But to return to our Wheelbarrow. Will he please point out 
the exact place in Progress and Poverty where the millenium is 
promised "by the simple means of a single tax on land?" 

Will Wheelbarrow point out where Mr. George "denounces 
every progress, under present circumstances, as driving a parting 
wedge between the rich and the poor." If this is meant to imply 
that Mr. George opposes all reforms except putting taxation on 
land values, it simply is not true. Take free trade, for instance, 
he recognizes the fact that free trade in this country will go to the 
landlords the same as free trade has increased rent in England. 
But does he for that reason oppose free trade? Not at all; there 
is no man in America to-day that has done as much for free 
trade as Henry George. On reading the first part of Wheelbarrow's 
article I thought that perhaps he had read Progress and Poverty, 
that is in much the same manner as the average reader who thinks 
it can be grasped in a few hours like a novel, but when he gravely 
tells us that Mr. George " loses sight of the fact that land in itself 
and apart from labor has no valua whatever," it is almost too 
much. If Wheelbarrow would only take the trouble to read 
Henry George again he would find that his strongest claim is that 
the value of land is entirely due to the labor of the whole com- 
munity, and therefore it is fit and proper that the community and 
not the alleged owner should get the benefit of it. 

A. H. Stephenson. 

THE LOST MANUSCRIPT* 

BY GUSTAV FREYTAG. 

CHAPTER A'A'A'/.— Continued. 
Mr. Hummel' retraced his steps to the sitting- 
room; there also he walked up and down, and told his 
wife of Mr. Hahn's misfortune in short sentences. He 
observed, out of the corners of his eyes, that Mrs. Phi- 
lippine hastened, nervously, to the sofa, and frequently 
clasped her hands; and that Laura rushed into the 
next room, and could not refrain from bursting into 

* Translation copyrighted. 



tears; and he repeated, with dreadful satisfaction, the 
terrible words: "He has gone out like a candle." 

He behaved in the same way at the factory; he 
paced slowly up and down the warehouse, looked ma- 
jestically on a heap-of hareskins, took one of the finest 
hats out of a bandbox, held it towards the window, 
gave it a stroke with the brush, and muttered again: 
" It's all up with him." To-day his book-keeper, for 
the first time in his life, was late at his desk: he had 
heard of the misfortune on his way; he related it in 
an excited manner to his principal, and finally ma- 
liciously repeated the unfortunate words: "It's all up 
with him." Hummel gave him a piercing look, and 
snorted so that the timid heart of the clerk sank within 
him. 

"Do you wish also to become manager of my business 
like that runaway? I thank you for this proof of your 
confidence. 1 have no use for such bandit-like pro- 
ceedings; I am my own manager, sir, and I object to 
every kind of secret dealing behind my back." 

"But, Mr. Hummel, I have carried on no secret 
dealings." 

"The devil thank you for that," roared out Hum- 
mel, in his fiercest bass. "There is no more confi- 
dence on earth: nothing is firm; the holiest relations 
are unscrupulously violated; one can no longer trust 
one's friends; now even one's enemies make off. At 
night you lie down to sleep quietly as a German, and 
in the morning you wake up as a Frenchman; and if 
you sigh for your German coffee, your hostess brings 
a dish of Parisian spinach to your bed. I should be 
glad to learn of you on what spot of this earth we are 
now settled." 

"In Valley Row, Mr. Hummel." 
"There the last remains of our good genius spoke 
out. Look through the window. What stands there?" 
pointing to the neighboring house. 
"Park Street, Mr. Hummel." 

"Indeed?" asked Hummel, ironically. "Since pri- 
meval times, since your ancestors sat on the trees 
here nibbling beechmast, this place has been called 
Valley Row. In this valley I laid the foundations of my 
house, and enclosed in the wall an inscription for later 
excavators: 'Henry Hummel, No. i.' Now the ma- 
chinations of yonder extinguished straw-man have up- 
set this truth. In spite of my protest in court, we 
have become transformed into park denizens by a po- 
lice ordinance. Scarcely has this happened, when that 
man's book-keeper transforms himself into an Ameri- 
can. Do you believe that Knips, junior, this sala- 
mander, would have ventured on this misdeed if 
his own principal had not set him the example? 
There you have the consequences of everlasting 
changes and improvements. For twenty years we 
have gone on together, but I believe now you are cap- 



THE OPEN COURT. 



1497 



able of throwing up your place and entering into 

another business. Bah, sir! you ought to be ashamed 

of your century." 

* 

* * 

It was a sorrowful day for the Hahn family. The 
master of the house had gone to his office in the 
city at the usual hour in the morning, and had awaited 
his book-keeper in vain. When at last he sent to the 
young man's dwelling, the porter brought back word 
that the former had departed, and left a letter on his 
table for Mr. Hahn. Hahn read the letter, and sank 
down upon his desk with sudden terror. He had al- 
ways carried on his business like an honest tradesman. 
He had begun with small means, and had become a 
well to do man by his own energy; but he had confided 
his money matters more to his clever clerk than was 
prudent. The young man had grown up under his 
ej'es, and had gradually, by his pliant, zealous service, 
won full confidence, and had shortly before been 
granted the right of signing the name of the firm to 
financial obligations. The new manager had suc- 
cumbed to the temptatiohs of these turbulent times 
and had, unknown to his principal, ventured on rash 
speculations. In the letter he made open confession. 
He had stolen a small sum for his flight: but Mr. 
Hahn would on the following day have to meet his 
losses to the amount of about twenty thousand thalers. 
The thunder-bolt fell from a clear heaven into the 
peaceful life of the merchant. Mr. Hahn sent for his 
son. The doctor hastened to the police-office, to his 
solicitor, and to his business friends, and returned 
again to the office to comfort his father, who sat as 
if paralyzed before his desk, hopelessly looking into 
the future. 

Dinner-time came, when Mr. Hahn must impart 
his misfortune to his wife, and there was lamentation 
within the house. Mrs. Hahn went distractedly through 
the rooms, and Dorothy wrung her hands and cried. 
In the afternoon the Doctor again hastened to his ac- 
quaintances and to money-lenders; but during this 
week there was a panic, every one mistrusted the 
other. Money was scarce, and the Doctor found noth- 
ing but sympathy, and complaints of the fearful 
times. The flight of the book-keeper made even con- 
fidential friends suspicious as to the extent of the ob- 
ligations of the firm. Even by a mortgage on the 
house, with the greatest sacrifice, no sufficient sum 
could be obtained. The danger was more threaten- 
ing every hour, the anguish greater. Towards even- 
ing the Doctor returned home to his parents after his 
last fruitless expedition. To his father he had shown 
a cheerful countenance, and comforted him bravely; 
but the thought was incessantly present to his mind, 
that this misfortune would divide him utterly from 
his loved one. Now he sat weary and alone in the 



dark sitting-room, and looked towards the lighted 
windows of the neighboring houses. 

He well knew that one friend would not fail his 
father in distress. But the Professor was at a distance, 
and any help he could give would be insufficient; at 
the best it would come too late. There were only a 
few hours before the decisive moment. The interven- 
ing time, one of rest for all others, was one of endless 
torture to his father, in which he contemplated, with 
staring eyes and feverish pulse, a hundred-fold the 
bitterness of the ensuing day, and the son was terri- 
fied at the effect which the dreadful strain would have 
on the sensitive nature of his father. 

There was a slight rustle in the dark room — a 
light figure stood beside the Doctor. Laura seized 
his hand and held it fast within hers. She bent down 
to him, and looked in his sorrowful countenance. 
"I have felt the anxiety of these hours. I can no 
longer bear solitude," she said, gently. " Is there no 
help?" 

" I fear, none." 

She stroked his curly hair with her hand. 

"You have chosen it as your lot to despise what 
others so anxiously desire. The light of the sun, which 
illumines your brow, should never be darkened by 
earthly cares. Be proud, Fritz; you have never had 
cause to be more so than at this hour, for such a mis- 
fortune cannot rob you of anything that is worth a 
pang." 

"My poor father!" cried Fritz. 

"Yet your father is happy," continued Laura, "for 
he has brought up a son to whom it is scarcely a sac- 
rifice to be deprived of what appears to other men the 
highest happiness. For whom had your dear parents 
amassed money but for you? Now you may show 
them how free and great you rise above these anxi- 
eties for perishable metal." 

"If I feel the misfortune of this day to my own 
life," said the Doctor, " it is only for the sake of an- 
other." 

" If it could comfort you, my friend," exclaimed 
Laura, with an outburst of feeling, " I will tell you to- 
day that I hold true to you, whatever may happen." 

"Dear Laura!" cried the Doctor. 

Her voice sang softly in his ear like a bird: 

" I am glad, Fritz, that you care for me." 

Fritz laid his cheek tenderly on her hand. 

"I will endeavor not to be unworthy of you," con- 
tinued Laura. " I have long tried in secret all that I, 
a poor maiden, can do, to free myself from the trivial 
follies that trouble our life. I have considered fully 
how one can keep house with very little, and I no 
longer spend money on useless dress and such rub- 
bish. I am anxious also to earn something. I give 
lessons, Fritz, and people are satisfied with me. One 



THE OPEN COURT. 



requires little to live upon, I have found that out. I 
have no greater pleasure in my room than the thought 
of making myself independent. That is what I have 
wished to express briefly to you to-day. One thing 
more, Fritz; if I do not see you, I always think of and 
care about you." 

Fritz stretched out his arms towards her, but she 
withdrew herself from him, nodded to him once more 
at the door, then flew swiftly across the street back to 
her attic room. 

There she stood in the dark with beating heart; a 
pale ray of light gleamed through the window and 
lighted up the shepherd pair on the- inkstand, so that 
they seemed to hover illuminated in the air. This day 
Laura did not think of her secret diary, she looked 
towards the window where her loved one sat, and 
again tears gushed from her eyes; but she composed 
herself with quick decision, fetched a light and a jug 
of water from the kitchen, collected her lace collars 
and cuffs and soaked them in a basin — she could do 
all this herself too. It was another little saving, it 
might sometime be of use to Fritz. 

Mr. Hummel closed his office and continued to 
rove about. The door of Laura's room opened, the 
daughter shrank within herself when she saw her fa- 
ther cross the threshold solemnly, like a messenger of 
Fate. Hummel moved towards his daughter and 
looked sharply at her weeping eyes. 

"On account of him over the way, I suppose." 
Laura hid her face in her hands, again her sorrow 
overpowered her. 

"There you have your little bells," he grumbled in 
a low tone. "There you have your pocket-handker- 
chiefs and your Indians. It is all over with the people 
there." He slapped her on the shoulder with his 
large hand. "Be quiet. We are not responsible for 
his ruin; your pocket-handkerchiefs prove nothing." 

It became dark; Hummel walked up and down 
the street between the two houses, looking at the hos- 
tile dwelling from the park side, where it was .less ac- 
cessible to him, and his broad face assumed a trium- 
phant smile. At last he discovered an acquaintance 
who was hastening out of it, and followed him. 

"What is the state of the case?" he asked, seizing 
the arm of the other. " Can he save himself?" 

His business friend shrugged his shoulders. 

"It cannot remain a secret," he said, and explained 
the situation and danger of the adversary. 

"Will he be able to procure money to meet it?" 

The other again shrugged his shoulders. 

" Hardly to-morrow. Money is not to be had at 
any price. The man is of course worth more; the 
business is good, and the house unencumbered." 

" The house is not worth twenty thousand," inter- 
posed Hummel. 



"No matter; in a sound state of the money market 
he would bear the blow without danger, now I fear 
the worst." 

"I have. said it, he has gone out like a candle," 
muttered Hummel, and abruptly turned his steps to- 
wards his house. 

In the Doctor's room father and son were sitting 
over letters and accounts, the light of the lamp shone 
on the gilded titles of the books against the wall, and 
the portfolios containing the treasures industriously 
collected by the Doctor from all corners of the world, 
and bound up and placed here in grand array — now 
they were again to be dispersed. The son was en- 
deavoring to inspire his despairing father with courage. 

"If the misfortune cannot be prevented which has 
come upon us like a hurricane, we must bear it like 
men: you can save your honor. The greatest sorrow 
that I feel is that I can now be of so little use to you, 
and that the advice of every man of business is of 
more value than the help of your own son." 

The father laid his head on the table, powerless 
and stupefied. 

The door opened, and from the dark hall a strange 
form entered the room with heavy steps. The Doctor 
sprang up and stared at the hard features of a well- 
known face. Mr. Hahn uttered a shriek and rose 
hastily from the sofa to leave the room. 

"Mr. Hummel!" exclaimed the Doctor, alarmed. 

"Of course," replied Hummel; "it is I, who else 
should it be?" He laid a packet on the table. "Here 
are twenty thousand thalers in certified City Bonds, 
and here is a receipt for you both to sign. To-morrow 
you shall give a mortgage for it upon your house: the 
papers must be repaid in kind, for I do not mean to 
lose by it, exchange is too bad now. The mortgage 
shall run for ten years, in order that you may not 
think I wish to take your house; you can pay me back 
when you please, the whole at once, or by degrees. I 
know your business, no money can now be obtained 
upon your straw; but in ten years the loss may be re- 
covered. I make only one condition, that no human 
being shall know of this loan, least of all your wife, 
and my wife and daughter. For this I have good rea- 
sons. Do not look at me as the cat looks at the king," 
he continued, turning to the Doctor. "Set to work, 
count the bonds and note their numbers. Make no 
speeches, I am not a man of sentiment, and figures of 
rhetoric are no use to me. I think of my security also. 
The house is scarcely worth twenty thousand thalers, 
but it satisfies me. If you should wish to carry it off I 
should see it. You have taken care that it should be 
near enough to my eyes. Now count, please, and sign 
the receipt, Doctor," he said, authoritatively, pushing 
him down on his chair. 

( To he cojtiinufd.) 



THK OPEN COURT. 



BOOK REVIE\A^S. 

Scientific Religion, or Higher Possibilities of Life and 
Practice Through the Operation of Natural Forces. By 
Laurence Oliphant. BuEfalo: 1889. Charles A. Wenborne. 
"We realize that our union, instead of separating my hus- 
band from the sainted wife whose influence overshadowed him as he 
wrote the pages of this book, has, in truth, bound him only the 
more closely, for she has become so atomUally wedded with me, 
that we, the wife in the unseen and the wife in the seen, have be- 
come as one; her life is poured through me as an instrument doub- 
ling my own affectional consciousness, " says Mrs. Rosamond Oli- 
phant in the preface to the work of her husband. In the word 
atoviically we have the key-note of his " Scientific Religion." The 
" atom " is the point where the science of modern physicists stops, 
and where the spiritualism of " Scientific Religion" begins. 

"The great problems of life," says the author truly, "are 
assuming a new form, as the theological landmarks are gradually 
fading away beneath the flood of light which has been let into 
them by theological research, antiquarian discovery, scientific in- 
vestigation, and psychical phenomena; and men in their trouble 
are peering earnestly into the new region which is being thus illu- 
minated, for a new order which they may substitute for the old — 
some vital truth-principle which shall conduce to a purer and 
nobler social life." Ecclesiasticism fails to supply this principle 
of truth; it is not found in the maxims of conduct that those who 
follow worldly ways have adopted; we must seek for it in the 
' ' process of divine quickening, "in the ' ' magnetic attraction which 
is inherent in the vivifying principle," which draws the incipients 
of this new life, at first weak and bewildered, ' ' athwart obstacles 
that would seem insurmountable. * * * The atmosphere feels 
charged (to them) with mephitic vapor, which sometimes seems 
even to interfere with the ordinary respiration." The author ad- 
mits it is " hopeless to attempt to give any complete description of 
the mode of operation of this new life-principle, for in no two 
cases are the phenomena which attend its descent into the human 
organism similar in their manifestations." Granting that this atom- 
icism be universal then, and supposing it, as Mr. Oliphant does 
suppose it, to have a basis, how are we to account for the erratic 
character of the courses it takes? At best it must be an uncertain 
and unreliable sort of spirituality. In his attempt at explanation, 
the author proceeds from the principle of atomicity recognized by 
modern science. Yet he abandons the methods by which that hy- 
pothesis was attained. "This and other points" (the immanence 
or dualism of force), we read, " can never be settled until we real- 
ize that our external senses are not tests upon which we can rely 
for anything." Good and true. But what of our spiritual senses! 
What is to tell us whether we can rely on tliem. Modern science 
has not made the acquisitions from which Mr. Oliphant proceeds, 
by any acceptance of spiritual revelation. But at this point the 
aims of physics and " Scientific Religion " separate "Science to 
be true must be divine." So reads the Gospel, " Seek ye first the 
Kingdom of God and His righteousness and all things shall be ad- 
ded to you." How many have sought it! And among the multi- 
tude of things added to them, how many of the true acquisitions 
of scientific progress do we find to be parcel of the grant! 

" Though from what has been said," continues Mr. Oliphant, 
' 'we may vaguely pe'rceive where these treasures of divine knowledge 
lie hid, no man can furnish another with a sure key to them. That 
is to be found by each who would learn the secrets of wisdom, only 
in his own heart; and it is by an effort of his affections, and not by 
one of his brain, that he can fit this key to the lock of knowledge. 
Let him then beware of intellectual effort in this direction, unpre- 
pared by the necessary preliminary moral training and discipline 
to make it." 

Moral training and spiritual discipline we need. But in the in- 



vestigation of things that fl/v, "interior illumination" hardly suf- 
fices. "The whole system of civilized life," says Clerk Maxwell, 
"is fitly symbolized by a foot-rule, a set of weights, and a clock." 
They symbolize, too, the foundation upon which even the theory 
of atomicism rests. Let us cling, therefore, to the foot-rule, the 
set of weights, and the clock. 

Apart from the scientific untenability of a theory that 
fashions the atomic constitution of nature to suit every emergency, 
the work of Mr. Oliphant has many noble features. It is pervaded 
by a gentleness of sentiment and sincerity of purpose that evokes 
respect, even where reason commands dissent. We may not agree 
with " the interlocking of invisible atoms," nor give assent to the 
hypothesis of " pneumatic and psychic dielectrics," but we recog- 
nize the power of self-discipline in its noblest form, and the divin- 
ity of the Masculine and Feminine in man, whether they appear 
as personifications or merely as the expression of mysterious 
atomic agencies. ^Kpn. 

NOTES. 

The frontispiece of the Century for March is a portrait of the 
Grand Lama of the Trans-Baikal, from a photograph given to 
George Kennan in exchange for his own. Mr. Kennan's article 
describes an interesting and amusing episode of his Siberian tour. 

Col. T. W. Higginson's poems are about to be published by 
Longmans Green & Co. of New York and London. The volume 
is called The Afternoon Landscape. The poems include the sonnet 
to "Duty," and lighter stanzas on "A Jar of Rose-Leaves." 
Among the translations are Sappho's " Ode to Aphrodite," and a 
dozen sonnets from Petrarch and Carmoens. 

Ex-Postmaster- General Thomas L. James, in his article on 
" The Railway Mail Service, in the March Scribners, says: "It is 
due to President Cleveland to state that toward the close of his 
administration he recognized the importance of permanency in 
the railway mail service and that he made a long step in advance 
by approving a series of rules submitted by the civil service com- 
mission having for its object the removal of the service from the 
influences of politicians. It needs more than this, however; it 
needs the sanctity of the statute law declaring that the clerks 
should not only keep their offices during good behavior, but that 
after twenty years of faithful and efficient service, or before that 
time, if injured in the discharge of their duty, they should retire 
on half pay. In case of death, from accident while on duty, 
proper provision should be made for the family of the official. 
Whenever justice is done by Congress in these particulars the 
United States will have the best and most efficient railway mail- 
service in the world." 

The latest contribution to the discussion in the Forum of the 
Negro Question is by a Negro writer. Prof. W. S. Scarborough, of 
Wilberforce University, Ohio. In the March number he reviews 
with a deal of severity the treatment of the Negro question by the 
representatives both of the South and of the North. But of the 
future of his race he takes a very hopeful view. He writes; "That 
which the South declares it will not have — Negro supremacy — has 
no part in the Negro's plans for his future, nor is it desired by 
him. * * * The Negro has made a remarkable advance in intelli- 
gence and education. The admitted progress of the race has 
given birth to leaders, younger and better educated, to replace the 
ignorant and irresponsible ones. * * * As a member of that race, 
I believe the Negro is looking over the whole situation as a patriot 
should view it — with an eye not only to his own prosperous growth, 
but to that of the American people, of whom he considers himself 
an inseparable part. With such a view he can but take that step 
which will lead from present troubles to a fruition of his hopes — 
to be a man among men and not simply a Negro." 



THE OPEN COURT. 



WINDFALLS. 

Ylidvised Edition. \ 

By RICHARD RANDOLPH, 

Author of " Aspects of Humanity." 

l2mo, pp. io8. Price, so cents; by mail, 58 cents. 

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Notices of the Press, to first edition, i8ji. 

The author has learned to seek the analogy of all 
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ligion,— and this fact is no unimportant recommen- 
dation.— /%?VaA///!/<! Fast. 

A series of interesting essays and poems. — Public 
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The volume (Windfalls) indicates a severe and 
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of character and the tendencies of the times.... 
(Sober Thoughts.) Mr. R. dedicates his thoughts 
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appropriate, for the themes discoursed upon, 
whether in verse or prose, are such as will com- 
mend themselves to no intellectual sluggard, but 
rather to him whose mind is on the alert for every 
ray of truth, and who, having once apprehended 
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Th.wer. II 

THE VICARIOUS ATONEMENT. Editor 

THE PRINCIPLES OF GOOD AND EVIL IN FICTION. 

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FORCE AND CAUSATION. Editorial Comment Upon 

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POETRY. 

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Daisies. Elissa M. Moore 



1507 
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Henry George's Mission Observer 

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The History of The Roman Republic. .Abridgment of 
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Letters from O. B. Frathingkam, Prof. Wm. James, 
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Review of Recent Work of THE OPEN COURT. 

PSYCHOLOGY AND BIOLOGY. 

Experimental Psychology in Fr-^nce. Alfred 

BiNET No. 74. 

Dream, Sleep, and Consciousness. Dr. George 

M. Gould ■. . .Nos. 74 and 75. 

Body and Mind; or the Data of Moral Physiol- 
ogy. Felix L. Oswald, M. D. . . .Nos. 72, 75, 78. 
M. Binet's entertaining sketch of the state of Experimental 
Psychology in France is the only direct and convenient source 
from which the reader can obtain a comprehensive idea of the con- 
tributions the author's country is making to this branch of mental 
science. The work of psychologists in France is distinguished by 
its almost exclusive bearing upon the pathological phases of psy- 
chological phenomena. The greatest successes of MM. Ribot, 
Richet, Charcot, and others, have been in treating the diseases of 
the mind. 
PHILOSOPHY. 

Sensation and Memory. Editor No. 74. 

Cognition, Knowledge, and Truth. Editor No. 76. 

Monism as the Formal Principle of Cognition. .No. 78. 
In the two first discussions, the conditions and processes by which 
we start from the bare excitations of the sensory world and attain 
to knowledge, are unfolded. Sensation is the primal condition of 
all knowledge; the products of sensation are preserved and trans- 
mitted as psychological forms; the psychological law of this reten- 
tive power is memory, from which source are evolved the different 
branches and varied forms of human thought. 

The last essay of this series shows that the constitution of the 
human mind naturally predisposes man for Monism. The unitary 
conception which the intellect seeks to formulate respecting all 
things brought within its range, is the inward proof offered to us 
of the correctness of the monistic philosophy. Monism is thus a 
subjective principle, informing us how to unify knowledge and 
make it potent. 

Axioms The Basis of M.athematics. Dr. Edward 
Brooks No. 76. 

The Old and the New Mathematics. Editor. No. 77. 

A Flaw in the Foundation of Geometry. 

Hermann Grassmann No. 77. 

In No. 76, Dr. Edward Brooks of Philadelphia, takes excep- 
tion to an editorial thesis that "mathematics is unfortunately con- 
structed on axioms." To Dr. Brooks no other way of construction 
is possible. There exist ' 'first truths or axioms which the mind 
has power to cognize," which are incapable of proof, and which 
every system, even though nominally rejecting them, nevertheless 
tacitly employs.. The editorial answer to Dr. Brooks, in No. 77, 



is based upon the principles unfolded in the series of disquisitions 
on " Form and Formal Thought," in Nos. 64, 66, 67, and 69. .Ax- 
ioms so called, are the result of reasoning, and not the basis of it; 
the lavs of formal thought determine the correctness and necessity ■ 
of a proposition; conformity, in every instance, with th'ese laws 
alone makes a truth universal. The relations of actual, material ■ 
space have thus universally coincided with the laws of a formal 
system of third degree, and hence the rigidity and finality of those 
relations. In the same number, a translation from Hermann 
Grassmann's " Theory of Extension" is presented; it contains the 
fundamental points of departure of the new geometry from the old. 
No English version of this epoch-making work exists. The discus- 
sion will greatly interest those who have given their attention to 
the philosophy of mathematics. 

SOCIOLOGY AND ECONOMICS. 

Henry George and Land Taxation. Wheel- 
barrow No. 73. 

Symptoms of Social Degeneracy. Moncure D. 

Conway No. 74. 

Making Bread Dear. Wheelbarrow No. 78. 

Wheelbarrow opposes Mr. Henry George and the doctrine of 
Land Taxation with proper regard for the truth contained in the 
distinguished economist's theories. Objection is mainly taken to 
the universal curative power that the advocates of Land Taxa- 
tion claim for their remedy. In man's obedience to moral laws 
Wheelbarrow finds the only magic wherewith to change the face of 
society. 

Much criticism has been elicited by the bare mention of Mr. 
George's economical doctrines — indubitable testimony of their pop- 
ularity and strength. Letters have appeared in No. 79 and others 
will follow. 

" Symptoms of Social Degeneracy,*' Mr. Moncure D. Conway 
finds to be not unfrequent even in American civilization. We are 
prone to emphasize the survivals of barbaric institutions in effete 
Europe, while overlooking the excresences of our own body politic. 
Lynch-Law, literary piracy, corruption in administrative circles, 
are signs of the decay of an ethical system and the theology that 
protects it. Worst of all, these evils are not unaccompanied with 
attempts at palliation, 

HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL. 

The Study of Sanskrit. H. Oldenberg No. 79. 

Aspects, Christian and Human. William R. 

Thayer No. 79. 

The study of Sanskrit, upon which a series of articles com- 
mences with No 79, is a department of historical research com- 
paratively new. Prof. Oldenberg, one of the most eminent San- 
skrit scholars of the present day, tells us in popular language the 
story of the origin, growth, and present state of Sanskrit research. 
This department of philological and historical inquiry has done 
more than any other towards the true interpretation of the early 
history, civilization, and religion of the Aryan peoples. Within 
less than a century results have been attained, of which former 
generations would not have presumed to think. The articles have 
been translated from the German. 

Under the title of " Aspects, Christian and Human," Mr. "W. 
R. Thayer maintains in lucid and apposite language that the in- 
fluences and forces to which the great changes wrought in modern 
society must be attributed, have not proceeded from sources es- 
sentially Christian. These advances are distinctly secular and hu- 
man in character. " Not the preacher, but the poet: not the poli- 
tician, but the untrammelled agitator, men whose tongues were 
free, and whose hearts were fearless, have been the heralds and 
champions of better things." 



The Open Court 



A WEEKLY JOURNAL 



No. 80. (Vol. 111.-2.) CHICAGO, MARCH 7, 1889. 



Devoted to the Work of Conciliating Religion with Science. 

J Two Dollars per Year. 
/ Single Copies, lo cts. 

NEWS ABOUT THE PLANETS AND THE MOON. taneously along the whole length of the canal. If a 
• double canal is cut by a single one, its parallel sec- 
tions are respectively equal in breadth and brightness, 
as shown in the diagram subjoined. The stages of 
transformation have not yet been sufficiently observed 
since a fog always overspreads the canal before the du- 
plication takes place. Schiapa- 
relli considers this appearance 
that envelops the canal as the 
characteristic feature of the 
transformation. It does not, 
he says, appear to hide the phe- 
nomenon, but to evolve it. He 

compares it to a number of soldiers who disperse with- 
out order to arrange themselves again in two columns. 
The arrangement of the lakes where two canals 
cross, and the size of the canals, follow certain laws. 
The duplications are always equal in breadth and the 
lakes (as can be seen in the instances of the crossing 
of Euphrates and Protonilus, observed at different 
times) also appear double, following the direction of 
the duplicated canal. 



A SURVEY OF THE LATEST ASTRllNOM ICAL OBSERVATIONS. 

Prof. J. V. Schiaparelli, in an essay recently pub- 
lished in Himmel tind Erde, presents a detailed ac- 
count of his recent astronomical discoveries, which 
corroborate facts hitherto known and testify to the 
wonderful accuracy of the observations of former as- 
tronomers. They show that the surface of Mars is not 
dead, like that of the moon; Mars lives; and the de- 
velopment of its life manifests itself in a complicated 
system of curious phenomena, which only in part can 
be compared to those happening upon our earth. Mars 
possesses an atmosphete like the earth; its poles are 
covered with white patches which alternately increase 
and decrease; it exhibits meteorological changes. 

The surface of the planet is divisible into two 
classes of regions; the divisions of the first class are 
bright in color, the shades varying from orange to deep 
red; the divisions of the other class are dark, and ap- 
pear in all tints of gray and black. In calling the 
former regions continents or islands, and the latter 
oceans, it is a matter of mere convenience that we 
adopt the geographical expressions applicable to the 
earth, for we know nothing of their nature, except 
what we see. 

Besides the slow changes that have been ob- 
served in the distribution of these colors, white specks 
have been seen at the periods of opposition; thus, one 
to which Schiaparelli has given the name of Nix At- 
lantica and which he says equaled the southern Pole 
in whiteness. 

The most wonderful phenomena, however, are the 
canals. Their name, like all the other topographical 
designations, was adopted merely for the sake of con- 
venience and not at all because Schiaparelli supposed 
them to be similar to terrestrial canals. Indeed their 
size would be too large to admit of such a comparison. 
They form nets of straight lines with an apparent di- 
ameter of from 15 to 20 seconds and even more. Their 
breadth is not constant. ' Where two or rhore canals 
meet, as a rule, lakes are formed. 

The most puzzling phenomenon of these canals is 
their duplication into parallel bands. The process of 
duplication does not require more than one or a few 
days, and it seems that the change takes place simul- 




E„ph, 




Mars being the best known of the planets, has quite 
monopolized our interest. But the other members of 
the solar system are not quite forgotten. 

The familiar red spot on the surface of Jupiter has 
been employed by Herr Lohse, of Potsdam, to calcu- 
late once more the rotation of the planet. Mr. Jen- 
ning, of Bristol, has recently established analogous re- 
sults from numerous observations of the spot, and it 
appears, in consequence, that the rotation time of the 
planet, as thus obtained, has been different in different 
years. In 1885-86, from calculations of 659 rotations. 



I500 



THE OPEN COURT. 



it was found to be 9 hours, 59 minutes, 41. i seconds; 
which was an increase of 7 seconds since 1879. At 
the present time it is, apparently, decreasing again. 
Are we to infer from this, that Jupiter really rotates 
on its axis with an inconstant velocity? That would 
be indeed astounding, since heretofore astronomers 
have regarded the rotation times of the planets — and 
especially that of the earth, which is equal to a side- 
real day — as the most constant quantities presented 
to observation. The evident inference is, rather, that 
the red spot, considered with reference to its vicinage, 
does not remain at rest, but is slowly displaced, in the 
course of time, — not always, however, in the same di- 
rection, but now in one, and now the other. Future 
observation, perhaps, will furnish more definite infor- 
mation regarding these movements, and make disclos- 
ures as to the real nature of this interesting appearance. 

Remarkable light-phenomena, not noticed hither- 
to, are reported in the vicinity of the second largest 
planet, the ring-encircled Saturn, by Dom Lamey. 
As early as 1868 this astronomer, with a four-inch re- 
fracting telescope, at Strassburg, noticed beyond this 
immediate region, somewhere between the paths of 
the fifth and sixth satellites, Minas and Titan, certain 
appearances of light, formed like rings; and since 1884, 
from observations made on the top of Grignon, favored 
by an unusually clear atmosphere and with a more 
powerful telescope, Dom Lamey is convinced of hav- 
ing frequently recognized their exact forms. These 
rings of light are, according to his account, four in 
number; but are only seldom visible in their full ex- 
tent. As their brilliancy is strongest at the very point 
where the satellites are in proximity to each other, the 
phenomenon is not explainable as the effect of con- 
trast, — it being the case, moreover, that they surpass 
in brilliance the nearest satellite. This interesting ob- 
servation, it is true, has as yet not been confirmed from 
other quarters. Perhaps, after this suggestion, the 
possessors of larger telescopes will direct their atten- 
tion more closely to these doubtful objects. 

The moon, according to Langley's measurements, 
does not seem to be so dreadfully cold, as was for- 
merly the opinion of scientists. By reason of its lack- 
ing an- envelopment answering to our atmosphere, 
however, it must still be extremely uninhabitable — 
quite the opposite of our dear neighbor Mars. But 
why has the moon no atmosphere even approaching 
ours in density ? Grenstedt explains this from the 
light density of the lunar substance. Both the earth 
and the moon are like meteoric masses which, when 
exposed to the air, oxydize; but by reason of the lesser 
density of the moon oxidation in its interior spread 
more freely tharf in the earth, and even before its 
original fire became extinc't, the air and the water of 
its surface were chemically imprisoned in its rocks. 



ASPECTS, CHRISTIAN AND HUMAN. 

BV WILLIAM R. THAYER. 

I WONDER not that Christianity, as expounded by 
the dominant creeds, is losing its hold on the hearts of 
men. I wonder, rather, that any religion which asserts 
that all mankind were damned by the sin of a single 
ancestor, Adam, and that all may be redeemed by the 
single sacrifice of Jesus, should have survived through 
eighteen centuries. No doctrines more preposterously 
at variance with experience than these have ever been 
solemnly promulgated and stubbornlj' believed by civ- 
ilized b.eings. If I told you that one of your forebears 
in the tenth century was a cut-throat, and that there- 
fore you and all your posterity must be hopelessly sin- 
ful, you would laugh at me; just as you would laugh 
if I should tell you that all the descendants of a saintly 
person are assured of everlasting bliss. To him who 
searches his moral nature no conviction is clearer than 
that his soul's welfare or disease depends upon him- 
self. The example of good or evil men may affect 
him, but the decision to follow either of them conies 
from within. Your identity, differing from all that 
have ever been or ever will be, is inviolable: no man 
can wrest it from you, nor have you the power to 
alienate it from yourself. In each of us is set up this 
holy of holies, whose threshold no stranger may cross: 
conscience sits in judgment there. You cannot per- 
suade her that your neighbor's sinfulness justifies you 
in sinning; nor that his virtue atones for your iniquity. 
By yourself alone can you be degraded or uplifted. 
Ponder it well — would you wish it otherwise? Would 
you have your soul in j'our brother's keeping? Would 
you be no better than a chameleon, which borrows the 
hue of the last bush it glides beneath? No stronger 
than the subject whom the mesmerist compels to ab- 
surd antics and involuntary crime? No — a thousand 
times no! Let us give thanks that the soul is verily 
self-centred — that each of us can resolve, "Whatever 
any one does or says, I must be good." 

But the burden of the interpreters of Scripture has 
been from the first, that we are saved or damned by 
the acts of others. These twisters of texts deprive man 
of his dignity, and make of him a passive slave, who 
was sold into perdition by Adam, unless he be ran- 
somed by Christ. Worst of all, the bargain was struck 
and sealed ages before we, the poor chattels, were 
born! No grocer, no cobbler, would do business after 
such a method: yet in this spiritual barter the ever- 
lasting weal of human souls is at stake. 

Protestantism and Romanism have vied with each 
other in branding these twin falsehoods into the faith 
of Christians. I am not discussing whether Christ 
himself taught this monstrous doctrine or not, but I 
am examining some of the phases of actual Chris- 



a he: open court. 



1501 



tianity; so I do not cite passages from the New Testa- 
ment, or from the early Fathers, but I limit myself to 
a few characteristic quotations from modern repre- 
sentatives of Christian sects. Hear, first, what Lati- 
mer, one of the venerable shapers of the Anglican 
Church, bids every believer to reply to the question, 
"Who art thou?" "I am of myself, and by myself, 
coming from my natural father and mother, the child 
of the ire and indignation of God, the true inheritor 
of hell, a lump of sin, and working nothing of myself but 
all towards hell, except I have better help of another 
than I have of myself ."* So Luther asserts that " there's 
no doubt that all created things have degenerated by 
reason of original sin." This is the theme of Paradise 
Lost, this the moral of The Pilgrim's Progress, the po- 
etical and the prose epic of evangelical Protestantism. 
Bunyan's hero, whose career is intrinsically as selfish 
as that of any hermit in the Thebaid, shrinks not from 
classing "wives, husbands, and children" with " /;(?r- 
lots, lusts, pleasures, honors, precious stones, and what 
not," among the wares vended by Beelzebub in Vanity 
Fair: but Christ, he says, "had no mind to the mer- 
chandize, and, therefore, left the town without laying 
out so much as one farthing upon these vanities." 
Cardinal Newman, who should understand the more 
enlightened orthodox Romanism of our own time, ut- 
ters a similar opinion: "//"there is a God, since there 
is a God, the human race is implicated in some terri- 
ble aboriginal calamity. It is out of joint with the 
purposes of its Creator. This is a fact, a fact as true 
as the fact of its existence; and thus the doctrine of 
what is theologically called original sin becomes al- 
most as certain as that the world exists, and as the 
existence of God."t 

Verily, logic has invented no other syllogism so dia- 
bolical as this: The human race is wicked; God, who 
created the human race, is good; therefore, the human 
race is wicked. Can we not hear such a Creator ex- 
claim to his creatures: "I love perfection, and have 
made thee imperfect. I am all-skillful, all-powerful, 
and have made thee out of joint. Yet shalt thou wor- 
ship my perfection, and my justice, and my love, and 
thou shalt thank me for having made thee liable to 
eternal damnation, or thou wilt surely be damned." 
Such is the threat of this bungling mechanician to his 
important machine. This is the hideous fetish still 
worshipped as God in many Christian churches: un- 
less it be that the worshippers do not believe in their 
hearts the creed their lips profess. God a tyrant, re- 
ligion a terror — that is the meaning of those dogmas 
which Latimer, and Luther, and Newman, and Andover 
sectaries disseminate. But, as has been truly said, 
" I cannot think that there was ever any scared into 

" Striiioiis an llic Card. 1529. 
^ Apologia pro Vita Sua. p. 268 



heaven: they go the fairest way to heaven that would 
serve God without a hell." 

When you come out, on a Sunday evening, from a 
church where these atrocious doctrines have been re- 
iterated and upheld, what sense of relief, of peace, of 
expansion is this, which fills you as you breathe the 
untainted air, and look up at the mysterious stars? 
They too are comprehended in the destiny which em- 
braces you; and those fire-flies twinkling in yonder 
meadows, and the crickets chirping in the grass. Do 
you see here, or anywhere, a sign that the Omnipo- 
tence which kindled a light in those stars and on the 
wings of those tiny insects, which gave a tune to those 
crickets and night-birds, is bent on persecuting you? 
What spite has the Everlasting against you? The 
ears have heard the. sermon, but the soul revolts 
against it. Concience publishes anew the sanctity of 
the individual soul, and the gospel of self-reliance and 
responsibility. Reason refuses to impute to God 
wrathfulness and malice which the worst men would 
not practice. 

But if you do believe that a ferocious Elohim mis- 
governs the universe; that he has created every human 
being with a predisposition for hell, degrading man in 
this below the beasts, which dread nothing and hope 
nothing; if you believe that only a few of those who 
have heard the name of Christ shall be saved, and 
that millions of millions, born before Christ's time or 
in heathen countries, are to be damned without a 
hearing: do not so stultify your conscience and cor- 
rupt all terms as to call this monster good, God. If 
Elohim were omnipotent, the true God, and source of 
all thoughts and creatures, — instead of being the con- 
ception of half-barbarous Hebrews three thousand 
years ago — whence could you have derived these 
purer ideals of virtue and mercy? Whence could your 
reverence of justice and love have emanated? Cer- 
tainly, not from him; but from some spiritual poten- 
tate antagonistic to him, as Prometheus was to Zeus; 
the source from which every unselfish act and wish 
has flowed. Ah, sad is it that the dove who should 
carry Christ's olive-branch of peace and love and 
hope, has been accompanied and overshadowed 
throughout the ages by the vultures of Elohim and 
Ahriman, birds of prey and darkness before whose 
terrifying screams and cruel talons men have cowered 
and quailed, unheeding the sweet tidings of the mes- 
senger of Love! 

Ah me! Ah me! how have we recklessly bandied 
from mouth to mouth the names of the deepest mys- 
teries; gossiping, as of familiar househould affairs, of 
infinity, eternity, immortality, and of the everlasting, 
incomprehensible God! And now the question, What 
do iL'e knoiv? brings us to bay, and strikes us dumb. 
We, who have never yet established our earthly reg- 



1^02 



THE OPEN COURT 



imen so that it has endured unchanged for a single 
year; we, who cannot stretch forth our hand and pluck 
a single blossom from to-morrow, nay, from an hour 
beyond the present: we yet presume to fix the state 
of human souls through all eternit}', to alltft the ses- 
sions and occupations of heaven and the penalties and 
anguish of hell! We, who cannot soothe the heart of 
a bereaved sister, or mitigate the despair of a brother 
— who behold struggling and falling around us multi- 
tudes whom we cannot or do not succor — we prattle 
complacently about those who are to be saved or 
damned! Let us put away presumption! Let our in- 
significance teach us humility! Let our bond of human 
kinship unite us in charity! The mystery of Evil has 
never been unravelled by the fingers of logic or theol- 
ogy; the Burden of Sin has never been exorcised by 
Orphic psalm-singing and sermons. He who has 
looked, in some awful moment, upon the abysses 
which mortal sight can never fathom, and has reali- 
zed, however dimly, that they are unfathomable; who 
has seen, as in a vision, the universal toss and surge, 
and the boundless possibilities of life; he will not pre- 
sume, in lower moods, to babble thereof. " If your 
strength allow, behold," says the Keeper of Mysteries; 
"but you may reveal no secrets." Awed and humbled, 
the gazer turns for relief to the world lighted by the 
sun. The sufferings, the needs, of his fellow-men, — 
these he can understand. These are actual, insistent, 
and within reach. Let him consecrate himself to 
them, and his energy will expand; let him merge his 
desires in their welfare, and his perplexities will 
slumber. The spectator of a battle is appalled by a 
sense of the peril and horror which beset the combat- 
ants: but the soldier thinks only of the justice of his 
cause, of the duty of courage, of the glory of victory. 



THE VICARIOUS ATONEMENT. 

Mr. William R. Thayer, while justly criticizing 
the absurd views of the radical perversity of man and 
the dogma of vicarious atonement, overlooks, it seems 
to us, the truth which lies hidden in these doctrines. 
We really and literally inherit the sins as well as the 
blessings of our ancestors — of our bodily ancestors as 
well as of our spiritual ones. 

Our bodily ancestors are those whose blood runs in 
our veins, most of whom (the American nation being 
chiefly Teutonic) lived, in Tacitus's time, on the banks 
of the Rhine and Weser. Our spiritual ancestors are 
those men whose ideas we have accepted, those who 
contributed to the growth of our present civilization, 
the Greeks and Romans, the Hebrew* and other 
nations of antiquity. Now, we are indeed punished 

* Mr. Thayer speaks of the half-barbarous Hebrews. We might just as 
well speak of the semi-civilized Greek. Our Hebrew literature, we must not 
forget, contains the germs of our ethical ideals of to-day; and the decalogue of 
Moses is in its way at least as classical as Homer, Plato, and Aristotle together. 



for the sins of our predecessors, just as much as we 
are saved through their ransoming deeds and thoughts. 
Individualism looks upon each individual as a sep- 
arate being who, whatever he be, is supposed to be in- 
dependent, and to exist of himself, and who, for good 
or evil, is responsible to no one but to himself. This 
view is wrong: The individual is what he is through 
others and mainly through his ancestors; he has to 
suffer with them, and inherits their blessings. But 
Mr. Thayer is right in blaming those who literally 
believe in hell and think that a man can be damned 
or saved for all eternity without his having consciously 
or unconsciously accepted the merits or demerits of 
his ancestors. It takes exertion on our part to acquire 
the treasures of our spiritual existence: 

" Whatever thy fathers have bequeathed thee: 
Earn it anew, to really possess it." 

Mankind cannot be considered an agregate of sin- 
gle individuals; it forms a living whole, and humanity, 
the intellectual life of mankind, is one unitary growth 
in which the men of history are only parts, and tran- 
sient phases, whose efforts and lives cannot be under- 
stood unless the development of the entire race be 
taken into consideration. p. c. 



THE PRINCIPLES OF GOOD AND EVIL IN FICTION. 

BY CORA H. PALMER. 

"In the science of sound," says Mr. J. H Shorthouse,* " there 
are partial tones which are unheard but which blend with the 
tones that are heard and make all the difference between the paltry 
note of the poorest instrument and the supreme note of a violin. 
So, in the science of life, in the crowded street or market-place, 
or theatre, or wherever life is, there are partial tones, there are 
unseen presences. Side by side with the human crowd is a crowd 
of unseen forms — Principalities and Powers and Possibilities." 

So, too, in literature there are unspoken messages, there are 
hidden meanings which compliment the written word and flood 
with the light of every-day experience the by-paths of fanciful 
thought. 

In "The Countess Eve" Mr, J. H. Shorthouse has, with a 
wealth of imagery and exquisite description, interwoven the prob- 
lem of Eden and the problem of Faust — the search after happi- 
ness and the search after higher life. 

To be of value, an allegory must embody fundamental truth. 
However individual opinions as to the origin and credibility of the 
Mosaic history may vary, the principles underlying the story of 
Paradise Lost are co-existent with human life and human falli- 
bility. Temptation and its consequences are not the less cogent 
because faith and scepticism, science and scholasticism, consider 
them from widely different standpoints. Whether body and soul 
be dual or indivisible there are impulses inherent which work for 
evil as there are tendencies intrinsic which strive for good. Rela- 
tively we may consider causes, practically we must deal with re- 
sults; for although thoroughly to reform a man it may be neces- 
sary to begin with his grandfather, to help a man it isonly possible 
to begin with himself. The vital question, therefore, is not so 
much how or why evil is here, as in what way evil may be over- 
come, and the author who affords honest help to his fellows, though 
it be in one sentence or one precept only, has done more for hu- 

♦ The Countess Eve. By J. D. Shorthouse. MacMillan & Co. London 
and New York. A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago. 



THE OPEN COURT. 



1503 



manity than he who fills volumes with abstruse theory and specu- 
lation. 

The inculcation of personal responsibility, not alone for the 
deeds done in the body, but for the thoughts engendered in the 
mind is the only training that will keep the whole life in equipoise; 
the only training that makes of man an independeiit. thinking, 
willing personage, and not a mere puppet dancing on wires of 
heredity to the measures of circumstance. For surely the doctrine 
that man " is no more responsible for his character than for the 
shape of his nose, " will never serve to ' ' help the weak-hearted or 
to raise up those who fall." 

Every soul has its Arbor ri/,c in that which stands as the ex- 
ponent of the greatest excellence to which existence is attainable, 
and whatever would belittle or degrade this individual ideal must 
encounter the flaming sword that intervenes to guard the tree of 
life. Moral, like physical electricity, has a duplex and diametric 
action. No one ever retrograded by following consistently the 
highest instincts of his nature, yet mistaken opinion may lead to 
much that in itself is the reverse of excellent; education, there- 
fore, is of doubtful value unless it teach the mind to discern what 
really are the higher impulses and the true uses of our nature. 
Perverted good is often more baneful than absolute evil, for not 
only does it destroy where it ought to quicken, but it reacts against 
the existence of that right reason in which and by which all good 
is nourished. Ever)- new-made home is a possible Eden, every 
new-made soul a possible Faust. 

Mr. Shorthouse confronts the problems from the orthodox 
point of view, at the same time recognizing and utilizing all the 
subtile influences of night, and storm, and darkness; all the charm 
of music in the spiritual and in the sensual worlds; all the witchery 
of spring in the air and in the heart; all the grace of forgiveness 
to beat down the barriers of memory and remorse; all the joy of 
virtue triumphant over sin. The author pays tribute to the innate 
strength of purity in woman in his conception of the Countess 
Eve. It is the genuine womanliness of the heroine, the longing 
for a wider experience, the eager curiosity to see life; the fresh 
enjoyment of congenial companionship, and the unconscious inno- 
cence that thinketh no evil, which constitutes at once her greatest 
danger, her greatest safe-guard, and her greatest charm. Steeped 
in the oblivion of a blind remorse for the transgressions of his 
youth, her husband's abstraction builds a barrier against which 
the soul-wings of the wife beat helplessly, until all the human 
longings of her nature turn from him seeking elsewhere the com- 
panionship denied her in her rightful home. The lamp of exper- 
ience burns in rain if it light not the pit-falls in the path of the 
present. "There is no entrance into Paradise without love." 
There is no continuance in paradise without virtue, 

A wife's paradise is her husband's heart and love is the tree 
of life in the midst of her garden, the door of which swings out- 
ward — not always, and not often does it swing inward as well. 
Only to the pure in spirit is the way back into paradise unbarred. 

The author draws a sharp line between sins of circumstance 
and sins of will, but it is in the consequences entailed and in the 
effect on character that his distinction is made, rather than in the 
sins themselves. 

In the musician de Brie, Mr. Shorthouse has embodied the 
ideal of a pure soul above and beyond any thought of evil, eleva- 
ting by his presence everything w-ith which he is brought in con- 
tact, while in the actor la Valliere are concentered material graces 
of person, mind, and manner, in the ' matchless fascination of an 
attractive nature ' — " plastic as clay in the potter's hand, and yet 
attractive as though it had absorbed the grace of all natures into 
its own. * * * He is nothing in himself, he is nothing but a lovely 
masque." 

Here is manifestly the type of man's natural organism, phys- 
cal and mental perfection independent of moral restraint. "He 



is good but the slave of his feelings, a born actor to whom all parts 
are alike." His theory of life is the materialists' creed. 

It is the creed of indulgence that knows nothing of the higher 
law of self-restraint — carried to its logical consequence, it is the 
creed that degrades. In the development -of the narrative the 
author shows the deterioration of man as the influence of the 
spiritual or moral nature is gradually withdrawn, until in carrying 
out his theory of enjoyment he sinks to the level of the sensualist, 
and loses at the last even the approbation of the world which 
lightly applauds and lightly condones so many offenses. 

The motif of the story is plainly the attack by certain phases 
of so-called advanced thought on the institution of marriage 
through the attack on the sanctity of the marriage bond, — but 
perhaps the most valuable doctrine inculcated by the allegory is 
that, independent of heredity and circumstances, the choice of 
conduct and the development of character lies with the individual, 
and that temptation if not the result, is, in any case, largely under 
the control of the individual will. 

Mr. Shorthouse skillfully utilizes the effect of music on oppo- 
site natures when he makes the strains of the violin, through 
which de Brie expresses the ' holy joy of a pure love,' bring to the 
actor temptation, vague and uncertain, but temptation in visible 
form; nevertheless a persistent effort of will is required to enable 
la Valliere to see the tempter a second time. 

A character like de Brie, to whom ' training had given the 
grace of an ideal life, ' comes like a breath of fresh air into the 
vitiated atmosphere of our modern fiction heated with passion and 
befogged by the vapors of unhealthy imagination. The notion com- 
mon among novelists of a pseudo-educational school, that man 
must stray through quagmires of dissipation and starve in deserts 
of cynicism ere he can reach the serene heights where virtue 
dwells, is as pernicious in theory as it is unavailing in reform. 
Satiety is not virtue! These same teachers would hardly give a 
child arsenic to teach it the effect of poisonous drugs, or the rum 
bottle to educate it against intemperance. Let authors furnish 
more stepping stones of noble lives and their readers will be in 
less danger of tumbling into the morass against which they fain 
would point a warning finger-post. 

Few writers of English fiction have depicted more beautiful 
characters than Mr. Shorthouse, and fewer yet possess that power 
of description which, with wonderful alchemy, transmutes into ex- 
quisite poetry his prose. 

FORCE. 

BY JOHN B. WOOD. 

The constitution of the material universe as revealed by sci- 
ence, briefly stated is this. Matter lies in two great divisions. One 
of these embraces ordinary gravitating matter, having three forms 
or modes of manifestation, as a solid, a liquid, or a gas. The other 
is the ethereal medium traversed by the waves of light and heat; 
itself invisible, unweighable, intangible. 

All the changes and appearances of the material universe are 
cases of motion actual or potential obtaining among atoms, parti- 
cles, masses; or through the medium before mentioned. 

Given the matter with motions (conditioned in certain cases 
upon the kind of atoms or particles concerned) and the complexity 
of existence and change is logically inevitable. Mere continuity of 
existence, mere persistence, is rest obtaining in masses, particles, 
atoms, or in the medium; the latter, if absolute darkness and cold 
really are anywhere. 

Rest itself is stated in terms of motion. It is dependent on 
conditions such that any one taken singly would determine motion 
of a definite rate and direction. While all together are equal in 
value and effect to two conditions of motion of equal rates in the 
same straight line; but pointing, as it does, towards the opposite 
portions of limitless space. 



•504 



XHE OPEN. COURT. 



When, therefore, any inquiry is started as to the cause of any 
material fact or change, we are in reality busying ourselves about 
the cause of some motion or motions. 

Now from experiments and observations interpreted by math- 
ematical analysis, any case of motion is found to be conditioned by 
circumstances belonging to one or both of two possible classes. 
Those which relate to the state of motion or of rest of the body at 
the instant logically precedent to the time with which the inquiry 
has to do, are of one class. The term generally used as descrip- 
tive is inertia. The term, though belonging to the older meta- 
physics which grudged life and action to " dead brute matter," will 
do. There is no word associated with the phenomenon indicated 
which is better. Those circumstances which relate to the placing 
of other bodies, effective at the time upon the body in question, 
belong to the second class. The word environment, though having 
a specialized meaning in relation to the Darwinian theory of or- 
ganic progress, will not be inapt in regard to this class of causes. 

Upon inertia and environment then, results depend. The mo- 
tion of this earth of ours, at any point of its travel at the rate of 
some eighteen miles a second to complete its journey around the 
solar orb, depends in the first place upon its rate and direction of 
flight just before. And, in the second, upon the placing of all the 
gravitating bodies of the universe; not to speak of such dust, peb- 
bles, and meteorites as strike it and become incorporated with it. 

The path of a rifle projectile at any instant depends upon its 
line and rate of motion logically antecedent, and upon the earth 
and its atmosphere and whether there is a wind or not. The heat 
generated when a cannon ball strikes a steel plate is due to the 
rate, weight, direction, of motion, of the ball, and to the steel plate. 

Now, inertia itself was a result. In inquiring then for the ul- 
timate cause of motion, as long as inertia of motion is found it is 
plain we must-push our inquiries backwards in time. That is we 
are logically referred to the infinite. Broadly speaking the earth 
moves at this moment because it moved some hundreds of thou- 
sands or millions of years ago. And if, as supposed, the solar sys- 
tem is because of the condensation and gravitation towards a focus 
of the parts of a nebulous fog, for as long as motion of those parts 
is assumed, must the ultimate cause of this earth's motion on that 
side of the investigation elude mental analysis. Back of the neb- 
ula in motion— what? — more motion of times older still. 

And so of rest. This pebble in a sand bank is there sur- 
rounded by its neighbor pebbles, boulders, and sand grains — mo- 
tionless; and has been so for years on years. Gravitation pulls 
from moment to moment towards the earth-centre four thousand 
odd miles away. Every bit of matter in fact, in the universe tugs 
at it and has tugged at it for long sweeps of time. But the re- 
sistance to compression of the particles of the underlying beds of 
sand and rock, the ball of the vast earth, in fact refuses now as in 
former times to move into any smaller space and so the pebble is 
there in what we call its place, still, motionless. Now why is it 
there? We are. as before, referred from instant to instant back- 
ward. Tendencies to motion exactly counterbalanced are found 
from instant to instant backwards in time until in some day of old 
we come to that time when the waters deposited it and covered it 
over. Back of that (perchance) floating cakes of ice, or a slow 
moving glacier had moved the piece of which our pebble is a worn 
down remnant. In a still earlier day, grain by grain of it had been 
slowly dropped, to be built in solidly together, under the waters of 
the sea. And so on and on the mind flies. And back of all are 
the same fire mists and moving portions of the condensing gravi- 
tating nebula of the solar system. 

On this side then cause escapes us. Now the environment. 
Not as to existence but as to influence. Can we do any better? 

Why is it that attraction and repulsion take place between 
bodies, particles, or atoms? Why does the earth instead of flying 
on through space in a straight line bend away to arch its line of 



travel around the sun? Why does a rubber ball flung against the 
ground recover its shape and by an outward thrust of its elastic 
particles leap backwards in the air? Why does one cubic inch of 
water transformed to steam, need seventeen hundred inches of 
elbow-room; and why will the particles fly asunder to push a piston 
or sound a whistle in the hurry of their enlargement and escape? 
Why such motions or tendencies to motion? 

The answer usually given is this. This or that force is the 
cause. The force of gravitation sways the earth inwards towards 
the solar ball. The force of elasticity allows the particles of rub- 
ber to push violently outwards. The force of heat sets the water 
particles in rapid motion (relative to the mean places which they 
occupy in the mass) so that the effect is that of a highly elastic 
body. 

In all cases it is assumed that force is a something which really 
exists; and that the existence of the force is necessary to explain 
and does in fact explain the phenomena. 

Now that uneasy skepticism which will not admit propositions 
as truths without evidence asks, if you please, a little disturbing 
question — "What fact testifies in favor of force as an existence?" 

We see the facts of the placings of bodies, particles, or atoms. 
We see the facts of the motions or tendencies to motion towards or 
away from each other. And that is all that experience makes of it. 
In its most general expression, experience says " it moves. " To 
say additionally " the force caused the motion " is only a repetition 
in other language of the bare statement "it moves." For if any 
thing more is in the second proposition than that the facts were so, 
what can the anything more really be? What is the force and 
.where? Take gravitation. Is the force in the moving body, in the 
other bodies or in both; is it in space between bodies? Does it ex- 
tend in a line, as for example, now at this moment, from the solar 
centre to the place unknown, where some unseen unknown comet 
flies; destined to appear to astonished millions on the earth in some 
tens or hundreds of thousands of years from now? Does it pervade 
space without filling it? an ocean of influence through which any 
cometic haze may make its way at the rate of some miles a second 
without breach of continuity either of force or comet, an example 
of joint tenancy (as lawyers would say) of space. And how is its 
pull conceivable? Grant its existence and can the force of gravi- 
tation pull matter, or some other force push it, any better than 
matter can pull or push other matter across an interspace? Do 
we not want a cause for the cause, a why for the why, a stone 
under the tortoise which carries the elephant which carries the 
world? Is our force, in other words, any more than so much more 
matter wearing a disguise and imposing himself on credulous peo- 
ple as being an aristocrat of mysterious origin and superior nature 
to the commonplace individual which fills space and moves in it, 
known to us all and seen every day, a plain, vulgar matter of fact 
sort of a being? 

It is perhaps here said by somebody that there are many 
things which we do not understand, which, nevertheless, not only 
may but must be believed and accepted. Most true. But this 
appeal to ignorance should have come in at an earlier stage of the 
inquiry. A fact must be believed in whether we can place it log- 
ically or not, whether we can know what its relations to other 
things are, whether we can understand its whys and wherefores or 
not. Force is brought in because we cannot understand why mat- 
ter acts on matter through an interspace; why not stop just there, 
why not believe in the fact of action across space. Why go into 
architectural construction on a basis of a hypothetical force which 
needs the faith denied to the certain fact? 

Force, then, does not exist in fact. Its only existence is ideal, 
symbolic. The word has a real meaning. One of the highest 
importance and value. Force exists as a thought not as a thing. 

Let us explain. Instead of stating all the conditions of any 
actual fact in concrete terms, we say that it was due to a certain 



THE OPEN COURT 



1505 



force or forces. Take the case of a stone falling to the earth from 
rest. Instead of particulars about the amount of matter in the 
stone and the earth, the distance of each from thecpmmon center 
of gravity, the times and rates of motion towards that center under 
the circumstances, instead of that sort of statement we use the 
general expression ' ' force of gravitation " to describe the happen- 
ing. By this we really imply not only that the particular fact de- 
pended upon natural laws and relationship, that it was a part of 
the order of nature; but that it was one case of a class. That it 
was onetjf a possible infinity of facts all subjected to natural law 
and conditioned by e.xistence and events. We in effect say that 
the mathematical expression of the values of space, time, matter, 
and motion, involved in the particular case, in its most general 
form is good for the infinity of space, time, matter, and motion. 
So far, that is, as we are entitled to make any assertions concern- 
ing, the infinite. 

Force is thus the name of the generalized cause of any event, 
just as motion is the name of any event. A little analysis will dis- 
close why it has been supposed to be the name of some thing, ex- 
istent. In all cases of motion there must be a condition of motion. 
But no one concrete condition is such in any other case of motion 
than its own. Motion in the abstract seems to require a condition, 
a unity of cause, in the abstract. Give a general name and, though 
only ideal, it seems to denote an existence really correspondent in 
fact. It is forgotten that there is no such entity as motion in the 
abstract. Mojion must always be the motion of some thing, in 
some definite direction, of a definite rate, of a definite kind. The 
question is not then about motion at large, but motions. The in- 
quiry as to the cause of motion is in reality a search for the pecul- 
iarity in respect of which all conditions of motions resemble each 
other. 

The mistake made is as if an algebraist having shown that 
(a-|-b) (a — b) ^ a^ — b^, should go on after this fashion. "Now 
this is true of any two numbers whatever. But as 6 and 4 cannot 
represent any numbers but 6 and 4 (and so of any pair of numbers), 
there must be some real entities immanent in numbers, but not 
being numbers, of which it is true that the product of their sum 
and difference is equal to the difference of their squares." Or as 
if one were to say: "This, that, and the other bodies all agree in 
this one quality or condition, to wit: the filling of space; but, as no 
one body occupies the very space occupied by another body, there- 
fore there must be an abstract existence or reality. Body; which 
entity is that by virtue of which each individual concrete body 
fills its own mdividual space." 

Besides the confusion of thought created by a general name 
there is another potent factor. Force is especially translatable 
into an outsidt: existence, because man projects outside of himself 
his own feelings and pictures external nature as to some extent re- 
sembling himself In this way the feeling of effort, antecedent to 
observed motion derived from the agency of man and animals gave 
rise to the notion of a power possessed by conscious natural agents, 
antecedent to motion, when animal conscious effort was out of the 
question. And when the ideas of conscious natural agents exert- 
ing power faded away, the names given to them kept alive the be- 
lief in a resident something distinct from nature which determined 
all material activities. 

Force is no more a cause in the mental than in the material 
world. Whether we deal with sensation and perception as the 
later terms of a series which begins with material existences and 
activities and proceeds from the objective and outward to the sub- 
jective and inward; or travel from the formed purpose to the mus- 
cular antecedents to material motion, from mind to matter; ordeal 
with the correlations of mental facts — in any and all cases we can- 
not put our finger on force as a thing, a cause. We are only ascer- 
taining similarities of the conditions of phenomena and giving 
names to those similarities. 



Metaphysicians who spell all the high abstractions with capital 
letters and treat them more or less as real beings, will not have it 
said that we are conscious of matter exerting a force upon mind. 
But the turn of expression is fully as justifiable as the converse 
assertion that mind is conscious of force exerted upon matter. 
And so of volition, such metaphysicians hold it to be unforced. To 
save free-will the "I, the self, or soul, willed without cause." It 
is forgotten that the "I" is itself an effect; itself a phenomenon 
acting and being manifested according to certain corKlitions, laws, 
formulas, descriptive of the modes of activity. If the logic which 
makes of Force or Cause a reality is good for anything, there 
must be an abstract soul-force separate and outstanding from the 
concrete individuality; which high abstraction is the true force 
necessitating all mental states and absolutely dominating the much- 
to-be-saved Free-Will, which soul-force is itself forced or caused. 



FORCE AND CAUSATION. 

EDITORI.^L COMMENT UPON MR. JOHN B. WOOd's ESSAY. 

Mr. John B. Wood's essay on Force, treats a subject which is 
intimately connected with the problem of causation as it has been 
explained in the editorials of The Open Court, Nos 55, 58, 59, and 
60. The whole trend of Mr. Wood's argumentation is the same 
as that presented by The Open Court. The term " Cause " must 
be restricted to "motions which produce changes." Causes are 
always single facts, real events, that happen in a certain place and 
at a certain time. From the term "cause" the " reasons why " 
causes take effect, why certain motions produce certain changes 
must be carefully e.xcluded. The reasons, or grounds, or rtiisons 
d'etre, are not single facts or events but abstract conceptions. 
Many phenomena of the same kind are generalized and formulated 
as a natural law. All natural laws are abstractions. Gravitation 
is a natural law in which all cases of gravity are formulated. 
Gravity (the force which is treated in gravitation) is an abstract 
also; it does not exist as a thing of itself behind the phenomena 
of gravitation. It has been abstracted by a mental process from 
all phenomena of gravitation, and the idea of gravity serves the 
very useful purpose of facilitating our comprehension * 

It is an enormous economy of thought that we are enabled to 
think all gravitating phenomena by one concept; and to view all 
phenomena of one kind from one point is the nature of the pro- 
cess of comprehension. 

There are philosophers who imagine that the ruuoiis d'ltre 
(which they call and confound with causes) are realities, and these 
realities are supposed to be the real agents behind phenomena. 
Such philosophers speak of "the cause of gravity," meaning 
thereby the raison d'etre, the more general law which will comprise 
the generalization " gravity " as one special kind and thus will ex- 
plain it. This raison d'etre of gravity, just as much as gravitation 
and gravity, is an abstract and does not exist of itself except in our 
mind where it is employed in economizing thought. 

All forces have been abstracted from natural phenomena for 
the purpose of explaining natural phenomena, for the purpose of 
classing all phenomena of one kind together and determining their 
relations, their similarities to, and differences from other groups of 
phenomena. Now such philosophers as are not able to discriminate 
between causes and raisons d'itrc imagine that the forces are the 
real things to be explained. If we could but explain these forces, 
they imagine we would-be in possession of the key to all problems 
of nature. Forces, however, being mere abstracts must appear to 
them like phantoms that elude all our means of grasping them and 
escape us like the shadows of ghosts. Hence the dogma of the 
ultimate Unknowability of natural phenomena which is believed 
in so confidently by all who do not clearly see that forces are 



*The phenomena of natui 
rored in our brain as images. 



aflEecting < 



1506 



THE OPEN COURT 



mere abstracts, that natural laws are mere formulas comprising 
many case's of the same kind and abstracted from these single 
causes — and that neither forces nor natural laws are causes. 

Mr. Wood's term "inertia" corresponds in one phase to 
" cause," and his expression " environment "to " circumstances " 
in the editorial of The Open Court, No. 55. Both causes as well 
as circumstances have to be taken into consideration in compre- 
hending the process of causation. 

We agree with Mr. Wood that a " soul-force," no more than 
any other force, can be conceived as a reality of itself. But we do 
not believe that this idea has been invented merely to save the 
theory of free-will. Free-will is often wrongly conceived as an 
unaccountable fact in the world of natural phenomena as by its 
very nature it is supposed no/ to be subject to law. The ' neces- 
sary determination of a free will ' is confounded with ' the forced 
result of a will that acts under compulsion.' Both (though so dif- 
ferent), being identified, free will is either rejected as a nonsense 
and impossibility, or it is claimed to be an exception in the general 
order of nature. Free will and the responsibility of man for his 
actions in case he is not under any compulsion do not at all stand 
in contradiction to the conception of Determinism which holds 
that all natural phenomena (and man's volition not excepted) are 
subject to and can be explained by law. p. c. 



■WASTED LOVE. 

BY LOUIS BeLROSE, JR. 

How many hearts, since first with upturned eyes 
Our fathers sought the silent waste and kneeled, 
Have burnt their offering in flames revealed 

To no man's sight, beneath unconscious skies ! 

Lost in the void, innumerable, they rise 
And err amid the dark of space, congealed 
With fumes from altar, stake, and battle-field 

That reeked with blood of human sacrifice. 

O heart, our earth is cold for waste of love. 

Without thy warmth there is no fire can heat 
The poor man's hearth — what need the gods above ?- 

Without thy warmth no raging blast is meet 
To fine our gold and cure the curse thereof; 
Without thy flame no torch for wandering feet. 



DAISIES. 

BY ELISSA M. MOORE. 
" Wee, modest, crimson-tipped flower 
Thou's met me in an evil Xxour."— Burns. 

Dear little flower with golden heart 
The poet still must take your part; 
For you the " Inspired Ploughman " sang, 
And through the world your praises rang. 

' Wee, modest, crimson-tipped flower, " 
It surely was no evil hour 
In which his plough-share did you wrong 
And brought a burst of wondrous song. 

A peasant-poet — mother earth 
Held you both fast from hour of birth — 
He could not see you die unmoved. 
You formed a part of all he loved. 

The fair, wee, flower, the fair, wee wife; 
The simple loves of simple life 
That live through time, and will not pass 
While red-tipped daisies deck the grass. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

THREE STATEMENTS ! 

ToJ/td Editor of The Open Court: — 

In Jan. 31st issue, pages 1442-44 inclusive is an article that 
ought to be read by every intelligent husband and wife — man and 
woman — on the face of this globe. It so accurately and vividly 
describes results that are awful to contemplate, that an intelligent 
contemplation, and synthetical and analytical comparison of ele- 
ments should move multitudes to an honest and earnest search for 
the real causes which create such inevitable — with the view to a 
radical, absolute, certain remedy. 

I here aver that there are but three (3) potential causes, aside 
from the innate, God-made, organizations of man — viz.: 

1. A wicked financial system. 

2. An inequitable taxation system. 

5. Unwise, unpatriotic, vicious tariff system. 

I also allege, that if the intelligence, integrity, and inherent 
patriotism of man for the truth, justice, and equity, should solve 
these three (3) propositions in the true interest of man in majori- 
ties, within the domain of our United States government, by con- 
stitutional methods; you, and all others would be relieved from 
talking, writing, and publishing any future polemic in the field of 
possible ethics, save as to the actual transgression by the first pair; 
the true and only purpose of Christ's advent; and the grand possi- 
bilities in reach for man, here — in Paradise — in all eternity. 

I am prepared to prove beyond the possibility of successful 
argument, controversy, and doubt, that my hereinbefore state- 
ments are absolutely correct, as also there are but three (3) condi- 
tions standing in the way of a very near realization of the blessed 
possibilities coiled up in said propositions for man's good — 7vc. : 

I. Ignorance. — 2. Prejudice. — 3. Interests. 

"The way is so plain ." 

Independence, Ia. L. H. Weller. 



■WHEELBARROW AND LAND VALUES. 

To the Editor of The Open Court: — 

* * * Wheelbarrow seems to be unable to distinguish be- 
tween land and land-values, but there is no difficulty in it if he 
will do a little solid thinking. Let him first find out what value 
is, and then not confound it with anything else. May be we can 
help him a little. Suppose we say that value is what people will 
give for a thing. Now land may be very useful and yet worth 
nothing. No matter how useful it may be no one will give any- 
thing for it if they can get just as good without buying it. If 
watches like Wheelbarrow's were free, then watches of that grade 
■would be worth nothing, although they might be very useful time- 
keepers. When particular land, for any reason, is wanted by 
more than one person, then a value attaches, and that value is just 
what any one of them will give for its exclusive use. It is the 
competition which makes the value at all, and the greater the com- 
petition the greater the value, and it is this value which is pro- 
posed to be taken under the single tax. Recognizing the equal 
right of every man, not only to land at all, but to any particular 
land, then if two or more want the same land the only way to sat- 
isify the rights of all of them and determine which shall have it, 
is to turn it over to the one who will pay the most into a common 
fund for them all, and in which they all share alike. If it was pro- 
posed to tax land, as such, then all land would be taxed; but it is 
only valuable land which we seek to tax, and just in proportion 
to it« value. Now can Wheelbarrow understand how that land is 
something " that attaches to land by the growth of the commun- 
ity?" Growth of the community, increase in population, and in- 
crease in competition are synonomous terms, and are only difi'er- 
ent ways of stating the cause of land values, * * * 

Ravenswood, III, W. H. Van Ornum. 



THE OPEN COURT 



1507 



THE SINGLE-TAX. 
To llie Editor of Tbe Open Court: — 

It is questionable whether any class of reformers is subjected 
to so much ill-digested criticism as the advanced political econo- 
mist. * * * Magazine and newspaper readers are being daily en- 
• tertained by critics who each in his own way " exposes the falla- 
cies " of Henry George. Not the least amusing phase of the on- 
slaught is that these fault-finders seem perfectly oblivious of the 
fact that in their zeal to forever squelch Henry George, they run 
counter to established laws, established because in conformity to 
and based upon, natural laws. * * * 

In The Open Court of January 17th is an article by " Wheel- 
barrow," who makes bold to say at the outset that he has not only 
read but devoured ' ' Progress and Poverty. " Granted that ' ' Wheel- 
barrow " has inherited the average intellect and really believes 
that he understands the subject, there is no escaping the inference 
that the proclaiming of the truth is a hopeless task indeed. He 
has certainly set up and has probably demolished his man of 
straw, but he has not seen the central truth of the book he dis- 
cusses. For instance he makes the statement that while the justice 
and practicability of Mr. George's land-tax plan is evident, he 
parts company from him almost from the beginning because of 
fundamental errors. That is to say: Mr. George's doctrine is fun- 
damentally wrong, but the land-tax scheme is all right. How any 
plan can be just and still be fundamentally wrong, must be left 
to others to determine at their leisure. The main purpose of this 
letter shall be to state succinctly what "Progress and Poverty " 
does teach. 

The basic truth upon which the philosophy of Henry George 
rests is that the natural resources — the raw material storehouse — 
belong to the whole people, not to a few. If this truth can be 
confuted, then, not only the "single-tax" plan must fall unsup- 
ported, but the Declaration of Independence must take its place 
among meaningless homilies. It were mockery to declare to men 
the " right to life " unless it include the right to the means of life. 
And there cannot be an equal right to the means of life, where 
land, the source of all wealth, is made the absolute property of 
individuals. The "single-tax" technicality is but a part of the 
means by which this right can be asserted. The "single-tax," 
ideally will, it is believed, secure that right as completely as human 
enactment can. * * * The value of natural opportunities being 
denoted by the law of rent, the justice of taking this fund for pub- 
lic purposes cannot be questioned. Society by such an act takes 
but its own. It does more (so far as conforming to natural law 
and enforcing justice is concerned), for while taking its own and 
that alone, it will leave to every individual the full and well earned 
result of his toil, whether by brain or hand. There is still another 
result from this simple act of justice, besides a more equitable dis- 
tribution. It is that the aggregate of prodticiion would be imiiiens- 
urably increased. In fact it would only be limited by human de- 
sire or the exhaustibility of nature, each of which it is held, is in- 
finite. The ability of man aided by machinery to extract from 
nature as much or more than he can desire, is not in dispute. It is 
only because our taxing laws have artificially checked production, 
the same iniquitous condition diverting the bulk of the product 
into the coffers of the few instead of the many, that involuntary 
poverty exists in our advanced civilization. 

The " single-tax " men believe that the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence if taken from the archives of forgotton lore, honestly in- 
terpreted and lived up to by the people of these United States or 
any other country, is an all-sufficient remedy for current industrial 
and social ills. There is a power in that old document, which if 
let loose would surprise and satisfy the most radical of those who 
long for better days. 

James Malcolm. 



. HENRY GEORGE'S MISSION. 
To the Editor of The Open Court: — 

Wheelbarrow's position concerning land-taxation, I believe 
to be sober and just. He agrees with Henry George on the main 
point, viz., the justice and practicability of land-taxation. The 
a priori argument that land is God's gift, given to all men alike, is 
futile. I do not see why on this basis the Americans should not 
send rent, or taxes, or whatever you call it, to the Greenlanders 
because the American soil is richfer than that of Greenland. The 
only argument in favor of land-taxation can be found in experience 
" by a fair trial." 

It is perhaps natural that a man like Henry George, con- 
vinced of the importance of land-taxation, exaggerates the effects 
of his proposed remedy. He is an enthusiast, and he makes a relig- 
ion of his cause, but his cause is a good one; and when the exag- 
gerations are so recognized as to be no longer misleading, some 
good will come from it. 

One of the main causes of poverty, it seems to me, is the dif- 
ficulty for men of a special talent to find their proper places. This 
difficulty will increase the more our industry becomes specialized 
and it would remain at least the same under the conditions pro- 
posed by Henry George. Would the inventors, the authors, the 
artists, the musicians be really helped if a last resource were open 
to them all in farming, of which they most likely understand but 
little? I know of an author of some prominence who emigrated 
from the British Islands to our country. Twice a farm was pro- 
cured for him with the pecuniary assistance of friends, and he 
failed twice most decidedly. 

The weakest part of Henry George's land scheme, it seems, is 
that he so little appreciates the rights of the present land-owners. 
Think of a farmer-tenant who buys his farm, paying for it with the 
sweat of his brow, would he not be entitled to a compensation if 
the George scheme were realized? There have been changes in 
the social constitution of mankind by which whole classes of soci- 
ety, or single individuals had to suffer, and whenever it was pos- 
sible the state arranged to pay them off or to sell them out. Why 
should it not be done in this case. There is nothing which so 
much prevents the acceptance of Henry George's view as does his 
unfair method of indiscriminately classing land owners among 
pirates, robbers, and parasites. In this he is out-Georged by his 
followers, especially by the Rev. Doctor McGlynn. Historical 
rights need not be maintained, they can be changed by legislation, 
but they have to be considered, and every abolition of antiquated 
rights is to be done with fairness. 

Moreover Wheelbarrow is right that sudden changes are dan- 
gerous. If our custom-houses were torn down to-day, if free trade 
were suddenly established and a single tax levied on land, this 
would bring about a general bankruptcy and an unprecedented 
panic. Think only of the failures of those saving banks which 
possess large stocks in mortgages on land! .\nd that would be a 
mere trifle in a universal deluge. The sharks would have an ex- 
cellent time! 

I had once the pleasure of meeting Mr. George personally and 
pointed out to him these difficulties to his land scheine. He kindly 
admitted all — perhaps from mere politeness — "It is all true," he 
said; "but," he added, "any one who takes the lead in a move- 
ment must push it to its extreme and demand not the half but the 
whole; he must leave compromises to others." 

Very well! The leader of a party, the general of an army must 
act in this way. Mr. George is not a scientist, not an unbiassed 
economist, although he has proved that he has the capacity of be- 
ing one— he is the creator and head of a party, as such he must be 
judged and as such he has a great mission. 

Observer. 



i5o8 



THE OPEN COURT. 



THE LOST MANUSCRIPT.* 

BY GUSTAV FREYTAG. 

CHAPTER JfXX/— Continued. 

"Mr. Hummel," began Hahn, somewhat indis- 
tinctly, for it was difficult for him to speak in his emo- 
tion, "I shall never forget this hour to the end of my 
life." He wished to go up to him and give him his 
hand, but the tears streamed from his eyes and he was 
obliged to cover his face with his pocket-handker- 
chief. 

"Be seated," said Hummel, pushing him down on 
the sofa; "steadiness and stoicism are always the main 
thing; they are better than Chinese toys. I shall say 
nothing further to-day, and you must say nothing to 
me of this occurrence. To morrow everything will be 
made smooth before the notary and the registrar, and 
interest must be punctually paid, quarterly; for the 
rest, our relation to each other remains the same. For, 
you see, we are not merely men, we are also business 
people. As a man, I well know what are your good 
points, even when you complain of me. But our 
houses and our business do not agree. We have been 
opponents twenty years, felt against straw, with our 
hobbies and our trellis-work fences. That may remain 
so; what is not harmonious need not harmonize. 
When you call nie bristles and felt, I will be coarse to 
you, and I will consider you as a straw blockhead as 
often as I am angry with you. But with all that, we 
may have, as now, private business together; and if 
ever, which I hope will never happen, robbers should 
plunder me, you will do for me as much as you can. 
This I know and have always known, and therefore I 
am come to you to-day." 

Hahn gave him a look of warm gratitude, and 
again raised his pocket-handkerchief. 

Hummel laid his hand heavily upon his head, as 
with a little child and said, gently, "You are a vision- 
ary, Hahn. The doctor is ready now; sign, and do not 
either of you take this misfortune too much to heart. 
There," he continued, strewing sand over the paper 
carefully, "to-morrow, about nine o'clock, I will send 
my solicitor to your office. Stay where you are; the 
staircase is badly lighted, but I shall find my way. 
Good night." 

He entered the street, and looked contemptuously 
at the hostile walls. "No mortgage?" he muttered. 
"H. Hummel, first and last, twenty thousand." At 
home he vouchsafed some comforting words to his 
ladies. "I have heard that the people there will be 
able to pull through, so I forbid further lamenting. If 
ever, in conformity with miserable fashion, you should 
need a straw hat, you may take your money rather to 
the Hahnsthan to others; I give my permission." 

• Translacion copyriehled. 



Some days after Fritz Hahn entered the small office 
of Mr. Hummel. The latter motioned to his book- 
keeper to withdraw, and began, coolly, from his arm 
chair, "What do you bring me. Doctor?" 

"My father feels it a duty to meet the great confi 
dence that you have shown him, by giving you an 
insight into the state of his business,- and begs you to 
assist him in his arrangements. He is of opinion, that 
until this disastrous affair has passed over, he should 
do nothing important without your assent." 

Hummel laughed. "What! I am to give advice, 
and that too, in the management of your business? 
You would put me in a position that is preposterous, 
and one against which I protest." 

The Doctor silently placed before him a statement 
of assets and liabilities. 

"You are a sharp customer," cried Hummel, "but 
for an old fox this trap is not cunningly enough laid." 
With that he looked at the credit and debit, and 
took a pencil in his hand. "Here I find among the 
assets five hundred thalers for books that are to be 
sold. I did not know that your father had this hobby 
also." 

"They are my books, Mr. Hummel. I have of late 
years spent more money upon these than was absolutely 
necessary for my work. I am determined to sell what 
I can do without; a book-dealer has already offered to 
pay this sum in two instalments." 

'•The sheriff is never allowed to levy on instruments 
of trade," said Hummel, making a stroke through that 
entry in the ledger. "I believe, indeed, that they are 
unreadable stuff, but the world has many dark corners; 
and as you have a fancy to be an anomalous dick among 
your fellows, you shall remain in j'our hole." He re- 
garded the Doctor with an ironical twinkle in his eye. 
"Have you nothing further to say? I do not mean 
with reference to your father's business, I have nothing 
further to do with that, but upon another subject, 
which you yourself seem to carry on; from your move- 
ments of late you evidently wish to associate yourself 
with my daughter Laura?" 

The Doctor colored. "I should have chosen another 
day for the declaration which you now demand of me. 
But it is my anxious wish to come to an understanding 
with you concerning it. I Rave long entertained a 
secret hope that time would lessen }'our aversion to 
me." 

"Time?" interrupted Hummel; "that's absurd." 

"Now by the noble assistance which you have ex- 
tended to my father, I am placed in a position towards 
you which is so painful to me that I must beg of you 
not to refuse me your sjnnpathy. With strenuous ex- 
ertion and fortunate circumstances it would now be 
years before I could acquire a position to maintain a 
wife." 



THJB OPEN COURT 



1509 



"Starving trade," interposed Mr. Hummel, in a 
grumbling tone. 

"I love your daughter and I cannot sacrifice this 
feeling. But I have lost the prospect of offering her 
a future which could in some measure answer to what 
she is entitled to expect; and the helping hand which 
you have extended to my father makes me so depend- 
ent on you that I must avoid what would excite your 
displeasure. Therefore I see a desolate future before 
me." 

"Exactly as I prophesied," replied Mr. Hummel, 
"wretched and weak." 

The Doctor drew back, but at the same time he 
laid his hand on his neighbor's arm. "This manner of 
language will serve you no longer, Mr. Hummel," said 
he smiling. 

"Noble, but abject," repeated Hummel with satis- 
faction. "You should be ashamed, sir; do you pretend 
to be a lover? You wish to know how to please my 
daughter Laura, such an evasive, forlorn specimen as 
you? Will you regulate your feelings according to 
my mortgage? If you are in love, I expect that 
you should conduct yourself like a rampant lion, 
jealous and fierce. Bah, sir! you are a beautiful 
Adonis to me, or whatever else that fellow Nicode- 
mus was called." 

"Mr. Hummel, I ask for your daughter's hand," 
cried the Doctor. 

"I refuse it you," cried Hummel. "You mistake my 
words. I do not think of throwing my daughter into 
this bargain also. But you must not misunderstand 
my refusal to give you my daughter; your duty is to 
pursue her more fiercely than ever. You must attack 
me, and force yourself into my house; in return for 
which I reserve to myself the right to show you the 
way out. But I have always said it, you are wanting 
in courage." 

"Mr. Hummel," replied the Doctor, with dignity, 
"allow me to remark that you should no longer be on 
the offensive with me." 

"Why not?" asked Hummel. 

The Doctor pointed to the papers. 

"What has happened in this matter makes it diffi- 
cult for me to use strong language to you. It can be 
no pleasure to you to attack one who cannot defend 
himself." 

"These pretentions are really ridiculous," replied 
Hummel. "Because I have given you my money must 
I cease to treat you as you deserve? Because you, 
perhaps, are not disinclined to marry my daughter, am 
I to stroke you with a velvet brush? Did one ever 
hear such nonsense?" 

"You mistake," continued the Doctor, civilly, "if 
you think that I am not in a position to answer what 
you sa}'. I therefore do myself the honor of remark- 



ing to you that your mockery is so wounding that even 
the kindness you have shown loses its value." 

"Have done with your kindness — it was only kind- 
ness from revenge." 

"Then I will as honestly tell you," continued the 
Doctor, "that it was a very bitter hour to me when you 
entered our house. I knew how oppressive the obli- 
gation which you then conferred upon us would be for 
the rest of my life. But I looked at my poor father, 
and the thought of his misery closed my mouth. For 
m}' own part, I would rather have begged my bread 
than taken your money." 

"Go on," cried Hummel. 

"What you have done for mj' father does not give 
you a right to ill-treat me. This conversation strength- 
ens me in the conviction that I have had from the 
outset, that we must exert ourselves to the utmost 
to repay you the money we have received, as soon as 
possible. You have crossed out the item in which 
I credited my books, but I shall sell them." 

"Nonsense!" exclaimed Hummel. 

"I shall do it, however insignificant the sum may 
be in comparison with our debt, because the tyranny 
which you wish to exercise over me threatens to be- 
come insupportable. I at least will not be indebted to 
you in this way." 

"Yet you wish it in another waj' that suits you 
better." 

"Yes," replied the Doctor. "As you have so con- 
temptuously rejected the greatest sacrifice I could 
make, I shall continue to woo your daughter, even 
against your will. I shall endeavor to speak to her 
whenever I can, and to make myself as acceptable to 
her as is possible in my position. You yourself have 
shown me this way. You will therefore be satisfied if 
I enter upon it, and if you are not, I shall pay no re- 
gard to your displeasure." 

"At last," cried Hummel, "it all comes to light. I 
see now that you have some fire in you; therefore we 
will talk quietly over this business. You are not the 
husband whom I could have wished for my daughter. 
I have kept you away from my house, but it has been 
of no use, for a cursed sentiment has arisen between 
you; I therefore intend now to carry on the affair dif- 
ferently. I shall not object to you coming to my house 
sometimes. I depend upon your doing it with discre- 
tion. I will ignore your presence, and my daughter 
shall have an opportunity of seeing how you compare 
with the four walls. We will both await the result." 

"I do not agree to this proposal," replied the Doc- 
tor. "I do not expect that you should give me your 
daughter's hand now, and I only accept the entrance 
into your family on condition that you j'ourself will 
treat me as becomes a guest in your house, and that 
you will perform the duties of a friendly host, I can- 



XHE OPEN COURT. 



not suffer that you should speak to me in the way you 
have done in our conversation to-day. Any insult, 
either by words or by neglect, I will not bear from you. 
I am not only desirous to please your daughter, but 
also to be agreeable to yourself. For that I demand 
opportunity. If you do not agree to this condition, I 
prefer not to come at all." 

"Humboldt, do not undertake too much at once," 
replied Mr. Hummel, shaking his head, "for you see 
I esteem you, but I really do not like you. Therefore 
I will consider how far I can make myself pleasant to 
you; I assure you it will be hard work. Meanwhile, 
take these papers with you. Your father has bought 
the lesson, that he should himself look after of his own 
money affairs. For the rest, matters are not in a bad 
state, and he will be able to help himself out of it; you 
do not need either me or another. Good morning. 
Doctor." 

The doctor took the papers under his arm. 

"I beg you to shake hands, Mr. Hummel." 

"Not so hastily," replied Hummel. 

"I am sorry for it," said the Doctor, smiling, "but 
I cannot be denied to-day." 

"Only from innate politeness," rejoined Hummel, 
"not from good will." 

He held out his large hand to him. 

"Keep your books," he cried out, to the departing 
visitor. "I can see through that scheme, you will buy 
them again, and then I shall have to pay for them 
anyhow." 

CHAPTER XXXII. 

A CHAPTER KROiM TACITUS. 

Tobias Bachhuber! when your sponsors concluded 
that you should be called Tobias they did bad service 
to you and your descendants. For he who bears that 
name is by fate subjected to experiences that do 
not fall to the lot of more favorably named men. Who 
ever passed so miserable a honey-moon as Tobias 
the younger, the poor son of the blind man? For 
was he not obliged to fast, and to struggle with a 
murderous spirit just at a time when a spiritual strug- 
gle would be highly disagreeable to any mortal? Even 
you, blessed Bachhuber, have bitterly experienced the 
misfortune of your name. Whether the fatal war 
with Sweden may have arisen because the Swedes han- 
kered after your manuscript, will not be discussed 
here; it is to be hoped that new historical investiga- 
tions may yet bring this secret motive of action to light. 
But it cannot be denied that you yourself suffered la- 
mentably in the war, and the curse of your name still 
clings to the treasure which you concealed. All who 
have anything to do with it have their eyes blinded, 
and an evil spirit destroys their hopes. 



The Professor also was tormented with this blind- 
ness, and troubled by the demon. He had found 
nothing. Many would have been weary and given it 
up, but his eagerness only increased, for he did not, 
by any means, search heedlessly; he knew very well 
that the discovery depended on a long chain of acci- 
dents which were beyond all calculation. But he 
wished to do all in his power; his task was to give 
assurance to the learned of the world that the archives, 
collections, and inventories of the Sovereign had been 
thoroughly examined. This certainty at least he could 
obtain better than any one else, and he would thus do 
his duty both to the Sovereign and to Learning. But 
his impatience became more eager, and the cheerful 
excitement he felt at first increased to uncomfortable 
agitation; constant disappointment disturbed his daily 
frame of mind. He often sat lost in thought, nay, he 
was always speaking of the treasure, and Use could 
not please him; her objections and even her consola- 
tion wounded him, for he was very much vexed that 
she did not partake of his zeal. He knew accurately 
what would be the appearance of the manuscript — a 
large, thick quarto, very old characters, perhaps of the 
sixth century, much faded, and many leaves half de- 
stroyed, for he could not conceal from himself that the 
mischievous spirit of the times, water and the rats, 
might have made havoc with it. 

One day the Professor entered the Princess's study 
with heightened color. 

"At last I can bring you a good report. In a small 
bundle of deeds in the Marshal's office, which had 
hitherto unaccountably escaped me, I have found a 
lost entry on a single sheet. The chests which the 
official at Bielstein sent in the beginning of the last 
century to the vanished castle are briefly designated 
as numbers one and two, with a remark that they con- 
tained besides old cross-bows, arrows, &c., manuscripts 
of the monastery of Rossau. Thus, there were two 
chests with manuscripts of the monastery in them." 

The Princess looked with curiosity at the sheet 
which he laid before her. 

"It was high time that this account should come 
to light," continued the Professor, gail}'; "for I con- 
fess to your Highness that the phantom pursued me 
day and night. This is a valuable confirmation that I 
am on the right path." 

"Yes," cried the Princess, "I am convinced we 
shall find the treasure. If I could but help you a little. 
If it could be obtained by magic, I would gladly put 
on my magic girdle and call upon Lady Hecate. Un- 
fortunately this mode of calling spirits to one's aid is 
out of date, and it is difficult to learn the secret art by 
which learned gentlemen unearth their treasures." 

{To bt continued.) 



THE OPEN COURT. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

EssAi SuR La Methode En Metaphysique. P. Diihic, Docteur 

es-lettres, Professor de Philosophie, au Lycee Danson de 

Sailly, I Vol. Paris; 1887. Felix Alcan. 

M. Dubuc, in his treatise, emphasizes the necessity incumbent 
upon metaphysicians to direct their efforts to the preliminary 
question of method. Modern philosophers have, indeed, attempted 
to organize metaphysics by the importation of scientific processes 
into their investigations of first principles and first causes. The 
Cartesian School had endeavored to construct the science of be- 
ing by means of the mathematical method; the school of Locke 
and Condillac affected to attain the same result by the experimen- 
tal method, and the Scottish School, by the psychological method. 
Finally Kant, in his " Critique of Pure Reason ", opened a new 
pathway for philosophical studies. M. Dubuc is of opinion that 
this new method has not so much the power to build as the power 
to destroy. "It is the glory of those who devise new methods," 
he says, " that their theories — to the triumph of truth — are after- 
wards overturned through the power oE new processes that their 
own ideas have introduced into science." 

Consequently, he believes it possible, to abandon, in the work 
of Kant, the method of the system, and proceeding from the premi- 
ses of the critique, to attain to a doctrine different from transcen- 
dental idealism and to effect a restoration of theistic and spiritual- 
istic dogmatism. 

The History of the Roman Republic. Abridged from the 
History by Prof. Mommsen. By C. Brynns and F. y. R. 
Hendy. New York; 1889. Charles Scribner's Sons. Chi- 
cago: A. C. McClurg. . 

" Our abridgment of the history of Prof. Mommsen," are the 
words of the preface to this work, " must ot necessity give but a 
feeble and inadequate idea of the original; but something will have 
been accomplished if we have given some conception, however 
faint, of that original, and have induced fresh inquirers to read for 
themselves those pages so bright with wisdom and imagination. ' 
The text and spirit of Prof. Mommsen's researches have been stu- 
diously followed. No attempt has been made to compromise the 
differences that have arisen in the province of Roman historical 
criticism. In the treatment of all disputed points the authority of 
Mommsen. as conforming with the expressed purpose of the work, 
has been accepted and presented. The work of abridgment has 
been accomplished by Mr. Bryans and Mr. Hendy with commend- 
able tact and felicity. Far from ever having descended into dull- 
ness, which they profess has been their purpose as far as possible 
to avoid, and which if present must be attributed to their unskill- 
fulness, the authors have unquestionably heightened the character 
of their production by the infusion of personal sympathy and zeal 
for their task. The style is terse and graphic. So far as we have 
compared the abridgment with the original, the salient features of 
the great historian's work have been preserved. To each chapter 
is appended a list of authorities, and an epitome of the original 
sources of Roman history precedes the opening chapter. It has 
been thought wise not to insert maps. True, most of us have an 
atlas of Ancient Geography at hand, but those who have not will 
regret the omission. uKpK. 

Mr. Singleton W. Davis, of 916 Third Street, San Diego, Cal , 
has published a little work. Sketches Of The Scientific Dispensation 
of a Ne-u Religion, composed by the printer-author as he stood 
" before his congregation of sleeping type." Price 20 cents. 

The Kindergarten, for teachers and parents, is an illustrated 
monthly, containing typical lessons and stories adapted to home 
and school. Kindergarten methods for primary teachers, and also 
nursery occupations are the important and practical features. 
Price $2.00 per year. 



D. C. Heath & Company, of Boston, have just published 
Lamartine's Jeanne d'Arc. The work is edited with notes and vo- 
cabulary by Prof. Albert Barrere, of Woolwich, England. It is in- 
tended to form an easy introduction into French prose for students 
of schools and colleges. The divisions seem well adapted to class- 
room purposes; the style is simple and suitable to young pupils. 

Among the many interesting articles in this month's Magazine 
of American History is an entertaining sketch of German social and 
family life, by Gen. Alfred E. Lee. The picture Gen. Lee pre- 
sents us, is written with enthusiasm and undoubted admiration of 
the amenities of life in Germany. The series " Historic Homes 
and Landmarks " is continued by Mrs. Martha J. Lamb; the in- 
teresiing portraitures of early American life are drawn in attrac- 
tive and sober characters. 

We have received from Prof. G. T. W Patrick, of the State 
University of Iowa, a copy of his work upon Heraclitus of Ephesus. 
The essay, which consists of a translation of the Greek text of By- 
water, with an historical and critical introduction, was accepted in 
1888 as a thesis for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Johns 
Hopkins university. The fragments that the ingenuity and patience 
of scholars have collected and emended into an interprelable form, 
number one hundred and thirty. The scope of Heraclitean re- 
search, therefore, is limited. Moreover, this scanty collection of 
remnants has been made from the citations of other writers, from 
Plutarch and Philo, from Clement and Origen. The layman, thus, 
will hardly understand the critical and scholastic labor expended 
in this branch of philosophical inquiry. " But the interest of the 
philosopher ot Ephesus, " says Professor Patrick, "is historical;" 
the way to study philosophy we have discovered to be inves- 
tigation of its history; we are to seek in these and like fragments 
the sources of errors as well as the genesis of doctrines. Notwith- 
standing the academical character of its title, the style and spirit 
of the monograph is within the reach of even tyros in the history 
of philosophy. The Fragments of the Work of Heraclitus of Ephesus 
on A'ature. N. Murray, Baltimore. 



NOTES. 

The essays of Th. Ribot upon the " Psychology of Attention," 
have just been published in book form by Felix .\lcan, of Paris. 
We shall have occasion to note M Ribot's work more particularly 
in a later issue. 

The second edition, revised and enlarged, of Lucien Arreat's 
La Morale dans le Drame, I' Epopee ct le Roman, (Felix Alcan, Paris), 
has appeared. The work will be reviewed in a future number of 
The Open Court. 

We have received an attractive little pamphlet from E. 
Petavel-Olliff. of Lausanne, entitled. Coup D'Oeil sur I'Immortalite 
Facultative, treating of the historical and theological genesis of the 
idea of immortality. .\n appendix is added with a list of Bible 
references from which the biblical theory of immortality may be 
derived. 

.\ life-sized statue of Giordano Bruno is to be erected, in May 
next, upon the Campo de Fioro, at Rome. The consent of the 
municipality has been obtained, and history will now do justice to 
the proto-martyr of liberal thought on the very spot where three 
hundred and eighty-nine years ago he was burnt alive. A com- 
mittee for the United States has been appointed to assist in raising 
funds. Their names are, Robert Ingersoll, T. B. Wakeman, Dan 
iel G. Thompson, and Thomas Davidson Subscriptions from 
$1 00 upwards to be sent to the treasurer, T. B. Wakeman, 93 
Nassau St., N. Y, City. We hope that America will contribute 
generously to this noble project 



THE OPEN COURT 



WANTED! 

An energetic and educated person wanted in 
every town, city, and district, to canvass tor sub- 
scriptions to The Open Court; liberal compensa- 
tion. Address, with references, 

OPEN COURT PUBLISHING COMPANY, 

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THE DILEMMA OF A DOUBLE ALLEGIANCE. The 
Samoa Question from an Ethical Standpoint. Gen. 
M. M. Trumbull 1513 

PASSIONS AND MANIAS. Felix L. Oswald, M. D. . 1511 

ASPECTS, CHRISTIAN AND HUMAN. William R. 

Thayer. Ill 1515 

HEDONISM AND ASCETICISM. Editor 1517 

POETRY. 

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Sonnet. Louis Belrose, Jr 1518 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

What Was Matriarchy? Prof. E. D. Cope 1519 

FICTION. 

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Psychic Life of Micro-Organisms 

A Study in Experimental Psychology 
By ALFRED BINET. 



Translated from the French with the Sanction of 
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2. The Structural and Physiological Character of 
Proto-Organistns : the Motory and Sensory Organs. 

3. The Psychology of Nutrition : Holophytic, Sap- 
rophytic, and Animal Nutrition : Predatory Habits 
of Certain Animalcula. 

4. Colonies of Unicellular Organisms. 

5. Fecundation of Proto-Organisvis. 

6. Fecundation of Higher Aniinals and Plants. 

7. The Physiological Function of the Nucleus. 

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Review of Recent Work of THE OPEN COURT. 

PSYCHOLOGY AND BIOLOGY. 

Experimental Psychology in France. Alfred 

BiNET No. 74. 

Dream, Sleep, and Consciousness. Dr. George 

M. Gould Nos. 74 and 75. 

Body and Mind; or the Data of Moral Physiol- 
ogy. Felix L. Oswald, M. D. . . .Nos. 72, 75, 78. 
M. Binet's entertaining sketch of the state of Experimental 
sychology in France is the only direct and convenient source 
iErom which the reader can obtain a comprehensive idea of the con- 
tributions the author's country is making to this branch of mental 
science. The work of psychologists in France is distinguished by 
its almost exclusive bearing upon the pathological phases of psy- 
.chological phenomena. The greatest successes of MM. Ribot, 
Richet, Charcot, and others, have been in treating the diseases of 
the mind. 
PHILOSOPHY. 

Sensation and Memory. Editor No. 74. 

Cognition, Knowledge, and Truth. Editor No. 76. 

Monism as the Formal Principle of Cognition. .No. 78. 
In the two first discussions, the conditions and processes by which 
•we start from the bare excitations of the sensory world and attain 
to knowledge, are unfolded. Sensation is the primal condition of 
all knowledge; the products of sensation are preserved and trans- 
mitted as psychological forms; the psychological law of this reten- 
tive power is memory, from which source are evolved the different 
branches and varied forms of human thought. 

The last essay of this series shows that the constitution of the 
human mind naturally predisposes man for Monism. The unitary 
conception which the intellect seeks to formulate respecting all 
things brought within its range, is the inward proof offered to us 
of the correctness of the monistic philosophy. Monism is thus a 
subjective principle, informing us how to unify knowledge and 
make it potent. 

Axioms The Basis of Mathematics. Dr. Edward 

Brooks No. 76. 

The Old and THE New Mathematics. Editor. No. 77. 
A Flaw in the Foundation of Geometry. 

Hermann Grassmann No. 77. 

In No. 76, Dr. Edward Brooks of Philadelphia, takes excep- 
tion to an editorial thesis that " mathematics is unfortunately con- 
structed on axioms." To Dr. Brooks no other way of construction 
is possible. There exist ' 'Jirsi truths or axioms which the mind 
has power to cognize," which are incapable of proof, and which 
■every system, even though nominally rejecting them, nevertheless 
tacitly employs. The editorial answer to Dr. Brooks, in No. 77, 



is based upon the principles unfolded in the series of disquisitions 
on " Form and Formal Thought," in Nos. 64, 66, 67, and 69. Ax- 
ioms so called, are the result of reasoning, and not the basis of it; 
the laws of formal thought determine the correctness and necessity 
of a proposition; conformity, in every instance, with these laws 
alone makes a truth universal. The relations of actual, material 
space have thus universally coincided with the laws of a formal 
system of third degree, and hence the rigidity and finality of those 
relations. In the same number, a translation from Hermann 
Grassmann's " Theory of Extension " is presented; it contains the 
fundamental points of departure of the new geometry from the old. 
No English version of this epoch-making work exists. The discus- 
sion will greatly interest those who have given their attention to 
the philosophy of mathematics. 

SOCIOLOGY AND ECONOMICS. 

Henry George and Land Taxation. Wheel- 
barrow No. 73. 

Symptoms of Social Degeneracy. Moncure D. 

Conway No. 74. 

Making Bread Dear. Wheelbarrow No. 78. 

Wheelbarrow opposes Mr. Henry George and the doctrine of 
Land Taxation with proper regard for the truth contained in the 
distinguished economist's theories. Objection is mainly taken to 
the universal curative power that the advocates of Land Taxa- 
tion claim for their remedy. In man's obedience to moral laws 
Wheelbarrow finds the only magic wherewith to change the face of 
society. 

Much criticism has been elicited by the bare mention of Mr. 
George's economical doctrines — indubitable testimony of their pop- 
ularity and strength. Letters have appeared in No. 79 and others 
will follow. 

" Symptoms of Social Degeneracy," Mr. Moncure D. Conway 
finds to be not unfrequent even in American civilization. We are 
prone to emphasize the survivals of barbaric institutions in effete 
Europe, while overlooking the excresences of our own body politic. 
Lynch-Law, literary piracy, corruption in administrative circles, 
are signs of the decay of an ethical system and the theology that 
protects it. Worst of all, these evils are not unaccompanied with 
attempts at palliation. 

HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL. 

The Study of Sanskrit. H. Oldenberg No. 79. 

Aspects, Christian and Human. William R. 

Thayer No. 79. 

The study of Sanskrit, upon which a series of articles com- 
mences with No 79, is a department of historical research com- 
paratively new. Prof. Oldenberg, one of the most eminent San- 
skrit scholars of the present day, tells us in popular language the 
story of the origin, growth, and present state of Sanskrit research. 
This department of philological and historical inquiry has done 
more than any other towards the true interpretation of the early 
history, civilization, and religion of the Aryan peoples. Within 
less than a century results have been attained, of which former 
generations would not have presumed to think. The articles have 
been translated from the German. 

Under the title of " Aspects, Christian and Human," Mr. W. 
R. Thayer maintains in lucid and earnest language that the in- 
fluences and forces to which the great changes wrought in modern 
society must be attributed, have not proceeded from sources es- 
sentially Christian. These advances are distinctly secular and hu- 
man in character. " Not the preacher, but the poet: not the poli- 
tician, but the untrammelled agitator, men whose tongues were 
free, and whose hearts were fearless, have been the heralds and 
champions of better things." 



The Open Court 

A. AATEEKLY JOURNAIi 

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No. 8 1. (Vol. III.— 3.) 



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THE DILEMMA OF A DOUBLE ALLEGIANCE. 



THE SAMOA QUESTION FROM AN ETHICAL STANDPOINT. 

BY GEN. M. M. TRUMBULL. 

Eight years ago, when Mr. Blaine became Secre- 
tary of State, Col. IngersoU in an effervescence of loy- 
alty to the " plumed knight," said, " Now we shall have 
more of the Eagle in our foreign politics, and less of 
the Owl." The contrast was impressive, and the ex- 
tremes thus figuratively shown described the situation. 

Again is Mr. Blaine the minister for Foreign af- 
fairs, and the old comparison is revived. The Owl re- 
tires, and the Eagle towers in his former pride of place. 
It may not be certain which is the more valuable bird 
in the qualities of intellect and wisdom, but there can 
be no doubt that the Eagle is most popular. For all 
that, should Nature form a ministry in a republic of 
birds, the Eagle might be Secretary of War, but the 
■Owl would be Secretary of State. 

The American air throbs with electric passion, as 
•when the "long roll" is beaten on drums. Our politics 
is highly seasoned with saltpetre. The old war-spirit 
-that must have battle-food once in a generation, is 
;hungry again. The most popular man is the aggres- 
sive man; the loud and arrogant preacher of the in- 
verted and perverted gospel, " strife on earth, ill-will 
rtc men." 

The Indian savage who votes for peace stands dis- 
honored in his tribe; he is called a squaw. Our Chris- 
tian men, although absolutely secure from hostile tribes 
of other Christian men, shiver at the nickname like the 
savage. A statesman in the American Congress, re- 
cently said that a foreign war was desirable in order to 
unite the "two sections " of our own people in the 
bonds of peace. His colleague echoed the sentiment, 
and there were no statesmen in the capitol brave 
enough to rebuke it. They feared the nickname. All 
joined in the Satanic benediction, "Blessed is the war- 
maker, for he shall inherit contracts and gold. He 
shall set brother against brother, and lay taxes upon 
generations yet unborn; 



' His pride 
And wive 



nd hate shall make this green earth red, 
and children speak his name with dread.' 




It is charged by doleful soothsayers that the Amer- 
ican Republic is falling apart, because of its inherent 
moral weakness; and members of the American Con- 
..gress plead guilty to the charge. Shall this plea re- 



corded inside the capitol be confessed by the people 
outside ? Shall it go forth to the envious world that 
this enlightened government must perish by reason of 
its righteousness, and that the "two sections" of it 
cannot live in domestic peace unless engaged in for- 
eign war ? If that is true, we ought to celebrate the 
centennial of the constitiition not in gladness but in 
sorrow. 

A nation with an appetite for war can easily find 
reasons for a fight. At this moment we are lucky as 
the ass between two bundles of hay, and like him we 
know not which to enjoy. We are blessed with two 
quarrels, one with England about Canada, and another 
with Germany about Samoa. Either can be inflated 
into a big enough pretext for war. Shall we fight 
England or Germany? 

The inaugural message talks at Germany. It says 
nothing about the codfish dispute with England, but 
significantly hints that our "coaling stations " must be 
preserved. The importance of our " coaling station ' 
at Samoa, was pointed out by the consul in his infor- 
mation that we have no coal at Samoa, never had any 
coal there, and need none there. " No matter," said 
the Department, " send some coal there. Let it not 
be said that the absence of a few bushels of coal at 
Samoa furnished a pretext for peace." 

The coal is on the way to Samoa. 

The very hint of war with Germany or England 
brings a novel question into American debate. It pre- 
sents to the Germans and the English who are citizens 
of the United States the dilemma of double allegiance. 
What is the ethics of patriotism that must guide them 
in case of actual war? How shall they apportion their 
allegiance between the land of their fathers and the 
land of their children? This is a question almost -ap- 
palling in its pressure upon the conscience of any for- 
eign born American citizen who is truly loyal and 
patriotic, and who desires to do his duty, whatever it 
may be. 

When the challenge of Bismarck first appeared, if 
it was a challenge, as some eagle-minded people claim 
it was, a reporter in Chicago interviewed several Ger- 
mans of that city, to ascertain what attitude the Ger- 
mans in America would assume in case of war. The 
information he said he got was that they would rush 
eagerly to the army and navy to fight against the 



r5i2 



THE OPKN COURT. 



fatherland. Those reported answers must be looked 
at with suspicion. No man is anxious to fight against 
his fatherland, and least of all a German or an Eng- 
lishman. Nor would the Americans require such a 
sacrifice, except in an extremity that can never come. 
A German may renounce his political allegiance to 
Germany, but his natural allegiance of love and ven- 
eration for the fatherland he will never cast away. He 
could not do so if he would, and retain the respect of 
the American people; for magnanimity and love of 
country are conspicuous traits in the American char- 
acter. What then is his duty in the contingency sup- 
posed? 

His oath of allegiance to the United States is de- 
cisive as to the political status of every naturalized 
foreigner here. His political duty is to the land of his 
adoption, but he is not therefore compelled to re- 
nounce his natural reverence for the land where he 
was born. The Americans would never ask a German 
to fight against Germany, unless a German army were 
actually landed on our soil, an impossible contingency, 
for no foreign army could land in any part of the 
United States and advance ten miles without being 
captured or destroyed. To require a man to fight 
against his father and his mother would make still 
more hideous the monstrous anomaly that war pre- 
sents in Christendom to-day. 

Next to the Americans the Germans are the largest 
constituent element of the American Republic. The 
Britons and Canadians come next in contribution of 
numbers to the nation. Neither of these classes can 
think of the possibility of war between their birth-land 
and their adopted land without feelings of grief and 
pain. To them such a war could have no victories 
and no joy. Whichever side might win a battle they 
must mourn, either for the defeat of their fellow citi- 
zens, or their fellow countrymen. In any event their 
tears must flow. 

The issues involved in the dispute with England 
about Canada, and with Germany about Samoa, can- 
not be whipped into an inflammation that will justify 
an act of war on either side. They are scarcely above 
rhe jurisdiction of a police court. The decision of an 
ordinary justice of the peace upon their merits would 
be happier in the end than any decision of guns can 
possibly be. Let arbitration settle them. 

In a contest for material prosperity between his 
native land and his adopted land, the patriotic sympa- 
thies of a foreign born citizen will incline to the land 
of his adoption, but his merely sentimental or emo- 
tional patriotism will incline to the land of his birth. 
We cannot change this until we can alter the spiritual 
nature of men. There are ten thousand strings that 
unite a man to all his ancestors; there are none that 
unite him to his posterity. For these reasons his 



prejudices make it very difficult for him to believe that 
in any international dispute his native land can pos- 
sibly be in the wrong. 

It may be useless to moralize in the face of expe- 
rience. Whether just or unjust, wise or unwise, an 
aggressive policy will be popular. It is in harmony 
with the traditions, the practice, and the ambition of 
the Anglo-Saxon race. That it tends to war does not 
weaken it, for the Americans have a dangerous talent 
there. The owl policy may be dull and lack the stim- 
ulant of blood, but after all, the true mission of this 
country is to promote friendship and good will among 
nations, the advancement of art, science, industry, and 
good morals. Her lasting glory will consist in the 
victories of peace. 

Although we hope for peace we are compelled to 
recognize the passions of men, the qualities of races, 
and the political forces that control the world. We see 
in what are called the Anglo-Saxon races a conquer- 
ing element pressing steadily forward to universal 
empire. Their march appears to be resistless. Start- 
ing from the low lands of Germany, a little more than 
a thousand years ago, they have already conquered 
Great Britain, the United States, Canada, Australia, 
India, and the islands of the sea. It may be that their 
fighting habit has become an instinct that must be 
gratified. 

Although Europe is an armed camp, the martial 
feeling there is not so strong as here. Most of the 
soldiers there are unwilling conscripts, drafted men; 
here all of them are volunteers chafing in war har- 
ness without war. The military passion rages here 
like a moral scarlet fever. The political surgeons 
invoke the warrior's lancet, they say, " we must let 
blood." Meanwhile, war memories are kept alive by 
a thousand agencies, and chivalrous battle deeds are 
set before our youths for emulation. The inflamma- 
tion is continually fed. Unless it can be allayed a 
fiery eruption must make an outlet for the pent up 
valor and the patriotic phrensy of our sons. 

In the statesmanship of party a low standard of 
political ethics may co-exist with a high standard of 
political sagacity. Party leaders, when in office, never 
oppose a war sentiment predominant in the people. 
They hive it, for the honey in it, with much clangor 
of tin pans, as the farmer hives bees. 

There is great swarming of military bees just now, 
and their hum has a trumpet sound, like the cavalry- 
call to charge. There are regimental, brigade, and di- 
vision re-unions; gatherings of Grand Armies of the 
Republic, sham battles, and much flattery of warriors 
from pulpit, press, and stump. Then we have mili- 
tary schools, where children are dressed in soldier 
clothes, armed with baby swords and ranked and filed 
as Captains, Corporals, and Privates. Above them 



T.HE OPEN COURT. 



1513 



again we have militia and independent companies 
armed and uniformed. These "hold their manhood 
cheap " when they march in Fourth of July proces- 
sions with veterans who have actually fought in war. 
Must they fret away their bravery at county fairs, in 
harmless dress parades? They are as ready as their 
fathers were to "prove their mettle true." 

The duty of men embarrassed by the ties of a 
double allegiance is to stand bravely by the republic 
whatever comes, but they ought to unite their moral 
and political influence to promote the settlement of all 
international disputes by peaceful arbitration. 

Human progress has been sometimes aided by the 
sword. There are times when public virtue must de- 
fend itself and extend itself by arms. Therefore it is 
not always true that peace is cheap at any price; 
but as a general rule the man who maintains that war 
is dear at any price stands on solid moral ground. 
Patriotic virtue may be latent in physical and intel- 
lectual strength; it may be the very inspiration of 
armies, but when national greatness prompts men to 
fight for trivial causes it makes them irrational agents 
of destruction like the mad winds that sometimes 
wreck ships and villages. 

" 'Tis well to have a giant's strength, 
But tyrannous to use it like a giant." 

As I raise my eyes from this paper, I see in the 
corner of my room a sword; off duty let us hope for 
evermore. The sight of it overwhelms me with mourn- 
ful memories. I would gladly give all that I have ever 
had, and all that I have ever been if Tubal Cain would 
come again, and beat that sword into a pruning hook; 
if he would order his apprentices throughout the world 
to do the same by every other sword. If that would 
cause an "overproduction" of pruning hooks, let them 
beat them into fence wire, stoves, pots and kettles, or 
any other gentle, virtuous, and useful things. 

PASSIONS AND MANIAS.* 

BY FELIX L. OSWALD, M.D. 

The overmastering sway of special passions can 
often be traced to the influence of abnormal social 
conditions, tending to suppress the manifestations of 
various natural instincts, and thus favoring the devel- 
opment of others to a degree of undue prominence. 
The vehemence of the genetic passion, for instance, 
with its life-blighting excesses and the reckless de- 
spair of its reaction against stubborn obstacles, has 
unquestionably been increased by the suppression of 
instincts which found a free scope of development in 
the social tendencies of Antiquity. During the seven 
last centuries of Grecian and Roman civilization, pa- 
triotism and the enthusiasm of gymnastic emulation 
counterbalanced the influence of a passion which 

* Copyrighted under " Body and Mind ; or, The Data of Moral Physiology." 
Part XXIL 



during the era of mediaeval anti-naturalism acquired 
a wholly abnormal preponderance, and which still dis- 
turbs the moral equilibrium of millions. 

Freedom, science, and the love of Nature were for 
ages persecuted in the name of an earth-renouncing 
dogma; patriotism, even, was blighted by the delusion 
which trained all true believers to yearn for the grave 
as the gate to the proper home of their souls, but the 
sexual instinct defied control, and consequently be- 
came the channel for the united currents of all emo- 
tional propensities, — with results which still incline us 
to greatly overrate the naiurai persistence of a passion, 
which, under less abnormal conditions, was able to 
acquire only a decidedly intermittent prominence. 
Disappointed love, as a cause of suicide, now takes 
precedence of all other motives of self-destruction, 
while no other fact in the history of morals is more 
clearly established than the truth of Peter Bayle's re- 
mark, that at a time when suicide was considered jus- 
tifiable, or even honorable, a free man's desire to leave 
the world on account of disappointment in courtship, 
would generally have been attributed to insanity. The 
women of antiquity had but scant resources outside of 
marriage, and the example of Dido and Sappho con- 
sequently found frequent imitators, while rejected male 
lovers, with the rarest exceptions, would have laughed 
down their disappointment after the manner of the 
poet Ovid — one of the few classic writers who seems 
to have considered the subject worth any special no- 
tice whatever. Love-stories which now almost mo- 
nopolize the interest of nine out of ten readers (nine- 
teen out of twenty iooi-Teaders, to judge from the 
records of our public libraries) were almost unknown 
to the literary age of Greece and Rome, or were rele- 
gated to the sphere of the lowest comedy — even in the 
era of social license that followed the introduction of 
Asiatic luxuries. Books of travel and adventure, prize- 
fight bulletins, ghost stories and ribald satires had 
long eclipsed the popularity of Homerian heroics, 
when a writer of love tales would still have been re- 
ferred to a female clan of readers, or rather of hearers, 
since persons, even of moderate literary attainments, 
would not have thought it worth their while to waste 
an hour with the perusal of other people's courtship 
twaddle. Werther's wailings would have failed to 
excite anything but the surprise of a Roman reader, 
and the end of the romance would have been consid- 
ered an offense against the laws of probability— not to 
mention common sense, or the ethics of stoicism. As 
a motive of self-destruction a temporary tooth-ache 
would hardly have been thought a more preposterous 
pretext. Yet it would be a mistake to suppose that in 
that age of earth-worship the moral obligation of en- 
during the troubles of an unpropitious life for its own 
sake was generally overrated. The expediency of ter- 



JSH 



THE ORKN COURT 



minating an existence of hopeless affliction was one of 
the few points in which the disciples of Epicurus agreed 
with the stoics, and the example of Cicero and Lucre- 
tius made them the patron saints of their respective 
sects. Hegesias, who combined that doctrine with a 
pessimistic view of life in general, made so many con- 
verts that the city of Alexandria, during his presence, 
experienced a veritable epidemic of suicide, which at 
last obliged King Ptolemy to banish the philosopher 
from Egypt. Cassius, Atticus, Cato, and Diodorus 
held similar views, and Pliny goes so far as to vaunt 
the lot of man, as " superior to that of the Gods in this 
respect, that man has the power of seeking refuge in 
the peace of the tomb." "To death alone we owe it," 
says Seneca, "that life is not a prison, that erect be- 
neath the frowns of fate a man can preserve his mind 
unshaken and master of itself. Slavery loses its bit- 
terness, when by a step, a captive can pass to liberty. 
Against all the injuries of life, we have the refuge of 
death. You see that yawning precipice? It is the gate 
of freedom. You see that river, that ocean? Liberty 
awaits you at the bottom. As we choose the ship in 
which we will sail, so we ought to choose the death by 
which we will leave life. In no matter more than in 
death should we act according to our desire. Man 
may seek the approbation of others in his life; his 
death concerns himself alone. That is the best which 
pleases him most. Fate, indeed, has granted us no 
better boon than this, that life should have but one 
entrance and many gates of exit. Why should we en- 
dure the agonies of disease and the indignities of des- 
potism, when we can free ourselves from all troubles 
and shake off every bond? For this reason, and for 
this alone, life is not an evil — that no one is obliged to 
live. The lot of man is happy because no one con- 
tinues miserable but by his own fault. If life pleases you, 
stay. If not — jacet janua, exi, — the door is open. You 
have a right at any time to return to whence you came." 
Nor were such views confined to the disciples of 
philosophy. Longinus, a commander of the Dacian 
legions, killed himself in the camp of his captors to 
save his inferior officers the trouble of treating for his 
ransom. Tullius Marcellinus, a young patrician of 
ample fortune, anticipated the development of a troub- 
lesome disease by assembling his friends and calmly 
announcing his intention to starve himself to death. 
His last days were passed in cheerful conversation; 
and his faithful attendants, an hour before his death, 
were dismissed with presents, as from a banquet. A 
freedman of Otho killed himself at his grave; nay, the 
younger Plinius mentions a devotee of the circus-sports 
who flung himself into the blazing funeral pile of a 
popular charioteer. "From grief without hope," says 
Musonius, "we may seek refuge in death, even without 
the fear of direct pain, — in the absence of anything 



essential to make life pleasant. Why should we tarry? 
Let us depart cheerfully, as from a festival. 

Neither Buddha nor Schopenhauer could have 
ventured to speak out more plainly; yet in an age 
when life, upon slight provocation, was so often flung; 
away like an ill-fitting garment, the mischievous pranks- 
of Amor were almost universally dismissed with a jest, 
even by votaries of his shrine, while grave statesmea 
and philosophers would have deemed it beneath their 
dignity to mention them at all. 

Turning to the impulsive natives of the South Sea 
Islands, as representative children of Nature, we find, 
in that respect abundant evidence of a similar stoicism. 
With all their emotional passions, the natives of Tahiti 
treated the disappointments of courtship as a matter 
of burlesque and good-natured banter, rather than as 
a subject of tragic heroics, while the manful New 
Zealander, with all their love of poetry, would have 
failed to comprehend the meaning of Petrarca's Jere- 
miads. " Among the Maoris," says Prof. Hochstetter, 
" married women are treated with comparative indul- 
gence, and the son of a chief does his own wooing as 
modestly as the poor fisherman's son, but the intrigues 
of courtship are hardly" thought worth a freeman's 
trouble, and the self-abasement, and self-immolations 
of our inamoratos would pass the comprehension of a 
Maori lover." 

Those facts throw a suggestive light upon the sig- 
nificance of one of the strangest phenomena in moral 
physiology, and at the same time illustrate a curious 
analogy in the pathological principles of physical and 
emotional life. The fact that a tortoise can survive de- 
capitation, does not indicate the higher value of her 
existence, as compared with that of a man's, but merely 
proves the anatomical circumstance that a man's brain 
is a more important center of vitality than the brain of 
a tortoise. Nor should we overrate the Pagan stand- 
ard, of estimating the value of life, because the men 
of antiquity contrived to endure the torments of a 
passion that drives millions of our contemparies to the 
refuge of suicide. The contrasting fate of ancient and 
modern lovers does not even indicate the decline of 
stoicism, but merely proves the fact that the sexual 
passion has become a more important center of emo- 
tional life. True to her principle of eudemonism. Na- 
ture reverses the doom of life whenever the scale of 
weal and woe threatens to preponderate on the side 
of wretchedness, and the same reason that determines 
the organism to surrender its life to a cureless injury 
of the brain, impels the soul to renounce an existence 
embittered by a deep wound of the predominant affec- 
tions. During the age of Pagan civilization the aspir- 
ations of emotional life were centered upon patriotism, 
ambition, the love of gain, the love of strength and 
health. During the mediaeval millenium of madness 



THE OPEN COURT. 



1515 



they were engrossed by religious monomanias counter- 
balanced by the predominance of the sexual instinct. 
Since the advent of our latter-day civilization they have 
been divided mainly between sexual love and the 
thirst of gain — " amativeness" and "acquisitiveness," 
as the phrenologists would express it, — slightly modi- 
fied, perhaps, by the influence of inquisitiveness and 
the lingering after-effects of supernaturalism. In mil- 
lions of souls the life-despising mania of antinatural- 
ism has extinguished the love of health and the enthu- 
siasm of athletic emulation, (once the master-passion 
of manhood,) as well as ambition and patriotism, in 
the ancient significance of those words. Love, how- 
ever, has remained, like Hope in Pandora's box, and 
by monopolizing the energies of other passions now 
burns like a fire intensified by the fuel of many ex- 
tinguished altars. A modern Petrarch too often stands 
really at the grave of his only earthly hope in watching 
the fatal pallor of a beloved face and closing the eyes 

"Which now so faint and dim, 
Held all the light that shone on earth for him ; " 

and in the words of Musonius, the gate of suicide be- 
comes a welcome refuge from the consciousness "of 
a loss involving all that could have made life pleasant." 
Hence, also, the suggestive fact that the frequency of 
love-suicides increases with the prevalence of condi- 
tions tending to limit the energies of passion to the 
sway of the genetic instinct. 

Werther tragedies, in fact, are far more frequent 
in the crowded cities of our Atlantic seaboard than on 
the hunting grounds of Texas and California, but after 
all, less frequent in the largest cities than in the Sab- 
batarian atmosphere of small country-towns, deprived 
of amusements, deprived of outdoor- sports, reduced to 
the alternative of prayerbooks and novels. In com- 
mercial communities dollar-worship offers a welcome 
trilemma, and may monopolize the emotional energies 
to a degree developing an ultra-Pagan indifference to 
the caprices of Love, but, on the other hand, involving 
the risk of a complete moral collapse upon the sudden 
loss of a prop supporting the hopes of the ruling pas- 
sion. Suicide as a consequence of financial disaster, 
is, indeed, becoming an international phenomenon, not 
always confined to the confessed centres of Mammon- 
worship, the most characteristic instance being, per- 
haps, the case of a Swiss soldier who picked up a 
heavy pocketbook in the grass of a lakeside prome- 
nade and sat down to examine its contents. In addi- 
tion to a number of illegible letters those contents 
included a large roll of paper-money — white Bank 
of England notes, quite unlike the French equivalents 
which the finder had now and then seen in the restaur- 
ants of his native town, and after scrutinizing the 
shape of a Brahma key, hardly apt to fit any local lock, 
the young native concluded that the miscellany of out- 



landish objects was of no value to any one but the 
rightful owner and determined to report his discoverj' 
at the police-station and register his name as an ap- 
plicant for any possible reward. The sensation caused 
by his announcement was equalled only by his sur- 
prise, when he learned that the owner had offered a 
reward of five thousand francs, and a dismal misgiving 
was more than verified when further inquries elicited 
the fact that the pocketbook contained a sum of eighty- 
five thousand francs in notes that could have been, 
changed at any city-bank. The officials shook the hand 
of the honest finder; newsmongers crowded in and 
congratulations were followed by a round of applause, 
but the soldier staggered out in the street like a man 
reeling under the effect of a deadly blow, and a few 
hours after his corpse and a horse-pistol were dis- 
covered in an orchard-grove of Hottingen, a short dis- 
tance from the promenade where he had found and 
wasted the chance of realizing the day dream of his life. 
ASPECTS, CHRISTIAN AND HUMAN. 

BY WILLIAM R. THAYER. 

He must have a hard heart who has never been 
touched by that episode in early English history when, 
after the Romans had withdrawn their last legions 
from Britain, the Britons, who had learnt from their 
conquerors the softness but not the strength of civili- 
zation, were desperately harassed by the hordes of 
Picts and Scots from the north, and by the invasions 
of barbarians from beyond the sea. Messengers hur- 
ried to Rome, to bear the "Last Groans of the Brit- 
ons." "The barbarians on the one hand chase us into 
the sea; the sea, on the other, throws us back upon 
the barbarians; and we have only the hard choice left 
us, of perishing by the sword, or by the waves. Send 
back thy protecting legions, O Rome, or we die ! " .So 
implored the Britons in their distress; but Rome could 
not succor them. Foes, who should have been her 
friends, and barbarians who had always been her foes, 
now encompassed her unto death. Aetius, her last 
champion, was vainly struggling to defend her against 
Attila; and thenceforward no Roman phalanx went to 
save the Britons from destruction. 

Methinks that throughout Christendom there has 
long resounded, and still resounds, a cry, as frantic and 
pathetic as theirs, of men in spiritual distress. " Come 
back ! come back ! " they call out to those dogmas 
which, like the Roman mercenaries, so long upheld 
them. "Come back in your old-time might, ere the 
wolves of infidelity devour us, or the waters of despair 
wash overour heads ! " But the departed come not back. 

Who shall describe the panic, the anguish of men 
who feel the immemorial bonds of religious tradition 
bursting asunder ? Voyagers tell us that in the Polar 
Sea, after many tranquil days of mild Spring weather. 



I5I6 



THE OPEN COURT. 



the ice-floe suddenly cracks and breaks up, with a tre- 
mendous roar; and what was but just now a solid 
plain whereon a whole nation might safely encamp, 
splits into a thousand fragments — some huge as moun- 
tains, some mere spars and splinters of ice, which jos- 
tle and grind and shatter and overturn each other, as 
all begin to drift slowly at the mercy of wind and tide. 

So might one picture to himself that spiritual cat- 
aclysm known as the Decay of Faith: except that the 
rending is less sudden, and is perceptible to the mind's 
eye alone. At first, it is whispered as a rumor, then 
it is confidently proclaimed as a fact, that God has 
withdrawn himself from interposing in earthly affairs. 
He has withdrawn, leaving his viceroys — natural laws 
— to work out his purposes. But ere long, fearless 
sceptics affirm that there never was, and is not now, 
a God: that the universe is but a monstrous clock, 
whose wheels were wound up spontaneously and re- 
volve inexorably — a machine which had no maker and 
has no director. Fix your eyes on the tiniest froth- 
bubble which twinkles a moment ere it is whirled over 
the brink of Niagara: so insignificant is this Earth 
compared with the multitude of the stars, innumera- 
ble and immense. "What ! " exclaims the pious, "was 
not Earth, despite her insignificance, chosen by the 
Almighty to be the especial home of man ? Was not 
the sun created to warm him ? And are not all beasts 
and fowls and fishes to serve him?" — "Nay," replies 
the man of science, "this tiny sphere you tread was 
cast off from the sun, like a spark from the wheel of a 
lapidary. The Animal Kingdom was not made for 
you, but you are descended from it: yourself and your 
horse had the same ancestor; the haughtiest prince is 
but cousin to the clam." — " But what of man's destiny ? 
of the miraculous revelation of religion ? Of the war 
between good and evil ? Of man's hope of'immortal- 
ity?" — "Experience and the records of science prove 
that immutable laws have always prevailed. Of man's 
destiny, we can know nothing: what has been we state, 
what may be we cannot guess. Nature begets mil- 
lions of creatures, among which the weak perish and 
the strong survive, till these in turn are superseded by 
stronger species. When the body dies, it is dissolved 
into its elements, and disappears." — "O my brother, 
what help ? What consolation ? " 

In an epoch when this cry of anguish is sent up, 
and the deaf heavens hear it not, the native qualities 
of men show themselves most plainly in their conduct. 
Those to whom religion was a check, toss the reins to 
their appetites, as thieves exult when the police are 
summoned away to a fire. Some men turn satirists and 
cynics, and make sport of the arrogant pretensions 
— suddenly collapsed — of their religious fellows. The 
ravens of pessimism croak from many a tree. The 
indifferent are languidly complacent, becayse indiffer- 



ence now seems the highest wisdom. The stubborn- 
pious cling desperately to the chance that a flaw in 
the evidence will be discovered. Some are defiant: 
they will continue to live as if the assumptions of their 
creed had not been undermined. The timid caress 
and cherish the familiar symbols of worship, as a be- 
reaved mother fondles the toys and garments of her 
dead child, — and try to believe that the lost will re- 
turn. Some there are who ransack the past, lest the 
vital truth buried in an earlier religion may have been 
overlooked: perchance Confucius, or Zoroaster, or 
Buddha had the secret. Some plunge into the vapors 
of spiritualism, and snatch at reports of haunted houses 
and ' materializations ' to justify their folly. Many are 
the look-outs on towers and high places, who strain 
their eyes eastward for the first streaks of dawn, while 
in their heart gnaws the doubt that night may have 
closed in forevermore. Some fortify themselves with 
the precepts of the wise men, and the examples of the 
noble. The brave resolve that death alone shall rob 
them of their courage: like that regiment of English 
soldiers who, when their transport-ship was founder- 
ing in the Bay of Biscay, marshaled themselves in 
battle-order on the deck, and went down singing their 
songs of victory. 

These are some of the signs by which the Decay of 
Faith is made manifest: unspeakably tragic to any 
mind capable of scanning it, and not be understood by 
the strongest minds. Here is a mystery seen in the 
guise of agony: no fabled head of Medusa, but a real 
horror, which paralyzes most of its beholders. Think 
of it — the relations of men's souls to their spiritual 
source appear to be hopelessly destroyed ! Many earn- 
estly asking, " Have I a soul?" Many seriously an- 
swering, " No." Very noteworthy, moreover, is the 
course of this infection. It steals on so gradually that 
its victims are not soon aware of it. Not in a day, nor 
in a year, does it eat its way to the vitals of society. 
Outwardly, you hardly observe a change. Men eat 
and work and sleep, as of yore. Business and trade, 
theatres and entertainments, still occupy or amuse 
them. In the churches there are still preachers, and 
congregations to listen to them. There is the peren- 
nial wrangle over politics; the daily snarls and squab- 
bles of the critics. Proclamations of thanksgiving to 
the Almighty are issued; Fourth-of-July orations are 
spouted; startling inventions and scientific discover- 
ies are announced. We are delirious in our adoration 
of Progress: only yesterday a newchurn was patented; 
a new asteroid catalogued ! But while the malady — 
%vorld-ache, the German experts call it — is invisible on 
the surface, it spreads pitilessly through every vein 
and artery; and even when it can be concealed no 
longer, men's casual behavior alters little. They feign 
hopefulness or nonchalance: but by the lack of cheer 



XHK OPEN COURT. 



1517 



in the voice and of lustre in the eye, we know that the 
.change has come. 

The Religion which dreads to wake up in the morn- 
ing, lest Science in her midnight vigil shall have made 
a discovery which threatens to banish God from the 
universe, can be housed in no solid home of Truth. 
What? shall the telescope or the alembic be taken as 
an irrefragable witness, if it testify that the soul of man 
• — whence sprang the ingenuity which fashioned those 
very instruments — is but a fantastic unreality? Con- 
siderations of natural bulk and area seem to me irrel- 
evant in spiritual concerns. My belief in immortality 
would never be shaken by knowing that the earth is 
but a speck among the constellations, and that I my- 
self am but an atom compared to the earth. To the 
ant I am a colossus, as the ant is to the microbe: which 
proves relativity in size, but nothing absolute. Mate- 
rial standards of more-and-less apply not to the intel- 
lect and the soul. No one has observed that men six 
feet tall are more learned or more benevolent, than 
men of five feet six; or that dwarfs add to their wis- 
dom by mounting on stilts. Do you measure love by 
the yard, aspirations by the peck ? Those intuitions 
which urge us towards perfection, would not be more 
valid were our globe as vast as Sirius: the Texan's 
•chance of immortality is not several hundred times 
greater than the Rhode Islander's. 

Biologists have, indeed, hit upon a formula which 
helps them in their experiments. They now "envis- 
age the animal mainly as a machine in which poten- 
tial energy is being transformed back again into kin- 
etic." * A short and easy saw for scientific purposes, 
but of slight perceptible value for understanding hu- 
man animals in their complex social relations. I sus- 
pect that the sun's disc will have shrunk many leagues, 
causing a glacial atmosphere to wrap the earth, ere 
men estimate their passions by so many foot-pounds 
of potential or kinetic energy. 

I had rather, on the contrary, seek in our material 
insignificance, and in our inablity to express ourselves 
by algebraic or chemical notation, prognostics to jus- 
tify our loftiest visions of destiny. Regarding this wee 
creature, Man, as a body, a combination of physical 
forces, how contemptible he seems ! An ounce of 
lead, a breath of air, a mislodged grape-seed, any one 
of a thousand accidents, may bring him to the dust. 
Yet is this pigmy a partaker of Time and Space. Eter- 
nal Force does not slight him, but must work for and 
in him. There is no property of matter which may 
treat him as a thing of no consequence. ' And who 
shall state the wonder and variety to which his soul is 
heir? In that invisible mind of his he carries the con- 
ception of a universe, of eternity, though he cannot 
understand them. He beholds himself a sharer in the 

Grant Allen: Fortnightly Review, June, 1887. 



infinite. Through his fingers slip the chords which 
unite the farthest past to the farthest future. Every 
discovery of science which reveals new splendors in 
our habitation, adds to the majesty of us who dwell 
therein. And in our hearts these unutterable thoughts, 
these visions aimed beyond space and time, these un- 
quenchable longings, this love which flows out from 
us to our fellows, and from our fellows to us — whence 
are they? Not in the material universe can you dis- 
cover their origin: not in the world of matter can you 
discover fulfilments which will satisfy them. 



HEDONISM AND ASCETICISM. 

A SYSTEMATIC conception of the universe is the the- 
oretical, and ethics the practical aspect of philosophy. 
It is obvious that both are closely associated; the one 
is the basis of the other, and we cannot properly judge 
of the problems of the latter unless we have grasped 
the main truths of the former. 

By "morals" we understand the proper conduct of 
life, and by "ethics" the science of morals. Now, it 
is true that a man can instinctively lead a moral life 
without having any knowledge of the theoretical basis 
and the practical application of ethics. Morals are, as 
a rule, very stable, and a moral man who in later 
years happens to believe in a wrong system of ethics 
is not liable to change much of his good habits of life. 
It is also true that a man who has inborn, perhaps 
hereditarily ingrained, immoral tendencies will by 
theoretical instruction in ethics most likely not be 
greatly improved. Nevertheless, as a rule, philosophy 
and ethics go together, and a wrong philosophy will 
produce a wrong ethics, and a wrong ethics will, if 
not in the present, certainly in the next generation, 
corrupt the morals also. 

The details of a philosophy, or a religion (which lat- 
ter, after all, is but a popular philosophy, a philosophy 
of the heart) may be, and, indeed, are, quite indifferent 
as to the ethical inferences that can be drawn from it. 
But the main truths are not. The main truths of a re- 
ligion or philosophy lend the color to the ethics that 
grows therefrom . And we find in the history of phi- 
losophy that materialism, with a great regularity, pro- 
duces hedonism or utilitarianism; for it places the ul- 
timate object of life in material existence and its well 
being, viz. in happiness. Spiritualism, on the other 
hand, as a rule, leads to asceticism; it renounces the 
pleasures of the world, for it seeks the object of life in 
the deliverance of the soul from the fetters of the body. 
Monism rejects both views; it finds the purpose of 
existence in the constant aspiration of realizing a higher 
and better, a nobler, and more beautiful state of exist- 
ence. Life is a boon so far only as it offers an occasion 
to improve that which lies in our power to change — 
the forms of things and the modes of life. It is not 



I5I8 



THE OPEN COURT. 



pleasure or happiness that gives value to our days, but 
the work done for the progress of our race. Moses ex- 
presses this truth most powerfully in a passage of his 
grand psalm, which we quote according to the forci- 
ble translation of Luther: "Man's life will last three 
score years and ten, or, at the best, four score; but if 
it was precious, it was of labor afad sorrow." 

Mere happiness will leave the heart empty, and the 
aspiration for happiness will make of man a shallow 
trifler. Asceticism, on the other hand, will prove de- 
structive and suicidal. But if we consider the punct- 
ual performance of our daily duty, every one in his 
province, as the object of our lives, which must be 
done to enhance our ideals and help mankind (be it 
ever so little) to progress, we shall find occasion to 
unite the truths hidden in both, — the materialistic and 
spiritualistic ethics. We shall find sufficient occasion 
to practice abstinence, to exercise self-control, and to 
set aside the fleeting pleasures of the moment. At 
the same time, while the pleasure-seeker will be 
wrecked in his vain endeavors, we shall experience 
that a noble satisfaction, which is the highest kind of 
happiness imaginable, follows those who are least con- 
cerned about enjoyment, and steadily attend to their 
duty. p. c. 

THE STONES OF MANHATTAN. 

BY WILLIS FLETCHER JOHNSON. 

I TREAD the Stones of Manhattan; I, who have journeyed far 
From the meadow-sward and the moss-bank, and the streamlet's 

pebbly bar; 
I, who have wandered hither, allured by the tales they told 
Of how the stones of Manhattan were reeking with ruddy gold. 

In the dear old mountain woodland, where maple and birch and pine 
Were linked with the swaying reaches of purple-clustered vine. 
Where violets blue and yellow, and crimson lilies grew, 
And the hawthorn's bloom in spring-time was studded with starry 

dew. 
Over the shelving ledges, over the granite floor. 
Over the boulders and pebbles, chanting its dryad lore. 
Over its stony pathway, sang a brook with silver tones, — 
God ! what a stranger stream is roaring over Manhattan's stones ! 

Dazzled by phantom fortune, I followed that brook adown, 
Where its turbid waters tarried a space by the teeming town. 
And on through the dreary lowlands, which deeper and darker 

flow. 
Till its dusky waves were lighted with the city's lurid glow, 
Till the crystal stream was swallowed in a sluggish, polluted tide. 
Till the echoing forest voices in the babel-clamor died, 
Till swept like a leaf on the torrent I was whelmed where the 

breakers beat. 
Where the seething, surging human tide flows over ■ Manhattan's 

street. 

I tread the stones of Manhattan, the stones that are hard to my 

feet,— 
As hard as the hearts around me, as hard as the faces I meet. 
Hot is their breath in summer, with fever of selfish greed. 
Cold is their touch in winter, as hearts to the hand of need. 



My heel strikes fire from the flint, but the spark is dead ere it burns,.. 
Strikes fire in my angry striding, but is bruised by the stone it spurns;. 
And echo scorns with a stony voice the cry of a soul's despair 
Breathed out on the thunderous throbbings of the city's desert air.. 

Oh! faithless stones of Manhattan, that tempted my boyish feet 
Away from the clover-meadow, from the wind-woven waves of wheat,. 
I thought ye a golden highway; I find ye the path of shame. 
Where souls are sold for silver, and gold is the price of fame ! 
But my weary feet must tread yet, as slaves on the quarry floor. 
And my aching brain must suffer your pitiless uproar, 
Till the raving tide shall sweep above, and careless feet shall treadl 
On the fatal stones of Manhattan, over my dreamless bed ! 



SONNET. 



BY LOUIS BELROSE, JR. 



" Before, a joy proposed; behind, a dream:" 

Shakspeare, Sonnet 129. 

Oh! the strong, strange emotion, bitter-sweet, 

That fills my weary bosom as I ride 

Along these lanes, and note on every side 
The woods and fields that knew my childish feet. 

Men stare at me, but all the ripening wheat 
, Bows and is glad; the brook by which I sighed 

Told an old tale and laughed; and, dignified. 
My friends the trees stretch out their arms to greet. 

Ah, yes, 'twas there while resting from my play 

I dreamt of future years, that used to seem 
So full of promise and so far away. 

Poor child ! they come and go, but none redeem 
The worthless pledge; they pass, and each new day 
But dims the memory of that fond dream. 
Wallingford, Delaware Co., Pa., July, 1875. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

•WHAT WAS MATRIARCHY .' 

To the Editor of The Open Court: — 

Mrs. M. J. Gage presents an idea of the matriarchate widely 
different from that which I had gained from such reading and 
thinking as I have devoted to the subject, and it is important to 
determine which view is the correct one. I have remarked that it 
"was, so far as can be determined, simply a prostitution in which 
the temper of the people did not require the mother to conceal the 
evidence of her position. * * * Female infanticide was practiced, 
and so was established a system which has its legitimate successor 
in the prostitution of modern ages."* On this Mrs. Gage observes \ 
"All this is a mistake. Matriarchy was the first step outside of 
promiscuity; it was the very foundation of the family. Wilkin 
shows that upon the relation between the mother and child the re- 
motest conception of the family was based." She then cited ex- 
amples of the exclusion of the father from the family relation in 
various primitive and some recent races; and the Celtic cult of god 
and goddess, which were not husband and wife, but mother and 
son. She also says that under primitive matriarchy " the father 
was a wanderer and held in no esteem." Finally she believes fe- 
.male infanticide, both for economic and religious reasons, prosti- 
tution, compulsory marriages, and the sacrifice of animals, etc., to 
have been all due to the ascendancy of man in the family or the 

* The Open Court, 1888, p. 1388. 
+ L. c, i88g, p. 1481. 



THE OPKN COURT. 



iSi^ 



patriarchate, acquired later in history, and continued to the present 
day. These statements of Mts. Gage constitute a terrible ar- 
raignment of the male sex, and could they be supported, would go 
far to justify the Matriolatry of which her paragraphs are redolent. 
If she is right, we men must acknowledge our base origin, and join 
her in her worship. 

There are two ways of approaching the subject; one through 
the materials of history; the other by the exercise of our rational 
powers. History of those remote ages is not very clear, and the 
exact nature of the morality of those times, is not easily discover- 
able. I shall however return to this source of information, but 
first let us exercise a little common sense. 

It is generally supposed that the reason why descent was origi- 
nally traced through the mother, was because the personality of 
the father could not be definitely ascertained. This would follow 
from the ignorance of the mother herself, or the uncertainty at- 
taching to her statements on the subject. There is no other con- 
ceivable reason for such a state of affairs, and it is the more prob- 
able, if " the father was a wanderer and held in no esteem." Under 
such circumstances variable paternity would be inevitable; and to 
this day it is the wandering lives of many men which constitute 
the insoluble backbone of prostitution. One cannot say correctly 
that such mothers as these with their children constituted a 
"family" in the technical sense. Such women with children 
would necessarily have a a residence more fixed than the unen- 
cumbered man, so that women became mistresses of such homes as 
they were, and this is perhaps what the matriarchate amounted to. 

Let us however turn to McLennan's ' ' Primitive Marriage, " a 
standard work, to which I was referred by Dr. E. B. Tylor for in- 
formation on this subject. Dr. McLennan says, p.' 124: "The 
blood ties through females being obvious and indisputable, the idea 
of blood-relationship as soon as it was formed, must have begun to 
develop, however slowly, into a system embracing them. What 
further development this idea might have, — whether it would si- 
multaneously have a development in the direction of kinship through 
males, — must have depended on the circumstances connected with 
paternity. If the paternity of a child were usually as indisputable 
as the maternity, we might expect to find kinship through males 
acknowledged soon after kinship through females. * * * And 
fathers must usually be known before men will think of relation- 
ship through fathers, indeed before the idea of a father can be 
formed. The requisite degree of certainty can be had only when 
the mother is appropriated to a particular man as his wife, and 
when women thus appropriated are usually found faithful to their 
lords." P. 131: " Before the invention of the arts, and the forma- 
tion of provident habits the struggle for existence must often have 
become very serious. The instincts of self-preservation therefore 
must have frequently predominated and shaped the features of 
society freely as if the unselfish affections had no place in human 
nature. * * * Foremost among the results of this early struggle 
for food and security must have been an effect upon the balance of 
the sexes. As braves and hunters were required and valued, it 
would be the interest of every horde to rear, when possible, 
its healthy male children. It would be less its interest to rear fe- 
males, as they would be less capable of self-support, and of con- 
tributing by their exertions to the common good. In this lies the 
only explanation which can be accepted of the origin of those sys- 
tems of female infanticide still existing, the discovery of which from 
time to time, in out-of-the-way places, so shocks our humanity. 
It is of no consequence by what theories the races who practice 
infanticide now defend the practice. There can be no doubt that 
its origin is everywhere referable to that early time of struggle 
and necessity which we have been contemplating." Mr. McLennan 
then goes on to show how that the deficiency of women would in- 
volve, first, promiscuity, and later, polyandry, in which the deter- 
mination of male parentage was mostly impossible. Thus the ma- 



triarchy represents a primitive stage of society, and one which 
did not differ essentially from the modern system of prostitution. 
It gave way to monogamy and polygamy as men began to value 
women, and desired to protect and support their children. 

E. D. Cope. 

THE LOST MANUSCRIPT* 

BY GUSTAV FREYTAG. 

CHAPTER ^XX//.— Continued. 

'■' I too am little better than an exorcist," resumed 
the Professor, in answer to the remark of the Prin- 
cess. " It would be a bad recommendation for me 
if your Highness were to judge of my work by what I 
have achieved here in stirring up the old dust. One is 
delighted and disappointed, like a child. It is fortu- 
nate that fate does not often tease us book-writers 
with such tricks; what we do for the benefit of others 
does not depend upon accidental discoveries." 

" I can form an idea of the seriousness of the work 
which I do not see," exclaimed the Princess. " Your 
kindness has opened at least an aperture through 
which I can look into the workshop of creative minds. 
I can understand that the labor of learned men must 
have an irresistible attraction for those who belong 
to that silent community. I envy the women whose 
happiness it is to live their whole lives within the 
sphere of such occupations." 

"We are bold conquerors at the writing-table," 
answered the Professor; "but the incongruity between 
our inward freedom and outward helplessness is often 
felt by the conqueror and those about him. They who 
really pass their lives with us may easily fathom us, 
and can with difficulty bear our one-sidednees. For, 
your Highness, learned men themselves are like the 
books they write. In general we are badly prepared 
for the whirl of business, and sometimes helpless in 
the manifold activity of our time. We are true friends 
to men in those hours in which they seek new strength 
for the struggle of life, but in the struggle itself we 
are generally unskilful assistants." 

" Are you thinking of yourself in speaking thus ? "' 
asked the Princess, quickly. 

" I had in my mind a picture of the combined 
traits of many of my fellow-workers, but if your High- 
ness inquires about myself, I also am in this respect a 
regular man of learning. For 1 have often had oppor- 
tunity of remarking how imperfect is my judgment on 
all questions in which my learning or my moral feel- 
ing do not give me assurance." 

"I do not like that, Mr. Werner," cried the Prin- 
cess, leaning gravely back in her arm-chair. " My 
fancy took its highest flight; I sat as sovereign of 
the world, prepared to make my people happy, and I 
made you my minister of state." 

" Your confidence gives me pleasure," replie the 

* Translation copyrighted. 



I520 



THE OF*KN COURT. 



Professor; " but if your Highness should ever be in 
the position to seek for an assistant in government, I 
could not accept this dignity with a good conscience 
unless your Highness's subjects had all been passed 
through the bookbinder's press, and wore little coats 
of pasteboard, and had on their backs labels that told 
the contents of each." 

The Princess laughed, but her eyes rested with 
■deep feeling on the honest countenance of the man. 
She rose and approached him. 

" You are always true, open, and high-minded." 

" Thanks for your judgment," replied the Professor, 
much pleased. " Even your Highness treats me like 
.a spirit that dwells in a book; you praise me as openly 
as if I did not understand the words that you speak. 
I beg permission to convey to your Highness my feel- 
ings also in a review." 

" What I am like, I do not wish to hear from you," 
exclaimed the Princess; " for you would, in spite of 
the harmlessness which you boast of, end by reading 
me as plainly as if I had a morocco-covered back and 
gilt edges. But I am serious when I praise you. Yes, 
Mr. Werner, since you have been with us I have at- 
tained to a better understanding of the value of life. 
You do not know what an advantage it is for me to 
ihave intercourse with a mind which, undisturbed by 
the little trifles around it, only serves its high goddess 
of Truth. The turmoil of daily life bears hard upon 
us, and perplexes us; those by whom I am surrounded, 
«ven the best of them, all think and care about them- 
selves, and make convenient compacts between their 
feeling of duty and their egotism. But in you I per- 
ceive unselfishness and the incessant devotion of your- 
:self to the highest labor of man. There is something 
great and lofty in this that overpowers me with ad- 
jniration. I feel the worth of such an existence, like 
a new light that penetrates my soul. Never have I 
dcnown any one about me so inspired with heaven in 
his breast. That is my review of you, Professor Wer- 
ner; it is, perhaps, not well written, but it comes from 
tny heart." 

The eyes of the learned man shone as he looked at 
the enthusiastic countenance of the princely child, 
but he was silent. There was a long pause. The 
Princess turned away, and bent over her books. At 
Jast she began, with gentle voice: 

" You are going to your daily work, I will do so 
;also. Before you leave me, I beg of you to be my 
instructor: I have marked a place in the work on art 
that you had the kindness to bring from the library, 
-which I could not quite understand." 

The Professor took the open book from her hand, 
.and laughed. 

" This is the theory of quite a different art; it is 
mot the right book." 



The Princess read, " How to make blanc-mange." 
She opened the title page: "Common-sense cook-book 
of an old Nuremberg cook." She turned the book 
round with astonishment; it was the same simple 
binding. 

" How does this come here? " she exclaimed, with 
vexation, and rang for her maid. 

" No one has been here," said the latter, " except 
the Princes, a short time ago." 

"Ah! " exclaimed the Princess, depressed. "Then 
there is no hope. We are now under the dominion of 
a mischievous spirit, and must wait till our book re- 
turns. Farewell, Mr. Werner; if the mischievous 
spirit restores me the book I shall call you back." 

When the Professor had taken leave, the maid 
came back alarmed and brought the lost Archaeology 
in a sad condition. The book was in the cage of the 
monkey. Giocco had studied it industriously, and 
was furious when the volume was taken away from 
him. 

At the same hour the Chamberlain was standing 
before the Sovereign. 

" Your friends from the University have domesti- 
cated themselves with us; I take for granted that you 
have done your best to make our city agreeable to 
them." 

" Professor Werner appears well contented," re- 
plied the Chamberlain, with reserve. 

" Has your sister Malwine made the acquaintance 
of the Professor's wife? " 

" Unfortunately my sister has been obliged to nurse 
a sick aunt in the country." 

"That is a pity," replied the Sovereign; "she may 
have reason to regret this accident. Some time ago 
you expressed your opinion that some practical occu- 
pation would be beneficial to the Hereditary Prince; 
I have considered the matter. It will be necessary to 
find the means of a temporary residence in the district 
of Rossau. The old forester's lodge will not be ill ad- 
apted to it. I have determined by additional build- 
ing to change the house into a habitable residence. 
The Hereditary Prince must be on the spot to plan 
the building according to his wishes, and you will 
accompany him. The architect has orders to draw 
the plans according to the Prince's directions. I only 
wish to speak to him about the proposed estimate. 
Meanwhile the Hereditary Prince will occupy the 
rooms that are reserved for me in the forester's lodge. 
But as the building will not take up his whole time, 
he may employ his leisure in obtaining an insight into 
our agricultural methods, at the farm of the adjoining 
proprietor. He should learn about field-work and 
book-keeping. The year is already far advanced, 
which makes a speedy departure advisable. I hope 



THK OPEN COURT. 



1521 



this arrangement will meet a wish that you have long 
entertained. The beautiful country and the quiet 
wood will be a refreshment to you after your winter- 
work." 

The Chamberlain bowed dismayed before his mas- 
ter, who so graciously pronounced his banishment 
from Court. He hastened to the Hereditary Prince 
and related the bad tidings. 

" It is exile!" he exclaimed, beside himself. 

" Make your preparations speedilj'," replied the 
Hereditarj' Prince quietly. " I am prepared to go at 
once." 

The Hereditary Prince went to his father. 

" I will do what you command, and make every 
effort to please you. If you, as a father, consider this 
residence in a distant place useful, I feel that you un- 
derstand better than I what will be beneficial for my 
future. But," he continued, with hesitation, "I cannot 
go from here without making a request which I have 
much at heart." 

" Speak, Benno," said the Sovereign, graciously. 

" I beg of you to permit the Professor and his wife 
to depart as quickly as possible from the neighborhood 
of the Court." 

" Why so ? " asked the Sovereign sharply. 

" Their residence here is hurtful to Mrs. Werner. 
Her reputation is endangered by the unusual position 
in which she is placed. I owe him and her great grat- 
itude; their happiness is a matter of concern to me, 
and I am tormented by the thought that their stay in 
our parts threatens to disturb the peace of their life." 

" And why does your gratitude fear a disturbance 
of the happiness that is so dear to you? " asked the 
Sovereign. 

" It is said that the Pavillion is a fateful residence 
for an honorable woman," replied the Hereditary 
Prince, decidedly. 

" If what you call honor is endangered by her 
dwelling there, then that virtue is easily lost," said the 
Sovereign, bitterly. 

" It is not the dwelling alone," continued the He- 
reditary Prince; " the ladies of the Court have been 
quite reserved in their conduct toward her; she is ill 
spoken of: gossip and calumny are busy in fabricating 
a false representation of her innocent life." 

" I hear with astonishment," said the Sovereign, 
" the lively interest you take in the stranger; yet, if I 
am rightly informed, you yourself during this time 
have shown her little chivalrous attention." 

" I have not done so," exclaimed the Hereditary 
Prince, " because I have felt myself bound to avoid, 
at least so far as I was concerned, any conduct that 
might injure her. I saw the jeering looks of our gentle- 
men when she arrived; I heard their derogatory words 
about the new beanty who was shut up in that house. 



and my heart beat with shame and anger. Therefore 
I have painfully controlled myself; I have feigned in- 
difference before those about me, and I have been cold 
in my demeanor towards her; but, my father, it has- 
been a hard task to me, and I have felt deep and 
bitter anxiety in the past few weeks; for the happiest 
hours of my life at college were passed in her society." 

The Sovereign had turned away; he now showed 
his son a smiling countenance. 

" So that was the reason of your reserve. I had 
forgotten that you had reached the age of tender sus- 
ceptibility and were inclined to expend more emotior* 
and sentiment on your relations to women than is good 
for you. Yet I could envy you this. Unfortunately, 
life does not long retain its sensitive feelings." He 
approached the Prince, and continued, good-humor- 
edly: "I do not deny, Benno, that in your interest I 
regarded the arrival of our visitors differently. For a 
prince of your nature there is perhaps nothing so 
fraught with culture as the tender feeling for a woman 
who makes no demands on the external life of her 
friend, and yet gives him all the charm of an intimate 
union of soul. Love affairs with ladies of the Court 
or with assuming intrigants would be dangerous for 
you; you must be on your guard that the woman to 
whom you devote yourself will not trifle with you and 
selfishly make use of you for her own ends. From 
all that I knew, your connection with the lady in the 
Pavilion was just what would be advantageous for 
your future life. From reasons of which I have full 
appreciation, you have avoided accepting this idyllic 
relation. You yourself have not chosen what I, with 
the best intentions, prepared for you; it seems to me, 
therefore, that you have lost the right in this affair to 
express any wishes whatever." 

" Father," explained the Hereditary Prince, hor- 
rified, and wringing his hands, "your saying this to 
me is indeed unkind. I had a dark foreboding that the 
invitation to them had some secret object in view. I 
have struggled with this suspicion, and blamed myself 
for it; now I am dismayed with the thought that I my- 
self am the innocent cause of this misfortune to these 
good people. Your words give me the right to repeat 
my request: let them go as soon as possible, or you 
will make your son miserable." 

" I perceive an entirely new phase of your charac- 
ter," replied the Sovereign;" and I am thankful to you 
for the insight that )'Ou have at last accorded me into 
your silent nature. You are either a fantastical dream- 
er, or you have a talent for diplomacy that I have never 
attributed to you." 

" I have never been other then candid to you," 
exclaimed the Hereditary Prince. 

" Shall the lady return to her home at Bielstein to 
be saved? " asked the Sovereign mockingly. 



•1522 



THE OPKN COURT. 



" No," replied the Hereditary Prince, in a low tone. 

" Your demand scarcely deserves an answer," con- 
tinued the father. " The strangers have been called 
here for a certain time. The husband is not in my 
service. I am neither in a position to send them 
away, as they have given me no reason for dissatisfac- 
tion, nor to keep them here against their will." 

" Forgive me, my father," exclaimed the Heredi- 
tary Prince. " You have yourself, by the gracious 
attention which you daily show to the wife, by your 
civil gifts and frequent visits, occasioned the Court to 
think that you take a special personal interest in her." 

" Is the Court so busy in reporting to you what I, 
through the unbecoming conduct of others, have 
thought fit to do? " asked the Sovereign. 

" Little is reported to me of what those about us 
say, and be assured that I do not lend a ready ear to 
their conjectures; but it is inevitable that I sometimes 
must hear what occupies them all and makes them 
all indignant. They venture to maintain even, that 
every one who does not show her attention is in dis- 
grace with you; and they think that they show special 
firmness of character and respectability in refusing to 
be civil to her. You, as well as she, are threatened 
with calumny. Forgive me, my father, for being this 
frank. You yourself have by your favor brought the 
lady into this dangerous position, and therefore it lies 
with you to deliver her from it." 

" The Court always becomes virtuous when its 
master selects for distinction a lady who does not be- 
long to their circle; and you will soon learn the value 
of such strict morals," replied the Sovereign. " It 
must be a strong sentiment, Benno, which drives your 
timid nature to the utmost limits of the freedom of 
speech that is allowable from a son to a father." 

The pale face of the Hereditary Prince colored. 

" Yes, my father," he cried, " hear what to every 
other ear will remain a secret; I love that lady with 
ferment and devoted heart. I would with pleasure 
make the greatest sacrifice in my power for her. I 
have felt the power that the beauty and innocence of 
a woman can exercise on a man. More than once 
have I strengthened myself by contact with her pure 
spirit. I was happy when near her, and unhappy 
when I could not look into her eyes. For a whole 
year I have thought in secret of her, and in this sorrow- 
ful feeling I have grown to be a man. That I have 
now courage to speak thus to you, I owe to the influ- 
ence which she has exercised upon me. I know, my 
father, how unhappy such a passion makes one; I 
know the misery of being for ever deprived of the 
woman one loves. The thought of the peace of her 
pure soul alone has sustained me in hours of bitterness. 
Now you know all. I have confided my secret to you 
.and I beg of you, my Sovereign and father, to receive 



this confidence with indulgence. If you have hitherto 
cared for my welfare, now is the time when you can 
show me the highest proof of our sincerity. Honor 
. the woman who is loved by your unhappy son." 

The countenance of the Sovereign had changed 
while his son was speaking, and the latter was terrified 
at its menacing expression. 

" Seek, for your tale, the ear of some knight-errant 
who eagerly drinks the water into which a tear of his 
lady-love has dropped." 

" Yes, I seek your knightly help, my liege and 
Sovereign," cried the Hereditary Prince, beside him- 
self. " I conjure you, do not let me implore you in 
vain. I call upon you, as the head of our illustrious 
house, and as a member of the order whose device we 
both wear, to do a service to rne and for her. Do not 
refuse her your support in her danger." 

" We are not attending a mediaeval ceremony," re- 
plied the Sovereign, coldly, " and your speech does 
not accord with the tone of practical life. I have not 
desired your confidence — 3'ou have thrust it upon me 
in too bold a manner. Do not wonder that your father 
is angry with your presumtuous speech, and that your 
Sovereign dismisses you with displeasure." 

The Hereditary Prince turned pale and stepped 
back. 

" The anger of my father and the displeasure of 
my Sovereign are misfortunes which I feel deeply; 
but still more fearful to me is the thought, that here 
at Court an injury is done to an innocent person — an 
injury in which I must have a share. However heav- 
ily your anger may fall upon me, yet I must tell you 
that you have exposed the lady to misrepresentation, 
and as long as I stand before you I will repeat it, and 
not desist from my request to remove her from here, 
for the sake of her honor and ours." 

" As your words flutter ceaselessly about the same 
empty phantom," replied the Sovereign, " it is time to 
put an end to this conversation. You will depart at 
once, and leave it to time to enable me to forget, if I 
ever can do so, what I have heard from you to-day. 
Till then you may reflect in solitude on your folly, in 
wishing to play the part of guardian to strangers who 
are quite in a position to take care of themselves." 

The Hereditary Prince bowed. 
" Has my most Sovereign liege any commands for 
me? " he asked, with trembling lips. 

The Sovereign replied sullenly: 

" It only remains to you now to excite the ill-will 
of the strangers against your father." 

" Your Highness knows that such conduct would 
not become me." 

• The Sovereign waved his hand, and his son de- 
parted with a silent bow. 

(To be continued.) 



THE OPEN COURT. 



Ill 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

La Morale Dans Le Drame, L'Epopee, et Le Roman. Lucien 

Arreat. Paris; Felix Alcan. 

" The object of this work," says M. Arreat, " is to seek, in all 
literatures, the evidences of moral evolution. It enters thus, con- 
currently, upon the province of history and psychology: it is a 
critical dissertation, historical or literary, as you may please to 
caW it." The author neither accepts the doctrines of the intui- 
tionist school, that moral ideas are a priori cognitions, nor does he 
proceed from utilitarian principles, which construct ethics upon 
the criteria of pleasure or pain. Modern moralists, differing from 
Kant on the one hand and from the hedonists on the other, do not 
separate conscience from its proper accompanying phenomena, 
duty from its object; the purely subjective world of duty is not 
opposed to the sense-world of desires. They think, that a person, 
is " obliged " by that which he desires, conceives as an end, and 
that the bond of obligation is wrought in the mind by the combined 
action of sensibility and reason, whatever may be the content of 
happiness or of duty. 

This constant connection of duty and obligation is indicated by 
M. Arreat, in his analysis and exposition of the various states of mo- 
rality traceable in history and literature. Our author begins with 
an examination of the sources of moral activity, and of the emo- 
tional nature of man. The genesis of positive duties in the epic 
and drama of early times is depicted. The moral obligation, the 
moral conflict in the literature of every epoch; punishment and re- 
morse, in tragedy and tradition; the principle of retribution, in the 
drama: — all are illustrated in the order of their development. The 
chapters on " The Mechanism of the Will " end on " Pathological 
Heroes " are to be especially recommended. The latter is a sub- 
ject quite new in literary criticism, and the value of M. Arreat's 
discussion will be enhanced by its conformity with the recent in- 
vestigations of French experimental psychology. Literary criti- 
cism seldom seeks the assistance of science, and we may mark this 
departure as laudable in the author and indicative of more liberal 
tendency in a popular department of human opinion. ixKpa. 
Windfalls. — Sober Thoughts on Staple Themes. Richard 

Randolph. Philadelphia: Henry Longstreth, 740 Sansom Street. 

Revised editions. 

In " A Salutation " to the former of these two volumes Friend 
Hichard Randolph writes: 

" And if we be connected 
On the internal ground. 
With joy are we aflfected 
When Outward links are found." 

In the inward aspiration after universal truth, and in the 
-effort to realize that unity in actual life and philosophical thought 
which the formal constitution of the mind teaches us exists, the 
reader will find the kernel of this little series of disquisitions. 
"The doctrine of a pervading unity in nature, like every other 
principle in truth," says the author, " may be said to be an intui- 
tive perception of the healthy human soul. " Proceeding from this 
-Statement, Mr. Randolph selects mathematics as typical of univer- 
sal science; here are presented principles of universal applicability 
and certainty, and if there be a universal thought, the object of 
individual thinking, then by %'irtue of the applicability of these 
same laws of perception and thought to the development of other 
branches of knowledge, the objective reality of all must be equally 
established. "The whole creation will thus be intelligibly pre- 
sented to our imagination as a continuous temple of truth and 
beauty, albeit more or less vaguely, while the lingering veil of 
moral evil shall at all obscure the perfect designs of the divine 
Creator, and retard the full appreciation of the willing worshiper," 
The essays following, of which we may enumerate " The House 
of Bondage," " The Land of Promise," " The Place of Fiction," 



" Hidden Life, " " Conversation and Education," are full of spir- 
itual vigor and earnest thought. 

In the collection " Sober Thoughts on Staple Themes," the 
same truth-aspiring spirit plays, the same effort to realize the 
ideals of Brotherly Love is present. ' ' Truth is the law as well 
as the lawful object of life, and doctrine is valuable only as a re- 
flection of truth." jmpK. 

The Jacqueminot Roses, which come to us in the March num- 
ber of the Art Amateur are glowing in color and blooming enough 
to give promise of a beautiful summer, instead of a chill and 
tardy spring. 

" My Note Book " is full of accounts of auction sales, picture 
exhibitions, and curious anecdotes about connoisseurs. A large 
portion of the number is devoted to the accounts of exhibitions in- 
cluding those of water colors, of the Pennsylvania Academy, 
Brooklyn Art Club, and many others. 

The most important article is a biographical and critical sketch 
of Alexander Cabanel, the late French artist. He was widely 
known as the decorator of the Tuileries, and also by his portraits. 
Many Americans were among his letters. The critic sums up his 
life thus: 

"In Cabanel's artistic life there were three well marked pe- 
riods: those of the student, of the artist, of the teacher and me- 
chanical painter; and the second was the shortest and the least 
productive." Some reproductions of his crayon studies well illus- 
trate the latter part of his career. 

China painters may be interested in the account of " A New 
Portable Gas Kiln," invented by a woman, to be heated by com- 
mon illuminating gas, which will "make it possible for china 
painters to fire their work at home."_ 

A well illustrated article describes the methods of pen-drawing 
for the photo-engraving process. 

Useful hints are given to Amateur photographers. 

The most novel thing in the number, however, is " The Bed- 
room at Bedtime" which describes an old French bedroom with 
"warming pan" and " post warmer." On the whole, this is an 
unusually interesting number of this popular periodical, e. d. c. 



NOTES. 

On December 8, 1888, Col. Garrick Mallery held an address, 
as retiring president of the Philosophical Society of Washington, 
upon " Philosophy and Specialties," now published in the Bulletin 
series of that society. We like the spirit and method of Col. 
Mallery 's address. The extent and significance of organized sci- 
entific work in the United States, is reviewed with critical strokes. 
Our author finds an injurious predominance given to specialistic 
disquisitions in the proceedings of most of our scientific associations. 
Their true office should be to harmonize, to correlate, and to put 
in an intelligible, philosophic form the acquisitions their several 
departments have made. 

We have received the following letters, which for lack of space 
have been crowded from the columns of the present number: from 
Mr. Redway and Dr. Gould upon ' ' Dreams, Sleep, and Con- 
sciousness"; from A. M. G. in criticism of Mr. Francis Russell's 
communication, "Postulates and Axioms;' and from Wheel- 
barrow, in answer to the strictures of various correspondents. 

A contribution from the pen of M. Alfred Binet will appear in 
our next issue. The subject, one of transcendent interest to all 
thinking persons, is "Sensation and the Outer World." Many 
novel points are touched, and the subject treated in M. Binet's 
usual clear and facile manner. 

Walter Pater, author of " Marius the Epicurean," will con- 
tribute the End Paper to Scribner's for April, analyzing a group of 
" Shakspere's English Kings " from a novel point of view. 



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CONTENTS 



ETHICAL EVOLUTION. E. D. Cope, Ph. D. 1523 

PHENOMENA AND NOUMENA. Editor 1526 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

Who Makes the Land- Value of a Farm? In Answer 

to Criticisms. Wheelbarrow 1529 

Dreams, Sleep, and Consciousness. G. M. Gould... 1530 
Propositions and Knowledge. A Criticism of Mr. Fran- 
cis C. Russel's Remarks in No. 78. A. M. G 1531 

In Explanation. Francis C. Russell 1531 



FICTION. 

The Lost Manuscript. (Continued.) Gustav Freytag. 1531 
POETRY. 

Moods. Mary Morgan (Gowan Lea). 

Nine Xenions. By * * * 
NOTES. 

Grant Allen's " Force and Energy." 

Prof. Bunge's " Vitalism and Mechanism," and " The 
Alcohol Question." 



Three Introductory Lectures 

The" Science Of Thought. 

(First published in The Open Court of June, July, 
and August, 1887.) 

BY F. MAX MULLER. 

1. The Simplicity of Language; 

2. The Identity of Language and Thought; and 

3. The Simplicity of Thought. 

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BUtschli, LieberkUhn. 

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scientist, Mr. G. f. Romanes, that the first appear- 
ance of the various psychical and intellectual fac- 
ulties is assignable to different stages in the scale 
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Review of Recent Work of THE OPEN COURT. 

PSYCHOLOGY AND BIOLOGY. 

Experimental Psychology in France. Alfred 

BlNET No. 74. 

Dream, Sleep, and Consciousness. Dr. George 

M. Gould Nos. 74 and 75. 

Body and Mind; or the Data of Moral Physiol- 
ogy. Felix L. Oswald, M. D. . . .Nos. 72, 75, 78. 
M. Binet's entertaining sketch of the state of Experimental 
sychology in France is the only direct and convenient source 
from which the reader can obtain a comprehensive idea of the con- 
tributions the author's country is making to this branch of mental 
science. The work of psychologists in France is distinguished by 
its almost exclusive bearing upon the pathological phases of psy- 
chological phenomena. The greatest successes of MM. Ribot, 
Richet, Charcot, and others, have been in treating the diseases of 
the mind. 
PHILOSOPHY. 

Sensation and Memory. Editor No. 74. 

Cognition, Knowledge, and Truth. Editor No. 76. 

Monism as the Formal Principle of Cognition. .No. 78. 
In the two first discussions, the conditions and processes by which 
we start from the bare excitations of the sensory world and attain 
to knowledge, are unfolded. Sensation is the primal condition of 
all knowledge; the products of sensation are preserved and trans- 
mitted as psychological forms; the psychological law of this reten- 
tive power is memory, from which source are evolved the different 
branches and varied forms of human thought. 

The last essay of this series shows that the constitution of the 
human mind naturally predisposes man for Monism. The unitary 
conception which the intellect seeks to formulate respecting all 
things brought within its range, is the inward proof offered to us 
of the correctness of the monistic philosophy. Monism is thus a 
subjective principle, informing us how to unify knowledge and 
make it potent. 

Axioms The Basis of Mathematics. Dr. Edward 

Brooks No. 76. 

The Old AND the New Mathematics. Editor. No. 77. 
A Flaw in the Foundation op Geometry. 

Hermann Grassmann No. 77. 

In No. 76, Dr. Edward Brooks of Philadelphia, takes excep- 
tion to an editorial thesis that "mathematics is unfortunately con- 
structed on axioms." To Dr. Brooks no other way of construction 
is possible. There exist "first truths or axioms which the mind 
has power to cognize," which are incapable of proof , and which 
every system, even though nominally rejecting them, nevertheless 
tacitly employs. The editorial answer to Dr. Brooks, in No. 77, 



is based upon the principles unfolded in the series of disquisitions 
on ' ' Form and Formal Thought, " in Nos. 64, 66, 67, and 69. Ax- 
ioms so called, are the result of reasoning, and not the basis of it; 
the lav.s of formal thought determine the correctness and necessity 
of a proposition; conformity, in every instance, with these laws 
alone makes a truth universal. The relations of actual, material 
space have thus universally coincided with the laws of a formal 
system of third degree, and hence the rigidity and finality of those 
relations. In the same number, a translation from Hermann 
Grassmann's " Theory of Extension " is presented; it contains the 
fundamental points of departure of the new geometry from the old. 
No English version of this epoch-making work exists. The discus- 
sion will greatly interest those who have given their attention to 
the philosophy of mathematics. 

SOCIOLOGY AND ECONOMICS. 

Henry George and Land Taxation. Wheel- 
barrow .-.No. 73. 

Symptoms of Social Degeneracy. Moncure D. 

Conway No. 74. 

Making Bread Dear. Wheelbarrow No. 78. 

Wheelbarrow opposes Mr. Henry George and the doctrine of 
Land Taxation with proper regard for the truth contained in the 
distinguished economist's theories. Objection is mainly taken to 
the universal curative power that the advocates of Land Taxa- 
tion claim for their remedy. In man's obedience to moral laws 
Wheelbarrow finds the only magic wherewith to change the face of 
society. 

Much criticism has been elicited by the bare mention of Mr. 
George's economical doctrines — indubitable testimony of their pop- 
ularity and strength. Letters have appeared in No. 79 and others 
will follow. 

' ' Symptoms of Social Degeneracy, "Mr. Moncure D. Conway 
finds to be not unfrequent even in American civilization. We are 
prone to emphasize the survivals of barbaric institutions in effete 
Europe, while overlooking the excresences of our ownbody politic. 
Lynch-Law, literary piracy, corruption in administrative circles, 
are signs of the decay of an ethical system and the theology that 
protects it. Worst of all, these evils are not unaccompanied with 
attempts at palliation. 

HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL. 

The Study of Sanskrit. H. Oldenberg No. 79. 

Aspects, Christian and Human, William R. 

Thayer : No. 79. 

The study of Sanskrit, upon which a series of articles com- 
mences with No 79, is a department of historical research com- 
paratively new. Prof. Oldenberg, one of the most eminent San- 
skrit scholars of the present day, tells us in popular language the 
story of the origin, growth, and present state of Sanskrit research. 
This department of philological and historical inquiry has done 
more than any other towards the true interpretation of the early 
history, civilization, and religion of the Aryan peoples. Within 
less than a century results have been attained, of which former 
generations would not have presumed to think. The articles have 
been translated from the German. 

Under the title of " Aspects, Christian and Human," Mr. W. 
R. Thayer maintains in lucid and earnest language that the in- 
fluences and forces to which the great changes wrought in modern 
society must be attributed, have not proceeded from sources es- 
sentially Christian. These advances are distinctly secular and hu- 
man in character. " Not the preacher, but the poet: not the poli- 
tician, but the untrammelled agitator, men whose tongues were 
free, and whose hearts were fearless, have been the heralds and 
champions of better things." 



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ETHICAL EVOLUTION. 



BY E. D, COPE, PH.D. 



The original propounders of the utilitarian theory of 
morals, did not probably anticipate the substantiation 
of their position which has resulted from the thought 
of the present century. The discovery of the law of 
the evolution of man physically and mentally, and of 
the consequent evolution of society, has placed the 
utilitarian doctrine on a foundation which will remain. 
It is, however, a question of importance whether this 
theory embraces the whole truth or whether it de- 
scribes a part only of the law of human ethical pro- 
gress. To examine this question is an object of the 
present enquiry. 

It is impossible to doubt that man in society ac- 
quired the habit and learned the principles of just 
treatment of his fellows, by the mutual pressure which 
every man has brought to bear on every other man, in 
asserting and enforcing his own rights. He did not 
learn it immediately, nor have all men learned it yet, 
but the educating forces have been and still are at 
work towards this end. That ethical conduct is an 
outgrowth of natural mental constitution can be 
doubted by no one who has observed men. It differs 
in children as compared with adults, in women as 
compared with men, and among men as compared 
with each other. And ethical qualities are so distrib- 
uted in the different types of mankind as to display 
clearly the causes of those differences. The ethical 
merits and defects of children are due to immaturity 
and ignorance; those of women to the greater strength 
of their emotional nature; and in men to their supe- 
rior physical and rational force. Physical necessities 
and the characteristics of the environment have im- 
pressed themselves on races, families, and individuals, 
so that, given certain conditions, one knows what to 
expect of men in an ethical direction. It is the innu- 
merable facts of this kind that have led to an exami- 
nation into the history of the development of the moral 
nature in man, and have led to its association with 
the theory of the physical evolution of man, now so 
clearly taught by the sciences of biology. 

The moral sense is well known to psychologists to 
be a complex faculty. It involves first the knowledge 
of ethical truth, and second the "sense of right," or 
the sentiment or affection of the love of ethical right. 



The knowledge of right is an intellectual faculty and is 
an expression of the strength of the rational powers. 
Thus is explained the superiority of the more rational 
nations and individuals in this direction. But without 
the disposition to live up to this knowledge it avails 
little. Rationality is not always able to decide whether 
the law of right is most profitable or not. There are 
persons who assert that honesty is not the best policy. 
To judge by men's acts it may be supposed that such 
persons are not rare. Indeed, in a large portion of the 
human race the rational faculty itself is yet imper- 
fectly developed. It is not uncommon to see persons 
who in one or more respects do not even know what 
is right. A large and full rationality, however, fur- 
nishes not only a knowledge of right but furnishes the 
affectional nature with reasons why it is best to prac- 
tice right, even from an egotistic point of view. It is 
said that the utilitarian doctrine makes might and 
right identical. And so they are in the long run. A 
strong man may defy a weaker, or even two such, but 
the limit of his strength is soon reached, and numbers 
will overcome him. It is the ultimate fate of the male- 
factor to be overcome by numbers; and for this rea- 
son prudence teaches that honesty is the best policy 
after all. But there is another important egoistic rea- 
son for ethical conduct. The ethical life expresses the 
highest development of humanity; involving clearness 
of intellect, and benevolence of heart, with a self-con- 
trol which is the expression of will. This combination 
of qualities represents the highest stage of human evo- 
lution, and is that which has the best chance of con- 
tinuing. It is also the one which is the best worth 
preserving in another life, if a survival of the fittest 
control the admission, where fitness may be supposed 
to be a capacity for harmonious coexistence with other 
minds. 

From the altruistic side the motives for ethical life 
are direct. This part of human character is traceable 
to the sexual and maternal instincts and the affections 
which have grown out of them through long exercise. 
It is impossible to escape the conclusion that natural 
benevolence and generosity of character, and sympa- 
thy for other persons, have been derived from this 
source. This affectional quality of the mind has ever 
interacted with the rational in the production of mo- 
tives of action in men. Each one has served as a 



1524 



THK OPKN COURT. 



guide and stimulus to the other. With the increase 
of knowledge men's sympathies have grown broader; 
with increased strength of benevolence they have 
grown more regardless of egoistic motives of the ma- 
terial type. It cannot be truly said that altruistic 
motives are not at the same time egoistic, since there 
is a gratification experienced in the exercise of them. 
Whether all altruism is of egoistic origin remains to 
be seen. And on the other hand, altruism not regu- 
lated by judgment, may be immoral, as in some forms 
of charity, and some forms of sex relations. 

A good many phrases have been borrowed from the 
vocabulary of physical evolution and applied in the 
field of human action without proper discrimination 
and with mischievous effect. Thus it was not seen at 
first that "the struggle for existence " among men is 
not merely a system of grab, and that the observance 
of human rights is not one of the conditions of success 
in it. It has been in some cases forgotten that the 
" survival of the fittest " is not the survival of the 
hardest hitter, or of the most successful embezzler. It 
has been still more frequently forgotten that " the line 
of least resistance " is very far from being the line of 
progress, in human affairs, and that in fact no great 
advance in some directions is possible among men, 
without considerable work in lines of strong resistance. 
It is in fact easier for men of limited moral capacities 
to go down, than up, a fact which might seem incon- 
sistent with a theory of natural ethical evolution. Why 
it is not inconsistent I will proceed to show. 

The effects of ethical degeneracy in a community 
are self-evident. With frequent dishonesty in business 
transactions, their freedom would be proportionally 
diminished, through the failure of credit and the bur- 
den of necessary safeguards. Without credit many 
enterprises that employ labor would come to a stand- 
still, and many persons would be impoverished. Pov- 
erty would bring an increase of crimes against person 
and property, especially against those who profited by 
corrupt methods. Corruption in the administration 
of justice would be followed by the taking of private 
revenge for injuries. Social immorality would be fol- 
lowed by the same results by a shorter route. It is 
not difficult to perceive how a community might fall 
into chaos through moral degeneracy; indeed, history 
has witnessed such a process in various degrees of 
development, at different times, and in different coun- 
tries. The last days of ancient Rome, and the French 
Revolution, may be cited in illustration of the effects 
on society of the persistent evil-doing of a larger or 
smaller part of its members. . 

The consequence of social chaos is misery, and the 
suffering, if not pushed to the destruction of the suf- 
ferer, has its usual good effect. The process of ethical 
development must be begun over again, and the build- 



ing of character go on as before, and for the same rea- 
sons. Men will only tolerate a certain amount of pain, 
and when that limit is reached they take rational and 
serious methods to avoid it in future. This is the sure 
basis of natural ethical evolution. It is the general 
sentiment of the orthodox Christian world, that if the 
moral law of the old and new testaments should not 
be maintained to be of directly divine origin, the sanc- 
tions of morality would be lost, and that society would 
drift without sail or rudder. But apart from any 
question of the origin of ethical opinions, and of the 
text of the bible, it is certain that there is in the nature 
of things, a provision for the development of the moral 
part of man's mind, as of any other part of it. But we 
have seen what this natural system is. Like the struggle 
for existence in other respects, it is a system of me- 
chanical severity. It is, indeed, that "mill of the Gods, 
which grinds exceeding fine." It is a Sheol of con- 
flict and strife, and from which men of all nations and 
conditions may well desire to escape. This fact has 
been seen and foreseen by the wise of all ages, hence 
the earnestness of their ethical teachings, and the care 
with which their ethical laws and rules have been made 
and preserved. 

The rational faculty finds its principal expression, 
in the power of generalization; and the wider the grasp 
of facts in induction, or the more far-reaching the ap- 
plication of laws in deduction, the higher is the grade 
of the faculty. Wise men seeing and foreseeing the 
causes and effects of social conditions, have constructed 
systems of ethical conduct, and have pointed out the 
means of obeying them. This action of the wise- 
towards their fellow men constitutes an element in. 
human ethical evolution, in strong contrast to the 
laisser /aire method of unassisted nature. It i^ a 
method of invitation as compared with one of compul- 
sion. Cooperation with it on the part of men is infi- 
nitely economical of suffering. And the education to- 
be derived from such sources is a protection against 
the evils of immorality to all who are influenced by it.. 
Hence the incalculable value to mankind of such 
teachers as Buddha and Jesus Christ. The reasons- 
which lie at the basis of their injunctions need not tO' 
have been perceived by their hearers; these have taken, 
them largely on trust, and have clung to the promises- 
of happiness which have followed them. The personal 
interest for the taughi, expressed by the teacher, has- 
won the hearts of the people, and the neglect of his- 
lesser personal interests in the presence of the greater- 
interests of all men, have convinced mankind of his 
sincerity. It is difficult to use the word selfishness in 
characterizing the lives of these great teachers of 
ethics. Although it was utility that was taught and 
sought, it was for the happiness of others. We have 
here an exhibition of the fruits of a development ot 



THE OPKN COURT. 



1525 



the affectional nature. But is this sufficient to account 
for the devotion of life-times and lives to such service? 

The " strongest inducement " to altruistic conduct 
is love. The only perfect altruistic conduct is ob- 
tainable through love. The rational faculty fails to 
complete the work, and for this reason. Selfishness is 
essential to self-preservation in the world, and will be 
always. Egoism has constant exercise in its lower 
aspects, in the necessities of support and protection 
of our physical organism. As long as activity of the 
self-preservative faculties is stimulated, so long must 
temptations to dishonesty and egoism in various ways 
assail us. The rational faculty alone will not raise a 
sufficiently strong resistance to immorality in most 
people, if they think no practical harm will follow to 
themselves. A love will on the other hand act as a more 
powerful restraint. It is true that unaided by reason, 
love "loves its friends and hates its enemies," but ra- 
tional love has a wider scope than one's friends only. 
But could the altruistic be evolved by natural causes 
to the degree that is expressed in the love of Jesus 
Christ to men ? 

The question of the existence or non-existence of 
a personal God cannot be gone into very fully here. 
Both materialists and idealists deny such existence; 
the former absolutely, the latter with or without qual- 
ification. The idealist, regarding thought as the most 
real thing, frequently sees in the last generalization of 
mind, a representative of the God of the ordinary man. 
But mind which consists of ratiocination only, is im- 
perfect. Ratiocination in a being of great power does 
not imply goodness, for much evil might be inflicted 
by such a being were he not good, without harm to 
himself. Anthropomorphism is our natural guide to 
a personal God, and we cannot believe in universal 
mind, with essential parts of the human mind omitted. 
Paternal and maternal love are too strongly implanted 
in man, to permit him to believe in a deity without 
these qualities, if he believes in any. And I may say 
for myself that the nature of mind in all its relations 
to matter is such as to impress on me a belief in a 
wider distribution of mind than that which is limited 
by one little planet, a mere speck in the universe. So 
such mind must possess love, which with wide knowl- 
edge, and therefore power, is equivalent to goodness. 

But the history of the world's life is a history of 
disasters mingled with pleasures, and of misery side 
by side with happiness. Wickedness prosperous for 
long periods, and goodness unrewarded, are common 
experiences. For such reasons as these, the existence 
of a personal deity has been denied. To the mind of 
the writer the facts indicate, not his non-existence, 
but his observance of a policy of non-interference. 
Such a policy might be construed as the indication of 
an evil rather than a good supreme being. But it is 



evident on the other hand that such a policy is re- 
quired, if terrestrial life is an education; and that such 
is the case is clearly taught by the doctrine of evolu- 
tion. Without non-interference character cannot be 
developed, and evolution fails of its end. Idealism 
cannot explain this phenomenon. The problem of 
evil is absolutely inexplicable on a theory which ex- 
cludes the existence of matter. The fact is that ev- 
olution is the conquest of matter by mind; it is the 
long process of learning how to bring matter into sub- 
serviency to the uses of mind. And as mind itself is 
a property of matter, evolution means an acquisition 
of the power of self-control, from the material as well 
as from the mental standpoint. 

In this struggle of mind with matter, a supreme 
mind could not be an uninterested spectator. His 
own control of matter is more or less concerned in it, 
since we may regard every conquest of matter by mind 
as an addition to all mind. And as the lesser mind may 
be not unphilosophically supposed to have originated 
from a more primitive mind, the relation is much that 
of parent to child. Here is a basis for an affection 
such as the parent knows better than the child; and 
which often goes quite unknown and unrequited by 
the children of men, till in later years their own time 
has come to know what it is to be a parent. With 
the advent of the knowledge that we are cooperating 
with a general creation of mind and of happiness, and 
that our services are needed, we may begin to appre- 
ciate the interest which our lives must excite in that 
of the master workman, and with what pleasure our 
successes are perceived, and with what regrets our re- 
verses. We may remember that the laws of matter, 
like those of logic, are immutable, and that no creator 
can violate them. A being of great experience may 
learn them, and control by obeying them, so that our 
own efforts in this direction are but the parallel in a 
small way, of those that have been undergone by the 
greater and wiser Mind. Material difficulties probably 
prevent us from knowing of more than a small part of 
the laws of psycho-physics, since telepathy and like 
phenomena are of such exceptional occurrence. 

A view of the paternal relation of God kindles in 
the mind a sentiment of love, which forms an abiding 
element of character, and motive of action. The mo- 
tive, so far as it is not due to expected rewards, is as 
nearly unselfish as any that is known to us. Its ten- 
dency is to induce in us altruistic sentiments, which 
have their result in corresponding actions. Such a 
motive is stronger than any judgment of the rational 
faculty by itself. It is, however, difficult to separate 
the two things in action, since much that we learn of 
the situation is due to the understanding. Is the love 
derived from natural sources? Metaphysics cannot 
yet answer this question. 



I 



1526 



THB OPKN COURT. 



PHENOMENA AND NOUMENA. 

The Hindoo Sages compared the world, as it ap- 
pears to our senses, to a veil — the veil of Maya — 
which lies upon our eyes and thus shrouds the true 
aspect of things. And the same view, with compar- 
atively slight modifications, is repeated in the phi- 
losophy of Plato. In a poetical passage in the " Re- 
public," the Grecian philosopher compares human 
knowledge to the condition of men who sit in a cavern 
facing the wall opposite the entrance; being bound to 
the spot since birth by chains about their feet and 
neck. They cannot look around, they cannot see the 
persons and things passing by behind them, but they 
see their shadows on the wall opposite and imagine 
that these appearances are the real things. 

The view that natural processes are not actual 
realities, but mere shadows of invisible existences be- 
hind them, has been revived often since, and must be 
considered even to-day as the philosophy of our time; 
and only gradually a new conception of the world is 
rising that looks upon natural processes, the phe- 
nomena so-called, as the positive facts of knowledge. 
The expression ' phenomenon ' means ' appearance ;' 
the word has been introduced and is now generally 
employed as a synonym of ' natural process ' because 
the Hindoo conception of the sham-existence of re- 
ality was, some time ago, all but universal. 

Immanuel Kant, in his Critique of Pure Reason, 
often speaks of " the thing of itself," and he says that 
we cannot have any positive knowledge of it. This was 
very discouraging, but it afforded those who paraded 
a Faust-like thirst for knowledge yet did not have the 
strength to devote a life of patient labor to earnest 
thought and research, an easy means of satisfying their 
yearning. Our knowledge is but relative, they said to 
themselves, and it is impossible to conceive the Ab- 
solute; the Absolute is the Unconditioned, and to our 
limited cognition it must be unknowable. If we could 
comprehend it, we would be omniscient like God, but 
as matters are, we are limited to the phenomenal world 
and must confess with Faust: 

" That which one does not know, one needs to use; 
And what one knows, one uses never." 

If the absolute is incomprehensible, all our knowl- 
edge is vain, and worst of all, we can never hope to 
know anything about God and about our soul. Is not 
our soul our absolute self, the thing of itself which 
manifests itself in our existence? And is not God, the 
absolute of the universe, manifested in all the innu- 
merable phenomena of nature? God and soul viewed 
from this standpoint, are unknowabilities. 

Kant goes beyond this standpoint. The concepts 
'Soul ' and ' God,' as absolute existences or things of 
themselves, are paralogisms of pure reason. We have 



arrived at these ideas by a fallacy. We experience in 
our consciousness a consecutive series of sensations or 
thoughts, but from this fact we cannot infer the exist- 
ence of a ' consciousness without its contents ' as a thing 
of itself. The world is an orderly arranged whole, but 
from this fact we cannot infer that a transcendent God 
is the author of this order. Kant adds in his Critique 
of Practical Reason, that although the ideas of God and 
soul are paralogisms, we should regulate our lives as 
if they existed; we should act as if we had a soul and 
as if a God existed — a just judge to reward the good 
and punish the evil. 

These ideas of Kant have become popular and the 
unknowability of the thing of itself contributed greatly 
to the growth of agnostic thought in England. 

The name ' agnostic ' was invented by Professor 
Huxley for the avowed purpose of appeasing obtrusive 
persons, who bored him with questions as to his belief 
or disbelief in the existence of God, and the immor- 
tality of the soul. Prof. Huxley states the facts as 
follows: 

"Some twenty years ago, or thereabouts,* I invented the 
word ' Agnostic ' to denote people who, like myself, confess them- 
selves to be hopelessly ignorant concerning a variety of matters, 
about which metaphysicians and theologians, both orthodox and 
heterodox, dogmatize with the utmost confidence; and it has been 
a source of some amusement to me to watch the gradual acceptance 
of the term and its correlate, Agnosticism. * * * Thus it will be 
seen that I have a sort of patent right in ' Agnostic' It is my 
trade-mark and I am entitled to say that I can state authentically 
what was originally meant by Agnosticism. Agnosticism is the es- 
sence of science, whether ancient or modern. It simply means 
that a man shall not say he knows or believes that which he has 
no scientific grounds for professing to know or believe. » » * I 
have no doubt that scientific criticism will prove destructive to the 
forms of supernaturalism which enter into the constitution of ex- 
isting religions. On trial of any so-called miracle, the verdict of 
science is ' not proven.' But Agnosticism will not forget that ex- 
istence, motion, and law-abiding operation in nature are more 
stupendous miracles than any recounted by the mythologies and 
that there may be things, not only in the heavens and earth, but 
beyond the intelligible universe, which ' are not dreamt of in our 
philosophy.' The theological ' gnosis ' would have us believe that 
the world is a conjurer's house; the anti-theological ' gnosis ' talks 
as if it were a ' dirt-pie ' made by two blind children. Law and 
Force. Agnosticism simply says that we know nothing of what may 
be beyond phenomena. "\ 

In another passage the great English biologist 
states his views concerning the immortality of the soul: 

' ' If anybody says that consciousness cannot exist except in 
relation of cause and effect with certain organic molecules I must 
ask how he knows that; and, if he says it can, I must put the same 
question. And I am afraid that, like jesting Pilate, I shall not 
think it worth while (having but little time before me) to wait for 
an answer," \ 

If, with the Hindoo, we regard natural phenomena 
as a veil, we may compare the scientist to a man 

♦These lines were written by Prof. Huxley in 1884. 

t The italics are ours. 

X Prof. Huxley in the Fortnightly Review, Dec. 1886. 



THE OPEN COURT. 



1527 



who dares to lift that veil, and reveals to us part of 
the hidden truth. But even so, many Agnostics say, 
our knowledge must remain incomplete. While we 
inquire into the manifestations of forces, while we ob- 
serve how they operate, we shall never be able to 
know what Matter is and what Force is. Their rela- 
tions in the phenomenal world may be knowable, but 
their absolute existence is unknowable. 

In answer to this view we must state that there is 
no absolute force, no force of itself. The so-called 
'phenomena ' of forces are the realities, and the differ- 
ent forces, such as heat, electricity, etc., are abstract 
conceptions in which we embrace all the natural pro- 
cesses of one kind. Not ' force ' and ' matter ' are 
things to be comprehended; they in their turn have 
been invented to comprehend phenomena. They do 
not go beyond phenomena but simply classify and ar- 
range them, in order to comprehend them all together, 
if possible, in one unitary and consistent system. 

Prof. Huxley, while confessing himself to be an 
Idealist, in an address on Descartes's 'Discourse,' in- 
troduces at the same time the mysticism which natu- 
rally follows from the principle of Agnosticism that 
"we know nothing of what may be beyond phe- 
nomena." Prof. Huxley says: 

" If I say that impenetrability is a property of matter, all that 
I can really mean is that the consciousness I call extension and the 
consciousness I call resistance, constantly accompany one another. 
Why and how they are thus related is a mystery; and if I say that 
thought is a property of matter, all that I can mean is that, actu- 
ally or possibly, the consciousness of extension and that of resist- 
ance accompany all other sorts of consciousness. But as in the 
former case, why they are thus associated, is an insoluble mystery."* 

The concepts ' Impenetrability,' ' Extension,' and 
'Resistance,' as they appear in our consciousness, are 
abstracts which denote certain qualities to be met with 
in our experience. If the spheres of two abstracts 
cover, either entirely or in part, the same ground, then 
as a matter of course the two ideas will always (either 
entirely or in part) appear to be associated. We form 
the abstract idea of matter by noting the qualities of all 
the different kinds of matter, dropping their individual 
features and retaining those only which they possess 
in common. Two qualities of matter (the two features 
which all matters have in common) are generalized 
under the names of mass and volume. Mass and vol- 
ume, both being abstracts of the same object, viz., of 
matter, it is but natural that they will always be asso- 
ciated, the one with the other. According to Prof. 
Huxley's method we should say: Why the conscious- 
ness I call ' mass ' and the consciousness I call ' vol- 
ume' constantly accompany one another is an insoluble 
mystery. 

If we take the agnostic standpoint, the whole world 
becomes enigmatic and even such a fact as that the con- 

* Italics are ours. 



sciousness we call ' liquid ' constantly accompanies the 
consciousness we call 'fluid' would appear as a pro- 
found mystery. 

Professor Bain shows in his " Practical Essays," 
p. 56, that the word 'mysterious' has sense only if 
used in opposition to what is plain and intelligible : 

' ' When we are told * * * that everything is mysterious; that 
the simplest phenomenon in nature — the fall of a stone, the swing 
of a pendulum, the continuance of a ball shot in the air — are won- 
derful, marvelous, miraculous, our understanding is confounded; 
there being then nothing plain at all, there is nothing mysterious. 
* * * If all phenomena are mysterious, nothing is mysterious; if 
we are to stand aghast in amazement because three times four is 
twelve, what phenomenon can we take as the type of the plain 
and the intelligible?" 

Prof. Huxley in answer to two onslaughts on his 
position (one by Dr. Wace from the standpoint of or- 
thodox theology, the other by Mr. Harrison, the de- 
fender of the Comtean Positive Philosophy), most 
ably and, indeed, successfully defends his agnosti- 
cism.* It is almost superfluous to state that we concur 
with him wherever he objects to the antiquated belief of 
demonology. When he characterizes agnosticism as 
the principle 'Try all things and hold fast by that which 
is good' and when he identifies it with " the axiom that 
every man should be able to give a reason for the faith 
that is in him," we heartily and fully agree with his ag- 
nosticism; our objection holds only in so far as Professor 
Huxley says "that we know nothing of what may be 
beyond phenomena." 

* * 

* * 

Kant's philosophy and especially his doctrine of 
the unknowability of ' things of themselves ' have 
given, it is true, a great ascendency to agnosticism 
and at the same time to the mysticism of antiquated 
orthodoxy. Nevertheless the spirit of Kantian thought 
is far from both, and it leads neither to the one nor to 
the other of these deadly antagonists, but to a unitary 
conception of the world on the ground of positive 
facts — a conception which may be called Positiv- 
ism,f or Monism. 

Kant's philosophy, we must bear in mind, is not a 
system but a method. He tried to avoid the faults of 
Wolf's Dogmatism on the one side, and of Hume's 
Skepticism on the other. Thus, he proposed what he 
called Criticism. He did not offer a plain and out- 
spoken solution of the problems, but he did the work 
to enable others to solve them: he formulated the 
problems. 

* Nineteenth Century February, 1889. Prof. Huxley informs us in this arti- 
cle that Sir William Hamilton's essay "On the Philosophy of the Uncondi- 
tioned " which he read when a boy had stamped upon his mind the strong con- 
viction that the limitation of our faculties in a great number of cases renders 
real answers to certain questions not merely actually impossible but theoreti- 
cally inconceivable. 

t The introduction of the word " Positivism " into philosophy is the merit 
of M. A«guste Comte. Although we cannot accept M. Comte's conception of 
Positivism, we gratefully adopt the name, which, as a synonym of Monism, 
is a strong and expressive term. 



1528 



THK OPEN COURT. 



Kant discusses (in Chap. Ill of the Transcendental 
Doctrine of the Faculty of Judgment) the " discrimina- 
tion of all objects as phenomena and noumena." Phe- 
nomena are the natural processes which affect our 
senses {Sinneswesen). They are the data of our ex- 
perience and provide the building materials out of 
which we create our conceptions of things. Noumena, 
in contradistinction to phenomena, are pure ideas 
( Verstandeswesen). Kant used the word " noumenon " 
in its original sense. It is the present passive par- 
ticiple of vouv 'to think ' and means 'somet hing thought ' 
or ' a creation of our mind.' 

Concerning noumena or pure thoughts Kant em- 
phatically declares that they have no significance 
unless they have reference to the phenomenal, i. e., 
to the real sensations of our experience. 

Kant says: t 

" Everything which the understanding draws from itself, 
•without borrowing from experience, it nevertheless possesses only 
for the behoof and use of experience. * » * 

' ' That the understanding, therefore, cannot make of its a priori 
principles, or even of its conceptions, other than an empirical use, 
is a proposition which leads to the most important results. 

' 'A transcendental use is made of a conception in a fundamental 
proposition or principle, when it is referred to things in general 3.a6. 
considered as things in themselves; an empirical use, when it is 
referred merely to phenomena, that is, to objects of a possible ex- 
perience. That the latter use of a conception is the only admis- 
sible one, is evident from the reasons following. 

" For every conception are requisite, firstly, the logical form of 
a conception (of thought) in general; and, secondly, the possibility 
of presenting to this an object to which it may apply. Failing 
this latter, it has no sense, and is utterly void of content, although 
it may contain the logical function for constructing a conception 
from certain data, 

' ' Now an object cannot be given to a conception otherwise than 
by intuition, and, even if a pure intuition antecedent to the object 
is a priori possible, this pure intuition can itself obtain objective 
validity only from empirical intuition, of which it is itself but a 
form. All conceptions, therefore, and with them all principles, 
however high the degree of their a priori possibility, relate to 
empirical intuitions, that is to data towards a possible experience. 
Without this they possess no objective validity, but are a mere 
play of imagination or of understanding with images or notions. *** 

" The conceptions of mathematics would have no significance, 
if we were not always able to exhibit their significance in and by 
means of phenomena (empirical objects). * * * 

"The pure categories are of no use at all, when separated 
from sensibility." 

In the second edition of his Critique of Pure Rea- 
son, Kant has inserted a few paragraphs, in which he 
discusses " the causes why we (not yet satisfied with 
the substratum of sensation) have added the noumena 
to the phenomena." " We have learned," he says, 
" that sensation does not perceive things of themselves, 
but as they appear to us in accordance with our sub- 
jective condition." Now, as they cannot be appear- 
ances of themselves, we suppose that something must 

■f Translation by Meiklejohn. 



correspond to it, something which is independent of 
sensation. 

Kant distinguishes two kinds of noumena. Nou- 
jnena, in the positive sense, he defines to be those that 
are supposed to have originated in a non-sensuous in- 
tuition, and declares that they are inadmissible: 

"We in this case assume a peculiar mode of intuition, an 
intellectual intuition, to wit, which does not, however, belong 
to us, of the very possibility of which we have no notion." 

Noumena, in the negative sense, Kant calls things 
in so far as we abstract from sensation altogether; 
they are pure ideas, merely formal thought. They 
are not only admissible but for certain purposes ne- 
cessary. 

" A noumenon considered as merely problematical, is not only 
admissible but even indispensable. * * * It is a negative exten- 
sion of reason. * * * We limit sensation by giving to things of 
themselves (in so far as they are not considered as phenomena) 
the name of noumena." 

' ' The division of objects into phenomena and noumena, and 
of the world into a mundtis sensibilis and intelligibilis is therefore 
quite inadmissible in a positive sense (although conceptions do 
certainly admit of such a division); for the latter class of noumena 
have no determinate object corresponding to them, and cannot 
therefore possess objective validity. 

* * * " After all, the possibility of such noumena is quite in- 
comprehensible, and beyond the sphere of phenomena all is for us 
a mere void. * * * What, therefore, we call noumenon, must be 
understood by us as such in a negative sense." 

Thus the question whether our reason, in addition 
to its admitted empirical use, can be employed in a 
transcendental way to noumena as objects, is answered 
by Kant in the negative. 

The root of false noumenalism, it seems to us, must 
be sought in language. It is a misconception of the 
nature of words which leads us to think that things 
are absolute existences, being independent of, and 
distinct from their qualities. If we keep a clear con- 
ception, however, of the way words have arisen, and 
of the purpose they serve, we shall not fall into this 
dualism that believes in an absolutely unknowable 
world supposed to be hid behind the knowable world 
of sense-phenomena. 

Words are, so to speak, bundles of percepts. If 
we pull single percepts out, the bundle is still a 
bundle; but if we take away all, there is no bundle 
left, there is nothing remaining that made the bundle 
a bundle; we have left only an empty nothing. If we 
take away from a thing all the properties that we are 
accustomed to comprehend by a word, there is left the 
meaningless word, a mere sound, the bare string with 
which the bundle was tied together. 

The world is not in a rigid unchangeable state, but 
in a continuous flux. Yet knowledge becomes possi- 
ble only when we fix certain percepts and give them 
relative stability. The faculty of fixing and retaining 
percepts, namely memory, is therefore the ladder 
that leads us upwards to a higher spiritual existence; 



THE OPEN COURT. 



1529 



it affords the mechanical means of gaining a firm foot- 
hold in the course of eternal changes. 

It is as if we sat in an express train and were look- 
ing at the landscape flitting by us. The picture, taken 
as a whole, swims indistinctly before our eyes. If we 
wish to get a clear idea of the situation, we must allow 
the eye to rest on some one object, neglecting the 
others. This we do, in viewing nature, by the concept, 
i. e., by the word. Words are the instruments by which 
we fix, in symbols of sound, certain classes of events, 
perceptions, or experiences; giving them a relative 
stability despite the universal change of things. In 
this rests the importance of words, for it is only in this 
way that we can at all separate a group of occurrences 
from the course of nature, in order to scrutinize them 
closely, and to understand them. We must always 
bear the fact in mind that the element of stability 
that seems to be present in many words, is a fiction 
designed to serve a definite purpose. Absolute rest 
does not exist. Things are in a constant flux, and if we 
give our words and concepts a relative fixity, we 
must nevertheless not seek in them eternal existences, 
or absolute entities, as did Plato, in his 'Ideas.' * 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

WHO MAKES THE " LAND-VALUE " OF A FARM ? 

To the Editor ofTn^ Open Court: — 

In The Open Court for Feb. 28th, I am honored by criticisms 
from three advocates of Mr. George's plan of taxation. Those 
criticisms are evidently written by men competent to defend their 
own position and attack mine. They have the advantage of me, 
for I have not their ability to analyze and compare the abstract 
properties of things. I cannot separate the shadow of a tree from 
the tree itself, nor the value of land from the land. 

My critics complain that I do not correctly state Mr. George's 
doctrine; and they kindly advise me to read him again. Well, I 
will if they will. Mr. Williamson says that Mr. George's position 
is that ' ' almost all the value of land comes from the growth and 
labor of the community, and not from the individual who legally 
owns the land;" while his brother critic, Mr. Stephenson, says the 
strongest claim of Mr. George is that ' ' the value of land is entirely 
due to the labor of the whole community." I have placed "almost " 
and " entirely " in italics for easier comparison. Which is Mr. 
George's word? Somebody has made a mistake as to his position 
here. Either Mr. Williamson or Mr. Stephenson ought to read 
Mr. George's works again. 

The variance above noticed is of no importance to the main 
argument if both statements are erroneous, as I think they are. I 
do not know how to dissect the doctrine based upon them, but I do 
know how to analyze a farm, because I have seen farms made, and 
have helped to make them. Here is the process used in Illinois. 

In the first place the virgin soil was communistic property ; it 
belonged to all the people of the United States, and it was expres- 
sively described as " Government " land. The experience of my 
old acquaintance, Thomas Clark, will illustrate the subject like a 
book. Having selected a quarter-section of land in Boone County 

* Under the title of " The Oneness of the Phenomenal and Noumenal," in 
No. 84, a further development of the problem here discussed, will be pre- 
sented. 



for his future home, Tom Clark was immediately confronted by 
Mr. George's law. The government said to him; "This land is 
the common property of all the people, and before you can have 
it, you must pay to the people the land-value of that quarter-sec- 
tion. This is fixed at a dollar and a quarter an acre. Tom 
paid the money, and took the land. Then he broke forty acres at 
a cost of three dollars an acre. His quarter-section was now 
worth $320 in visible value. Next he built a house and barn upon 
the land, and fenced the forty acres with rails. By this time his 
plantation in the rough was worth about $500. How much of that 
value was due to the labor of the " community?" Absolutely none 
of it; and yet this is the way " land-values " were made in Illinois. 
The settler who furnished all the labor, and all the capital, and 
made all the value the land possesses, is coolly described by Mr. 
Stephenson as the " alleged " owner of the land. He is also the 
" alleged" owner of the " alleged " fence, and the " alleged" house 
and barn. 

In the wilderness of occult economics I can easily lose my 
way, but I get along fairly well by the aid of an object lesson so 
large and palpable as a farm. I ask my critics how they will apply 
Mr. George's doctrine of taxation to the farm which I have just 
described. By much wear of muscle and sweat of brow, Tom 
Clark has brought the whole quarter-section under cultivation, 
and there is an orchard in one corner of it. Now, which of the 
ingredients of this farm shall bear the single tax? Is it the breaking 
of the wild sod? Is it the fence, the barn, or the apple trees? This 
is a fair question, and it ought to be fairly answered. It is never 
answered. It is evaded thus: "We do not propose to tax any of 
these improvements nor the land itself; we only propose to tax the 
land-value of the whole farm." 

In that evasion the single tax on values' theory vanishes ' ' like 
the feverish dream of a summer's night." The land-value of that 
farm separate from the improvements, is nothing. I have Mr. 
George for that. In " Protection and Free Trade," page 291, he 
says, " Land in itself has no value. Value arises only from human 
labor." If so, we tax human labor when we tax land-values. Whose 
labor made the land-value of that farm? Was it the labor of the 
man who ploughed the land, split the rails, built the house, and 
planted the apple trees, or was it the labor of the " Community"? 
The community did nothing; and besides, it had sold its com- 
munal right in the land for a dollar and a quarter an acre? 

I repeat that Mr. George loses sight of his own doctrine that 
land of itself has no value, when he says, page 302: " Now, it is 
evident that in order to take for the use of the community, the 
whole income arising from land, it is only necessary to abolish one 
after another, all other taxes now levied, and to increase the tax on 
land-values until it reaches as near as may be the full annual value 
of the land." Now, if the government takes from Clark the " full 
annual value " and " the whole income " of his farm, whether by 
tax, rent, or confiscation, it practically takes the whole farm and 
all the product of his life-time industry. 

It is paltering in a double sense to separate the value of that 
farm from the farm itself. It is pure mystification to say, "We 
tax the flavor of the apples, but not the apple trees, nor the land 
on which they grow; we tax the fragrance of the roses, but not the 
flowers nor the garden; we tax the sweetness of the' grapes, but not 
the vineyard nor the vines." If the tax upon the sweetness of the 
grapes is not paid, that sweetness is not levied on, but the vine- 
yard is arrested and sold. In like manner, when the tax on land- 
values becomes delinquent, the land itself is taken. In the lan- 
guage of my critic, Mr. McGill, " the owner of the improvements 
pays the annual value of the land to the freeholder Under Mr. 
George's system he would pay it to the municipality. In either 
case he must pay it or lose his improvements." 

Mr. McGill says that Mr. George's experiments "are a plea 
for the application of the ' Moral Law.' " I do not doubt that Mr. 



I530 



THE OREN COURT. 



George and Mr. McGill conscientiously believe that; but I can 
hardly imagine anything more immoral and despotic than a law 
which would attach Mr. George's theory to the farm I have de- 
scribed, and take from the farmers who made the farm ' ' the whole 
income" of it, and its " full annual value." The farm that I have 
selected is not an exceptional instance; it is a fair example of the 
manner in which " land-values " have been made in Illinois and 
all the Western States. If the answer to this is that the land-value 
of city lots is not made in that way, I reply: Very well; then let 
Mr. George apply his doctrine where it fits, and where the appli- 
cation of it can do no wrong, if there is any such place, which I 
doubt. 

Mr. Stephenson requires me to ' ' point out the exact place in 
Progress and Poverty where the millenium is promised by the sim- 
ple means of a single tax on land; " and, also, " where Mr. George 
denonnces every progress, under present circumstances, as driving 
a parting wedge between the rich and poor." I will cheerfully do 
so. Let Mr. Stephenson read pages 326 and 327, where Mr. George 
describes the condition of public happiness which would result 
from levying a simple tax on land. It is too long to quote here, 
but it describes that social state which is usually called the millen- 
nium. "We should reach the ideal of the socialist," says Mr. 
George, " but not through governmental repression." 

For answer to the second question, I refer my critic to page 
II, where, after confessing the vast progress made in "comfort, 
leisure, and refinement," Mr. George says this: "In those gains 
the lowest class do not share. " Then, further on, he says, "The 
new forces, elevating in their nature though they be, do not act 
upon the social fabric from underneath, but strike it at a point in- 
termediate between top and bottom. It is as though an immense 
wedge were being forced, not underneath society, but through so- 
ciety." 

Personally, I think there is much truth in that statement, but 
I believe that Mr. George's remedy would make matters worse in- 
stead of better. To levy each year a tax upon Clark's farm equal 
to the ' ' full annual value " of it, — and to deprive him of the ' ' whole 
income" arising from the land, would be adding another injustice 
to the wrongs which afflict society now. 

Here is a circular explanation of Mr. George's doctrine which 
mystifies me like a Greek oracle. Mr. Williamson says: " Now, 
if you tax the value of land you are taxing the labor of the whole 
community, slightly, and the natural opportunity and growth of the 
community; but as the taxes are expended on the community — for 
the growth of the community — nobody is injured and the growth 
pzys/or the growth." 

Isn't that chopping sand? What is the use of taxing the labor 
of the whole community, slightly, to expend the taxes on the com- 
munity, slightly? And how does the growth of the community pay 
for the growth of the community? I have traveled round and 
round this proposition looking for a gate-way to its meaning, until 
I am giddy. To tax the value of land belonging to the whole com- 
munity is to impose upon ourselves the cannon-ball torture for 
nothing. One of our punishments in the army was this: A 
circle was drawn on the ground about 90 feet in diameter. On the 
outer edge of the circle, holes were dug about a yard apart. In one 
of the holes was a 32 pound cannon ball. The delinquent had to 
pick up this cannon-ball and drop it into the next hole, then take 
it from that and drop it into the next, and so on, round and round, 
for so many hours a day. This was done as punishment, but Mr. 
Williamson wants to do it for fun, by the whole community taxing 
the labor of the whole community, the taxes to be expended on 
the whole community. 

When Tom Clark's quarter-section belonged to the whole 
community it was never taxed at all, because there is no sense in a 
community levying taxes upon the values of its own land, and pay- 
ing the taxes into its own treasury. I once knew a man who fined 



himself a dollar every time he used profane language, but he 
merely took it from one pocket and paid it into the other. 

If Mr. Williamson means to say that taxing the land-values of 
Tom Clark's farm taxes the labor of the whole community, I think 
he makes a mistake. It appears to me that the taxation is levied 
upon the labor of Clark, and the taxes ought not to be " expended 
on the community." Wheelbarrow. 



DREAMS, SLEEP, AND CONSCIOUSNESS. 

To the Editor of The Open Court: — 

Among many interesting communications to me regarding my 
paper in a late number of your journal there is one of peculiar in- 
terest from one of your subscribers in England. He states that he 
has been able to conquer an insomnia of long standing by the de- 
vice of looking downward when trying to go to sleep. He was 
prevailed upon to try the device of, in fancy, watching the breath 
escape from his own nostrils. He found this successful but con- 
cluded that the rotation of the eye downward was the essential 
factor. Thinking of this I have wondered if this were not 
something more than an individual idiosyncracy, if indeed it were 
not founded upon a true basis of cerebral habit and necessity. That 
the eye is the most easily reacting of all sense-mechanisms is a 
truism, and that of all it is the most intimately connected with all 
cerebral and psychological processes. Not only this, but the facts 
of functional amblyopia from prolonged exposure to light, such as 
moon-blindness, snow-blindness, etc., show how injurious to the 
eye is such continuous stimulus. Neither for the objects of shut- 
ting out the external world of light nor for protection to the eyes, is 
the darkening of the lids sufficient. Sound sleep and retinal safety 
demand either a complete external darkness, or a rotation during 
sleep, as my correspondent says he has found in his own case, of 
the eye ball upward beneath the arch of the eyebrow. I believe it 
has been experimentally found that in sleep the globes do rotate- 
upward. It may, however, be true that the necessity was greater 
and the fact more constant in primitive or savage man than in the 
civilized man of to-day. The savage slept more frequently in the 
open air. But if true in either case, the mechanism whereby this 
act was done, required a constant expenditure of force to effect it, 
and therefore a watchfulness, an activity of nerve centres some- 
where, that rendered the whole cerebral machinery less passive 
ttan if it were not compelled to keep up such continuous functional 
output. Somnolence was therefore less complete, the restorage 
function more drawn upon, the " sentinal " was more alert. If, 
therefore, such continuous innervation of the superior recti serve 
to keep the cerebral organism from sinking so speedily or com- 
pletely into slumber, then relieving it from such duty of out going 
stimulation would thus serve to becalm and quiet it. Reversal of 
the habitual bulbar rotation would thus serve to relieve the centres 
of the superior recti, and divide the stimulus to the inferior, thus 
setting up a sort of relief and rest for the too continuously acting 
centre. It is true that during waking the superior rectus has the 
least work of all the muscles, and therefore is better able to take 
up the continuous work of the night; it is also true that excessive 
innervation of the inferior rectus would be as arousing as that of 
the superior, and, finally, it may be said that the habit in the civ- 
ilized man, sleeping as he does in closed rooms, might be dropped; 
but there remains as answer that continuous contraction of a 
muscle means waking activity of the centre, and its correlates; that 
the lower rectus will only be kept functional while the would-be 
sleeper is consciously making the effort; and lastly that old habits 
of nature or man are not soon stopped. Would not a better plan 
than that of my correspondent be that of slowly and rhythmically 
putting all the muscles of the eyes into alternate function, each 
for a few minutes at a time. 

G. M. Gould. 



XHE OPEN COURT. 



•531 



PROPOSITIONS AND KNOWLEDGE. 

To the Editor of The Open Court: — 

With your indulgence I beg to ofifer a few observations sug- 
gested by the remarks of Francis C. Russell, in number 78 of your 
valuable journal, under the title "Propositions vs. Axioms." 
Firstly, as to Propositions, I cannot understand what is meant by 
their " material content," unless it be that a given proposition re- 
ferring to the material world, either afErming or denying some- 
thing of or concerning matter in some of its forms, thence denotes 
something which in its essential character is material, or com- 
posed of matter; for assuredly matter itself cannot be contained 
within a Proposition as water may be said to be contained within 
a basin. Since Propositions are merely the creatures of the mind, 
their "content " can be no more material than the material of the 
mind, — if such an expression may be allowed. Propositions, as I 
understand the term, are but words, signs or symbols arranged in 
certain order to express definite ideas, and it is incorrect to speak 
of their content in any other terms than those applicable to the 
ideal. For example, the content of the proposition: All men are 
mortal, is the idea or notion that all men partake of the attribute 
mortality, or, that they are subject to the laws of matter. Whether 
or not all men are mortal is a scientific question, and the evidences 
tending to prove or disprove the proposition are facts either of a 
material, ideal, or spiritual nature, the relevancy or importance of 
which must be determined for us by the methods of logical reasoning. 

Although .Mr. Russell does not develop any theory of cogni- 
tion or knowledge, he posits a proposition which would seem to 
lead us into speculative depths little less than a " bottomless pit." 
He states that " every cognition is determined by previous cogni- 
tions," etc.; that is to say, there can be no knowledge for us ex- 
cept there be an infinite series of preceding cognitions. If to Mr. 
Russell "cognition" and "knowledge" are synonymous in mean- 
ing, according to this theory we can have no knowledge except we 
have infinite knowledge. It is probably, however, that Mr. Rus- 
sell attaches different meanings to the two words, whereas to me 
they are practically synonymous. In fact, we find in the same 
paragraph above quoted from the statement that knowledge is to 
be explained as a mere inference from "prior cognitions either 
alone or combined with * * * sense-presentation." Now, as to 
the merits of this latter statement it might be said that if, in some 
instances, knowledge is derived from or determined by prior cog- 
nition combined with mental impressions arising as data from the 
senses, we have a species of knowledge not wholly drawn from or 
determined by pre-existing cognition, and hence, in so far, a spe- 
cies of original or primary knowledge. Does not Mr. Russell mean 
to imply that knowledge has two sources of origin, namely, prior 
cognition, and sense-presentation ? a. m. g. 

MR. RUSSELL IN EXPLANATION. 

To the Editor of The Open Court: — 

I KNOW very well that you cannot allow your columns to be 
overloaded with the polemics of philosophy. Philosophy, while 
vastly interesting to a few, is a weariness to the many. Still, I 
would like to resolve the obscurities that A. M. G. finds in my for- 
mer letter. The leading motive of that letter was to combat the 
old and obstructive doctrine that axioms are finalities. In doing 
this I stated what I understand to be one of the well established 
doctrines of the modern theory of cognition, viz., that the entire 
body of our knowledge, axioms as well as the rest, are the result of 
reasoning. Of course, it would be impossible to ' ' develop " any 
theory of cognition in a brief letter, nor was it needful. That 
yawning abyss of speculation discerned by A. M. G. as the leading 
of the doctrine he challenges, is a mere mirage. While it is quite 
true that that doctrine implies that knowledge is the result of an 
infinite series of prior cognitions, it is not true that an infinite se- 
ries of cognitions implies infinite knowledge. The infinite series 



one-half, plus one-fourth, plus one-eighth, etc., may be applied to 
any subject or quantity, however small. 

It is also true that cognition and knowledge may be used as syn- 
onyms. But I spoke of cognitions (plural of a cognition) in the 
sense of articulated constituents of knowledge, not as intending the 
entire body of our intellectual possessions, and what I said was 
that " nowhere in the content of the mind is there to be found any 
iota of knowledge that cannot be explained as a mere inference," 
etc. I will be frank to allow that there is an apparent inconsis- 
tency between the two statements that all knowledge is the product 
of mere inference or reasoning, and that knowledge is also conse- 
quent on sense-presentation. This inconsistency is, however, 
merely apparent, not real; but to explicate it would require more 
space than I can obtain, and I conceive that my original conten- 
tion against axioms does not require it of me. Should any one de- 
sire satisfaction in this matter, let me refer them to three articles 
by Prof. C. S. Pierce, in vol. 2, Journal of Speculative Philosophy . 

In saying that all genuine propositions must have a material 
content, no reference was made to mass matter. A proposition is 
somewhat told about a thing. The thing is called the subject of 
the proposition, and the somewhat told the predicate, which either 
is or contains the uniting constituent or copula. 

Verbal utterance is nonsense merely, unless it employs the 
mechanism of the proposition in some of its manifold forms. Ev- 
ery proposition bears some significance. It tells some tale. This 
may be termed its content. The telling of the proposition may 
add to or unfold the meaning of the subject, in which case the tell- 
ing, tale, or content is material in contrast with the case in which 
the telling is formal merely, and neither adds to nor unfolds the 
signification of the subject, being a mere empty form or ghost of 
a telling. For example, take that esteemed "axiom": "Things 
that are equal to the same thing are equal to each other." Now, 
put it that here we have a sheet of tin and an orange and an applet 
The sheet of tin shall be equal in weight to the apple, and the or- 
ange equal to it in volume. Are the orange and the sheet of tin 
equal? Clearly our " axiom " must be amended to say. Things 
that are equal in the same respect to the same thing are equal to one 
another in that same respect, which is the very same as to say. 
Equals are equal or x=x, — all formally valid, but pure emptiness. 

When, however, I say that a straight or right line is a line such 
that between the points that bound any assigned part of it no copy 
of such part can be drawn, I tell something about the subject of 
my proposition — viz., a straight or right line — that does not ap- 
pear in the mere naming of it, and hence, although the proposi- 
tion states only a formal truth, it yet has in my sense a material 
content. Francis C. Russell. 



THE LOST MANUSCRIPT.* 

BY GUSTAV FREYTAG. 

CHAPTER ^X.A77.— Continued. 

Immediately upon quitting the apartment of the 
father, the Prince ordered his carriage, and then has- 
tened to his sister. The Princess looked anxiously 
into his disturbed countenance. 

"You are going away?" she exclaimed. 

"Farewell!" he said, holding out his hand to her. 
"I am going into the country to build anew castle for 
us in case we should wish to change the scene of 
action." 

"When do you return, Benno?" 

The Hereditary Prince shrugged his shoulders. 

* Translation copyrighted. 



1532 



THK OPEN COURT. 



"When the Sovereign commands. My task is now 
to become something of an architect and farmer; this 
is a useful occupation. Farewell, Sidonie. If chance 
should bring you together with Mrs. Werner, I would 
be greatly indebted to you if you would not attend to 
the gossip of the Court, but remember that she is a 
worthy lady, and that I owe her a great debt of grati- 
tude." 

"Are you dissatisfied with me, my brother?" asked 
the Princess, anxiously. 

"Make reparation for it, Siddy, as best you can. 
Farewell!" 

Prince Victor accompanied him to the carriage. 
The Hereditary Prince clasped his hand, and looked 
significantly towards the Pavilion. Victor nodded. 
"That's my opinion too," he said. "Before I go back 
to my garrison I will visit you in the land of cat-tails. 
I expect to find you as a brother hermit, with a long 
beard and a cap made of tree-bark. Farewell, Knight 
Toggenburg, and learn there that the best phi- 
losophy on earth is to consider every day as lost on 
which one cannot do some foolish trick. If one does 
not do this business one's self, others will take the 
trouble off one's hands. Is is always more pleasant to 
be the hammer than the anvil." 

* 
* * 

The Sovereign was gloomy and silent at dinner; 
only short remarks fell from his lips, and sometimes a 
bitter jest, from which one remarked that he was striv- 
ing for composure; the Court understood that this un- 
pleasant mood was connected with the departure of 
the Hereditary Prince, and every one took care not to 
irritate him. The Professor alone was able to draw 
a smile from him, when he good-humoredly told about 
the enchanted castle, Solitude. After dinner the Sov- 
ereign conversed with one of his aides-de-camp as 
well as the Professor. The latter turned to the High 
Steward; and although he usually avoided the reserved 
politeness of the man, he on this occasion asked him 
some indifferent questions. The High Steward an- 
swered civilly that the Marshal, who was close by, 
could give him the best information, and he changed 
his place. Immediately afterwards the Sovereign 
walked straight through the company to the High 
Steward, and drew him into the recess of the window, 
and began: 

"You accompanied me on my first journey to Italy, 
and, if I am not mistaken, partook a little of my fond- 
ness for antiquities. Our collection is being newly ar- 
ranged and a catalogue fully prepared.". 

The High Steward expressed his acknowledgment 
of this princely liberality. 

"P?bfessor Werner is very active," continued the 
Sovereign; "it is delightful to see how well he under- 
stands to arrange the specimens." 



The High Steward remained silent. 

" Your Excellency will remember how when in Italy 
we were much amused at the enthusiasm of collectors 
who, luring strangers into their cabinets, wildly ges- 
ticulated and rhapsodized over some illegible inscrip- 
tion. Like most other men, our guest is also afflicted 
with a hobby. He suspected that an old manu- 
script lay concealed in a house in our principality; 
therefore he married the daughter of the proprietor; 
and as, in spite of that, he did not find the treasure, he 
is now secretly seeking this phantasm in the old gar- 
rets of the palace. Has he never spoken to you of it?" 

"I have as yet had no occasion to seek his confi- 
dence," replied the High Steward. 

"Then you have missed something," continued the 
Sovereign; "in his way he speaks well and readily 
about it; it will amuse you to examine more closely 
this species of folly. Come presently with him into 
my study." 

The High Steward bowed; and on the breaking up 
of the party, informed the Professor that the Sovereign 
wished to speak to him. 

The gentlemen entered the Sovereign's apartment, 
in order to afford him an hour of entertainment. 

"I have told his Excellency," the Sovereign began, 
"that you have a special object of interest which you 
pursue like a sportsman. How about the manuscript?" 

The Professor related his new discovery of the two 
chests. 

"The next hunting-ground which I hope to try will 
be the garrets and rooms in the summer castle of the 
Princess; if these yield me no booty, I would hardly 
know of any place that has not been searched." 

" I shall be delighted if you soon attain your ob- 
ject," said the Sovereign, looking at the High Steward. 
" I assume that the discovery of this manuscript will 
be of great importance for your own professional ca- 
reer. Of course you will consent to publish the same." 

"It would be the noblest task that could fall to my 
lot," replied the Professor," "always supposing that 
your Highness would graciously entrust the work tome." 

"You shall undertake the work, and no other," re- 
plied the Sovereign, laughing, " so far as I have the 
right to decide it. So the invisible book will be really 
of great importance to learning?" 

"The greatest importance. The contents of it will 
be of the highest value to every scholar. I think it 
would also interest your Highness," said the Professor, 
innocently, "for the Roman Tacitus is in a certain 
sense a Court historian; the main point of his narra- 
tive is the characters of the Emperors who, in the first 
century of our era, decided the fate of the old world. 
It is indeed, on the whole, a sorrowful picture." 

"Did he belong to the hostile party?" inquired the 
Sovereign. 



THE OPEN COURT. 



1533 



" He is the great narrator of the peculiar deformity of 
character found in the sovereigns of the ancient world; 
we have to thank him for a series of psychological 
studies of a malady that then developed itself on the 
throne." 

"That is new to me," replied the Sovereign, fidg- 
eting on his chair. 

"Your Highness will, I am convinced, view the va- 
rious forms of this mental malady with the greatest 
sympathy, and will find in other periods of the past — 
nay, even in the earlier civilization of our own people 
— many remarkable parallel cases." 

•"Do you speak of a special malady that only be- 
falls rulers?" asked the Sovereign; "physicians will be 
grateful to you for this discovery." 

"In fact," answered the Professor, eagerly, "the 
fearful importance of this phenomenon is far too little 
estimated; no other has exercised such an immeasur- 
able influence on the fate of nations. The destruction 
by pestilence and war is small in comparison with the 
fatal devastation of nations which has been occasioned 
by this special misfortune of the rulers. For this mal- 
ady, which raged long after Tacitus among the Roman 
emperors, is not an ailing that is confined to ancient 
Rome — it is undoubtedly as old as the despotisms of 
the human race; even later it has been the lot of nu- 
merous rulers in Christian states; it has produced de- 
formed and grotesque characters in every period; it 
has been for thousands of years the worm enclosed in 
the brain, consuming the marrow of the head, destroy- 
ing the judgment and corroding the moral feelings, 
until at last nothing remained but the hollow glitter of 
life. Sometimes it became madness which could be 
proved by medical men, but in numerous other cases 
the capacity for practical life did not cease and the se- 
cret mischief was carefully concealed. There were 
periods when only occasional firmly-established minds 
preserved their full healthy vigor; and again other cen- 
turies when the heads that wore a diadem inhaled a 
fresh atmosphere from the people. I am convinced 
that he whose vocation it is to investigate accurately 
the conditions of later times will, in the course of his 
studies, discover the same malady under a milder 
form. My life lies far from these observations, but the 
Roman state undoubtedly shows the strangest forms 
of the malady; for there were the widest relations, and 
such a powerful development of human nature both in 
virtue and vice as has seldom since been found in 
history." 

" It seems to be a particular pleasure to the learned 
gentlemen to bring to light these sufferings of former 
rulers," said the Sovereign. 

"They are certainly instructive for all times," con- 
tinued the Professor, confidently, "for by fearful ex- 
ample they impress upon one the truth that the higher 



a man's position is, the greater is the necessity of bar- 
riers to restrain the arbitrariness of his nature. Your 
Highness's independent judgment and rich experience 
will enable you to discern, more distinctly than any 
one in my sphere of life, that the phenomena of this 
malady always show themselves where the ruling 
powers have less to fear and to honor than other mor- 
tals. What preserves a man in ordinary situations is 
that he feels himself at every moment of his life under 
strict and incessant control; his friends, the law, and 
the interest of others surround him on all sides, they 
demand imperiously that he should conform his 
thoughts and will by rules which secure the welfare of 
others. At all times the power of these fetters is less 
effective on the ruler; he can easily cast off what con- 
fines him, an ungracious movement of the hand fright- 
ens the monitor forever from his side. From morning 
to evening he is surrounded by persons who accom- 
modate themselves to him; no friend reminds him of 
his duty, no law punishes him. Hundreds of examples 
teach us that former rulers, even amidst great out- 
ward success, suffered from inward ravages, where 
they were not guarded by a strong public opin- 
ion, or incessantly constrained by the powerful par- 
ticipation of the people in the state. We cannot but 
think of the gigantic power of a general and conqueror 
whose successes and victories brought devastation and 
excessive sin into his own life; he became a fearful 
sham, a liar to himself and a liar to the world before 
he was overthrown, and long before he died. To in- 
vestigate similar cases is, as I said, not my vocation." 

"No," said the Sovereign, in a faint voice. 

"The distant time," began the High Steward, "of 
which you speak, was a sad epoch for the people as 
well as the rulers. If I am not mistaken a feeling of 
decay was general, and the admired writers were of 
little value; at least it appears to me that Apuleius and 
Lucan were frivolous and deplorably vulgar men." 

The Professor looked surprised at the courtier. 

"In my youth such authors were much read," he 
continued. "I do not blame the better ones of that 
that period, when they turned away with disgust at 
such doings, and withdrew into the most retired pri- 
vate life, or into the Theban wilderness. Therefore 
when you speak of a malady of the Roman emperors, 
I might retort that it was only the result of the mon- 
strous malady of the people; although I see quite well 
that during this corruption individuals accomplished 
a great advance in the human race, the freeing the 
people from the exclusiveness of nationality to the 
unity of culture, and the new ideal which was brought 
upon earth by Christianity." 

" Undoubtedly the form of the state, and the style 
of culture which each individual emperor found, were 
decisive for his life. Every one is, in this sense, the 



1534 



THE OPEN COURT. 



child of his own time, and when it is a question of 
judging the measure of his guilt, it is fitting to weigh 
cautiously such considerations. But what I had the 
honor of pointing out to his Highness as the special 
merit of Tacitus, is only the masterly way with which 
he describes the peculiar symptoms and course of the 
Caesarean insanity." 

" They were all mad," interrupted the Sovereign, 
with a hoarse voice. 

" Pardon, gracious Sir," rejoined the Professor, in- 
nocently. " Augustus became a better man on the 
throne, and almost a century after the time of Tacitus 
there were good and moderate rulers. But something 
of the curse which unlimited power exercises on the 
soul may be discovered in most of the Roman em- 
perors. In the better ones it was like a malady which 
seldom showed itself, but was restrained by good sense 
or a good disposition. Many of them indeed were 
utterly corrupted, and in them the malady developed 
in definite gradation, the law of which one can easily 
understand." 

"Then you also know how these people were at heart ! " 
said the Sovereign, looking shyly at the Professor. 
The High Steward retreated towards a window. 
" It is not difficult in general to follow the course 
of the malady," replied the Professor, engrossed with 
his subject. " The first accession to power has an 
elevating tendency. The highest earthly vocation 
raises even narrow-minded men like Claudius; de- 
praved villians like Caligula, Nero, and Domitian, 
showed a certain nobleness at first. There is an eager 
desire to please, and strenuous exertion to establish 
themselves by graciousness; a fear of influential per- 
sons or of the opposition of the masses compels a cer- 
tain moderation. But arbitrary power has made men 
slaves, and the slavish feeling shows itself in an abject 
veneration which puts the emperor on a pinnacle 
above other men; he is trfeated as if specially favored 
by the gods, nay, as if his soul was an emanation of 
godly power. Amid this adoration by all, and the 
security of power, egotism soon increases. The acci- 
dental demands of an unrestrained will become reck- 
less, the soul gradually loses the power of distinguish- 
ing between good and evil; his personal wishes appear 
to the ruler henceforth as the necessity of the state, 
and every whim of the moment must be satisfied. 
Distrust of all who are independent leads to senseless 
suspicion; he who will not be pliant is set aside as an 
enemy, and he who adapts himself with suppleness is 
sure to exercise a mastery over his master. Family 
bonds are severed, the nearest relations are watched 
as secret enemies, the deceptive show of hearty con- 
fidence is maintained, but suddenly some evil deed 
breaks through the veil that hypocrisy has drawn over 
a hollow existence." 



The Sovereign slowly drew back his chair from the 
fire into the dark. 

" The idea of the Roman state at last entirely van- 
ishes from the soul, only personal dependence is re- 
quired; true devotion to the state becomes a crime. 
This helplessness, and the cessation of the power of 
judging of the worth — nay, even of the attachment of 
men — betoken an advance of the malady by which all 
sense of accountability is impaired. Now the elements 
of which the character is formed become more con- 
tracted and onesided, the will more frivolous and pal- 
try. A childish weakness becomes perceptible; pleas- 
ure in miserable trifles and empty jokes, together with 
knavish tricks which destroy without aim; it becomes 
enjoyment not only to torment and see the torments 
of others, but also an irresistible pleasure to drag all 
that is venerated down to a common level. It is very 
remarkable how, in consequence of this decay of 
thought, an unquiet and destructive sensuality takes 
the place of all. Its dark power becomes overmaster- 
ing, and instead of the honorable old age which gives 
dignity even to the weak, we are disgusted by the re- 
pugnant picture of decrepit debauchees, like Tiberius 
and Claudius. The last powers of life are destroyed 
by shameless and refined profligacy." 

" That is very remarkable," repeated the Sovereign, 
mechanically. 

The Professor concluded: " Thus are accomplished 
the four gradations of ruin; first, gigantic egotism; 
then suspicion and hypocrisy; then childish senseless- 
ness; and, lastly, repugnant excesses." 

The Sovereign rose slowly from his chair; he tot- 
tered, and the High Steward drew near to him terri- 
fied, but he supported himself with his hand on the 
arm of the chair, and, turning languidly to the Pro- 
fessor without looking at him, said, slowly: 

" I thank the gentleman for a pleasant hour." 

One could perceive the effort which it cost him to 
bring out the words. 

In going out the Professor asked in a low tone of 
the High Steward: 

" I fear I have wearied the Sovereign by this long 
discussion?" 

The High Steward looked with astonishment at 
the frank countenance of the scholar: 

" I do not doubt that the Sovereign will very soon 
show you that he has listened with attention." 

When they were on the stairs they heard a hoarse, 
discordant sound in the distance; the old gentleman 
shuddered, and leaned against the wall. 

The Professor listened; aiU was still. 

" It was like the cry of a wild beast." 

" The sound came from the street," replied the 
High Steward. 

(To be continKtd.) 



THE OPEN COURT. 



Ill 



MOODS. 

BY MARY MCjRGAN (GOWAN LEA). 
Author of " Woodnotes in the Gloaming," etc. 

DARKNESS. 
Am I then man, and yet am I not free? 

Am I a slave, with hands and feet in chains? 

Can I but move as far as go the reins? 
Some tyrant power alway restraining me? 
Or is the slavery within my breast 

Invisible to the great world of men? 

Almost invisible to mortal ken 
Yet never leaving me to peace and rest? 
My cruel hands I did not fashion — no! 

They were imposed; in truth I had no choice. 
Could I but shake them off with a ' let go'! 

And they straightway obey the mandate's voice! 

Alas, if man be born to slavery, 

His will not dowered with supremacy! 

11. 
With the physical eye I watched the night-sky and the course of the stars; 
with the mental eye I glanced at the dark background of the past 
and traced the thought-paths through the ages. 
DAWN. 
Imperfect human work ! Of tumult born; 
Of discord; and with painful struggle too; 
As if with every morning's breath man drew 
A subtle poison by which peace is torn. 
Imperfect human work I With each advance, 
Achieved at length through many tears of woe 
And joy commingled, man need not forego 
The while a glimpse into that great expanse 
Wherein the absolute, all-perfect force 

Conducts the systems of the world's unseen, 
(The suns of thought) in their transcendent course. 
The mortal eye is dazzled, and must screen 
Itself from light it cannot yet endure — 
A light all-powerful, all-kind, all-pure! 



THOSE IN AUTHORITY. 
Don't be disturbed by the barking; remain in your seats, for the 
barkers 
Wish but to get in your place, there to be barked at themselves. 

SPIRIT AND LETTER. 

Truly you can for a time palm off your valueless counters, 
But in the end, my dear sirs, debts must be paid in cold cash. 



NINE XENIONS. 

TRANSLATED FROM GOETHE AND SCHILLER'S MUSENALMANACH. 
BY * * * 
A MOTTO. 
Truth I am preaching. 'Tis truth and nothing but truth — under- 
stand me. 
My trtlth of course I For I know none to exist but my own. 
A PHILOSOPHICAL DISCUSSION. 
One, we can hear, speaks after the other; but no one 

Answers the other. Who calls two monologues a dispute? 
A PHILOSOPHER. 
Cogito ergo sum: I am thinking and therefore existing. 
If but the former is true, there's of the latter no doubt. 
MY ANSWER. 
If I am thinking, I am. Very well ! But who's constantly thinking? 
Often I was, I confess, when I thought nothing forsooth. 
TO CERTAIN PEOPLE. 
What a great pity, dear sirs ! To select the good you are anxious; 
But mother Nature deprived you of sound judgment and wits. 

ANALYSTS. 

Do you take truth as an onion whose layers you singly can peel off ? 

Never you'll draw out the truth, save 'twas deposited there. 
REPETITION. 
Let me repeat it again and again that error is error 

Whether pronounced by a fool or by a prominent sage. 



NOTES. 

The essay upon " Sensation and the Outer World," by M. 
Binet, will appear in our next issue. 

Prof. Bimge, of Basel, discusses a very important and much- 
debated problem in his pamphlet "Vitalism and Mechanism." A 
physico-chemical explanation of the phenomena of life is not to 
be thought of. Prof. Bunge says; the whole history of physiology 
disproves this notion. 

Prof. Bnnge, in another pamphlet we have received, entitled 
" The Alcohol Question," unreservedly supports the cause of tem- 
perance, advancing arguments to justify total abstinence from the 
standpoint both of the individual and the State. The teetotalers 
of America will undoubtedly rejoice at this sign of unselfish liber- 
alism in the scientific circles of a wine-growing country ; Prof. 
Bunge's arguments are irresistible, when rationally regarded. 
(Leipsic: F. C. W. Vogel, Pub.) 

Mr. Joseph Jefferson, the genial and talented actor, has long 
been at work upon an autobiography which will be published in 
the Century during the coming autumn. Mr. Jefferson's person- 
ality is perhaps the most sympathetic of any upon our stage, and 
we will await with great interest the reminiscences of his life, and 
the portraits he has drawn of contemporary artists. 

Prof. Cope asks at the close of his thoughtful essay on Ethical 
Evolution, " Is the love derived from Natural Sources?" We think 
it is, if by ' nature ' is to be understood the living, growing, and 
creating Universe. The view of " the paternal relation" is, we 
confess, the most beautiful allegory under which God can be con- 
ceived; but we should not forget that after all, it remains an 
allegory. 

In an eloquent sermon, " The Glorious Trinity," Rev. John 
W. Chadwick remarks: ' ' Let the methods of theology be frankly 
those of science, let the methods of her criticism be those of the 
most cautious and discriminating of our great historians and biog- 
raphers, and, if her representatives still prefer to say, ' We walk by 
faith, and not by sight,' they will be entirely welcome to do so. 
When Faith is perfectly at one with Reason and with Science, the 
more of it the better." (George H. Ellis, Pub., Boston.) 

The Humboldt Publishing Co., of 24 East 4th street, N. Y." 
have published in their Library Series, Grant Allen's "Force and 
Energy; A Theory of Dynamics," (price 15 cents). In the first 
part the author advances a theory of transcendental dynamics, 
which he afterwards applies to the creation of the universe. Force 
and Energy are defined as the two manifestations of power ; the 
first tending to initiate aggregative motion, finds its expression in 
gravitation, adhesion, chemical affinity, etc.; the second shows its 
vitality in the separative powers classified as molar, molecular, 
chemical, and electrical modes or manifestations of motion. Mr. 
Allen ingeniously illustrates these operations by explaining the ag- 
gregation of the earth into solid bodies, like planets, on the one 
hand, and by explaining also the movements of the planets in 
their orbits about the sun. 

The author has invented these distinctions of Energy and Force 
himself, and it is not to be expected that scientists will be pleased 
with the definitions given by Mr. Allen. 



THK OPKN COURT. 



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SENSATION AND THE OUTER WORLD. Alfred 

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Review of Recent Work of THE OPEN COURT. 

PSYCHOLOGY AND BIOLOGY. 

Experimental Psychology in France. Alfred 

BiNET No. 74. 

Dream, Sleep, and Consciousness. Dr. George 

M. Gould Nos. 74 and 75. 

Body and Mind; or the Data of Moral Physiol- 
ogy. Felix L. Oswald, M. D. . . .Nos. 72, 75, 78. 
M. Binet's entertaining sketch of the state of Experimental 
Psychology in France is the only direct and convenient source 
from which the reader can obtain a comprehensive idea of the con- 
tributions the author's country is making to this branch of mental 
science. The work of psychologists in France is distinguished by 
its almost exclusive bearing upon the pathological phases of psy- 
chological phenomena. The greatest successes of MM. Ribot, 
Richet, Charcot, and others, have been in treating the diseases of 
the mind. 
PHILOSOPHY. 

Sensation and Memory. Editor No. 74. 

Cognition, Knowledge, and Truth. Editor No. 76. 

Monism as the Formal Principle of Cognition. .No. 78. 
In the two first discussions, the conditions and processes by which 
we start from the bare excitations of the sensory world and attain 
to knowledge, are unfolded. Sensation is the primal condition of 
all knowledge; the products of sensation are preserved and trans- 
mitted as psychological forms; the psychological law of this reten- 
tive power is memory, from which source are evolved the different 
branches and varied forms of human thought. 

The last essay of this series shows that the constitution of the 
human mind naturally predisposes man for Monism. The unitary 
conception which the intellect seeks to formulate respecting all 
things brought within its range, is the inward proof offered to us 
of the correctness of the monistic philosophy. Monism is thus a 
subjective principle, informing us how to unify knowledge and 
make it potent. 

Axioms The Basis of Mathematics. Dr. Edward 
Brooks No. 76. 

The Old and the New Mathematics. Editor. No. 77. 

A Flaw in the Foundation of Geometry. 

Hermann Grassmann No. 77. 

In No. 76, Dr. Edward Brooks of Philadelphia, takes excep- 
tion to an editorial thesis that "mathematics is unfortunately con- 
structed on axioms." To Dr. Brooks no other way of construction 
is possible. There exist ' 'first truths or axioms which the mind 
has power to cognize," which are incapable of proof, and which 
«very system, even though nominally rejecting them, nevertheless 
tacitly employs. The editorial answer to Dr. Brooks, in No. 77, 



is based upon the principles unfolded in the series of disquisitions 
on " Form and Formal Thought," in Nos. 64, 66, 67, and 69. Ax- 
ioms so called, are the result of reasoning, and not the basis of it; 
the lav;s of formal thought determine the correctness and necessity 
of a proposition; conformity, in every instance, with these laws 
alone makes a truth universal. The relations of actual, material 
space have thus universally coincided with the laws of a formal 
system of third degree, and hence the rigidity and finality of those 
relations. In the same number, a translation from Hermann 
Grassmann's " Theory of Extension" is presented; it contains the 
fundamental points of departure of the new geometry from the old. 
No English version of this epoch-making work exists. The discus- 
sion will greatly interest those who have given their attention to 
the philosophy of mathematics. 

SOCIOLOGY AND ECONOMICS. 

Henry George and Land Taxation. Wheel- 
barrow No. 73. 

Symptoms of Social Degeneracy. Moncure D. 

Conway No. 74. 

Making Bread Dear. Wheelbarrow No. 78. 

Wheelbarrow opposes Mr. Henry George and the doctrine of 
Land Taxation with proper regard for the truth contained in the 
distinguished economist's theories. Objection is mainly taken to 
the universal curative power that the advocates of Land Taxa- 
tion claim for their remedy. In man's obedience to moral laws 
Wheelbarrow finds the only magic wherewith to change the face of 
society. 

Much criticism has been elicited by the bare mention of Mr. 
George's economical doctrines — indubitable testimony of their pop- 
ularity and strength. Letters have appeared in No. 79 and others 
will follow. 

" Symptoms of Social Degeneracy," Mr. Moncure D. Conway 
finds to be not unfrequent even in American civilization. We are 
prone to emphasize the survivals of barbaric institutions in effete 
E'.}rope, while overlooking the excresences of our own body politic. 
Lynch-Law, literary piracy, corruption in administrative circles, 
are signs of the decay of an ethical system and the theology that 
protects it. Worst of all, these evils are not unaccompanied with 
attempts at palliation. 

HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL. 

The Study of Sanskrit. H. Oldeneerg No. 79. 

Aspects, Christian and Human. William R. 

Thayer No. 79. 

The study of Sanskrit, upon which a series of articles com- 
mences with No 79, is a department of historical research com- 
paratively new. Prof. Oldenberg, one of the most eminent San- 
skrit scholars of the present day, tells us in popular language the 
story of the origin, growth, and present state of Sanskrit research. 
This department of philological and historical inquiry has done 
more than any other towards the true interpretation of the early 
history, civilization, and religion of the Aryan peoples. Within 
less than a century results have been attained, of which former 
generations would not have presumed to think. The articles have 
been translated from the German. 

Under the title of " Aspects, Christian and Human," Mr. W. 
R. Thayer maintains in lucid and earnest language that the in- 
fluences and forces to which the great changes wrought in modern 
society must be attributed, have not proceeded from sources es- 
sentially Christian. These advances are distinctly secular and hu- 
man in character. " Not the preacher, but the poet; not the poli- 
tician, but the untrammelled agitator, men whose tongues were 
free, and whose hearts were fearless, have been the heralds and 
champions of better things." 



The Open Court 



A -WEEKLY JOURNAL. 



Devoted to the Work of Conciliating Religion with Science 



No. 8^. (Vol. III.— 5) 



CHICAGO, MARCH 28, li 



I Two Dollars per Yea 
I Single Copies, lo cts. 



SENSATION AND THE OUTER WORLD* 

BY ALFRED BINET. 

Although the subject that I propose to discuss 
may be regarded as belonging to the province of meta- 
phj'sics, I do not conceive that this circumstance is a 
sufficient reason for not entering upon it. I am aware 
that many eminent psychologists, at the present day, 
profess a profound aversion for metaphysics. I do not 
share their aversion. In the first place, 1 deem it 
highly improper to limit arbitrarily the field of re- 
search, under the pretext of excluding metaphysics. 
Investigators ought not to erect posts in the domain 
of science, bearing notices of "no trespassing here." 
People have never gone so far as to say to physicists, 
to chemists, or to physiologists: That subject is for- 
bidden you, do not touch upon that problem ! Why 
then do they limit the freedom of the psychologist? 

Moreover, it is not enough to set boundaries, it 
is necessary, at least, that the boundaries be fixed, so 
as not to give rise to disputes and litigation. Now who, 
I ask, can say definitely where metaphysics begins 
and positive science ends? As M. Charcot has re- 
cently remarked, with great aptness, we all of us 
perhaps, both observers and phj'sicians, are metaphy- 
sicians without knowing it. 

We are pleased to have seen these liberal ideas 
endorsed by the Paris Society of Physiological Psy- 
chology. Some four years ago we attended the 
organizing session of that society, of which we were a 
charter-member, and although the proceedings were 
not public, we believe we commit no indiscretion in 
telling what took place there. One of our most distin- 
guished members maintained the proposition that we 
ought to add to the article of our constitution prohib- 
iting in the usual manner discussions upon political 
and religious topics, a special clause prescribing with 
equal severity, discussions of metaphysical questions. 
This motion, it would seem, should have been favor- 
ably received by the Society, since at the first session, 
it was composed of none but physiologists and phj'si- 
cians. It is known that physicians, generally, have no 
weakness for metaphysics. Nevertheless, the Society 
protested unanimousl}', we may say, against the meas- 
ure of exclusion proposed, and Metaph)'sics was not 

* Part of an unpublished essay upon " External Perception. " rewarded by 
the Aca'd6mie des Sciences morales^ poUtiqucs. 



proscribed. The adherents of liberalism in philosophy, 
upon this decision being given, applauded with both 
hands. 

Having prefaced these remarks, I propose, without 
allowing myself to be diverted from my purpose by 
any mistrust of metaph3'sical speculation, to examine 
an extremely interesting question regarding the rela- 
tions between sensation and its natural, normal ex- 
citant, the external object. This subject, it seems to 
me, has not been thoroughly elucidated, and though I 
make no pretension whatever to settle the question in 
a definitive manner, I believe that a few instructive 
considerations can be presented upon different points. 



First, to attain clearness, let us define several of 
the terms that we shall have to employ; and to that 
end we may numerate in brief the various phenemena 
that we propose to study. Suppose that, mj' eyes 
being closed, I lay my hand upon m}' table, and that 1 
feel a pin rolling about beneath my finger; I experi- 
ence a sensation of a tactile kind, which excites in me 
a series of inferences, conscious, sub-conscious, and 
unconscious, and the whole occurrence is comprised 
in the following judgment: I touch a pin. In this waj', 
through external perception, we possess knowledge of 
objects by the sensations they produce 'in us 

Sensation is generally described as if it were pro- 
duced directly by the contact of the external object 
with our organ of sense. But, manifestly, this is 
erroneous. When an object excites in us a sensation, 
it accomplishes this through the intermediary agency of 
our nervous system. The pin rolling about beneath 
our fingers first irritates the corpuscles of touch that 
lie disposed beneath the skin for the reception of tac- 
tile excitations. Thence the excitation travels through 
the nervous fibers, called the sensitive nerves, that lead 
to the spinal marrow; having reached the marrow, the 
excitation ascends by following the posterior ramifica- 
tions of that organ; it traverses the bulb, follows the 
cerebral peduncles, penetrates into the corona radiata 
of Reil, and finallj' gets into the gray cortical matter 
of the convolutions of the brain, which is probably its 
final place of reception. At that instant the conscious 
sensation is produced. In order to be exhibited, it is 
necessarj' that the peripheral excitation traverse all 



1536 



THE OPEN COURT. 



these successive stages, which even now we know so 
imperfectly. If the path followed by the excitation is 
interrupted at some point, if the nerve, for example, is 
severed, if the spinal marrow is interrupted by trans- 
verse myelitis; if, in fine, for any cause whatsoever the 
excitation does not get as far as the brain, there is no 
sensation, no perception. 

It follows from these extremely simple facts (which, 
notwithstanding their simplicity, I have deemed it 
profitable to recapitulate), that there occurs between 
the external object — the pin for instance — and our tac- 
tile sensation, an intermediate phenomenon; that phe- 
nomenon is the excitation of the nerves. We are in com- 
plete ignorance as to what that excitation is, but we 
are certain of its existence. Accordingly, that which has 
produced our sensation of a pin, is not directly the 
pin; it is the nervous modification which that object 
has produced, in acting upon our sense of touch; our 
sensation succeeds this nervous modification, it ex- 
presses to a certain extent its character, and in all in- 
stances the perception of an external object is re- 
duced to the perception of the alterations which that 
object provokes in our nervous fibers and nervous 
centers. 

If things take this course, we see at once what the 
result is. Nothing resembles less the external object 
than the excitation it propagates in our nervous sub- 
stance. What resemblance is there, for example, be- 
tween the head of a pin that lies beneath my finger, and 
the physico-chemical phenomenon that traverses the 
sensitive fibers of my hand and, passing through the 
spinal marrow, reaches my brain, where it gives rise 
to the conscious perception of a pin. Plainly, here 
are phenomena entirely dissimilar. It follows, there- 
fore, that if there is a fact, at the present day, firmly 
established, it is that the sensations we experience upon 
contact with external objects are in no particular the 
copy of those objects. There is nothing outside of my 
eye that is like color and light, nothing outside of my 
organ of hearing that is like noise or sound, nothing 
outside of my sense of touch that is like hardness or 
softness or resistance, nothing outside of my sense of 
smell that is like a perfume, nothing apart from my 
sense of taste that is like a flavor. 

Is a direct proof of this asked? A very simple 
illustration will serve. Take an electrical excitation. 
Bring it to bear upon any one of the senses. We will 
see that this excitation, which in itself is always the 
same, will produce entirely different effects in each 
separate organ of sense. To the eye it will be a flash 
of light; to the hearing, a crackling sound; to the 
touch, a light shock; to the taste, a metallic flavor; etc. 
These are facts now admitted by all physiologists and 
philosophers. They may be summarized in the re- 
mark of 'Helmholtz, that sensations bear no resem- 



blance to their objects and are simply signs committed 
to the interpretation of the mind. 

It would be incorrect, however, to imagine that all 
scientists have renounced the idea of similarity be- 
tween what the consciousness perceives and what 
exists outside of our organs of sense — between the 
sensation and the object. In theory, this erroneous 
notion is rejected; but in point of fact we encounter 
it everywhere; only it has become more subtile and 
more refined than formerly, and I believe that it would 
be interesting to show how this exploded doctrine, 
this nai've and crude realism, that no longer ventures 
to show its face, has crept into many fundamental 
theories of physics, physiology, and psychology, and 
wholly invalidated them. But a thorough study of 
this question would require several articles; we must 
limit our discussion upon this occasion, and we shall 
accordingly content ourselves with examining the in- 
fluence of the fallacious ideas just noticed, upon the 
physical theory of the external world. 



A GREAT many contemporary physicists and philos- 
ophers, Wundt, Haeckel, Huxle}', Dubois-Reymond, 
have maintained the theory that the ultimate, absolute, 
definitive explanation of natural phenomena is a me- 
chanical explanation, and consists in reducing these 
various phenomena to the fundamental concepts of 
motion and mass. Such, in the opinion of these au- 
thors, would be the ultimate bound of a scientific ex- 
planation; the scientist will have accomplished his 
task when he has succeeded in showing that every 
physical event is mechanical and consists in a transfer 
of motion between different masses. 

Different authors — few it is true — have arisen against 
this doctrine, and have combatted it by various argu- 
ments. Mr. Spencer, for instance, has endeavored to 
show that we are implicated in an alternative of ab- 
surdities, the moment we suppose that the effect that 
manifests itself to us as motion, is in itself that which 
we conceive as motion.* 

More recently, Mr. Stallo has observed, that all the 
properties of matter imply a relation between two 
things; they exist only in relation with and in de- 
pendence upon a second object which receives the 
action. And s'o, we cannot speak of the properties of 
light, for instance, as belonging absolutely to it; apart 
from like considerations applying to all the other ob- 
jects supposed to be representable in the sensations 
of the human eye. Therefore, it follows, the knowledge 
we possess of nature, resting upon observed relations, 
cannot pretend to an absolute character. 

These several objections appear to us quite cor- 
rect; but there is one which the authors mentioned 



1HE OREK COURT. 



1537 



have forgotten, and which, in itself, is sufficient to de- 
stroy the definitive character that it has been desired 
to ascribe to the mechanical theory of phenomena. 
This objection is expressed by saying, that the me- 
chanical theory has failed to recognize the purely sub- 
jective nature of our sensations, and has sought to give 
them an objective stamp, thus committing a lamenta- 
ble error which, as formerly remarked, may be pro- 
nounced a naive realism. It is indeed with profound 
astonishment that we find so many physicists still ad- 
hering to that crude realism which, since the time 
of Berkeley, is no longer discussed. 

Examine, for instance, the h5'pothesis of ether vi- 
brations, by which modern physicists explain phenom- 
ena of light. Physicists believe that these vibrations 
actually exist outside of our sensory organs and take 
place in an elastic medium called the ether, with an 
amplitude, direction, and velocity determined by com- 
putation. They come to explain, in this way, how 
light added to light, in certain cases, can produce 
darkness. The phenomenon is to be attributed to an 
interference, that is to say to a state where the ether 
molecules, acted upon simultaneously by equal forces 
and from contrary directions, are held in equili- 
brium. 

The fallac}' of this explanation is immediately seen. 
It consists in transporting into the external world, into 
what Kant calls the world of noumena, mechanical 
phenomena that we see realized in our observations 
and which accordinglj' consist of phenomena of sensa- 
tion. What, pray, is a vibration? How do we per- 
ceive a vibration? We have, here, a simple sensation, 
either visual, tactile, or muscular; the sight of a vibra- 
tion, for example of a pendulum vibration, is just as 
much subjective as the sight of a color or the taste 
of a dish; the vibration in the form it appears to us, 
being a pure sensation, cannot reproduce exactly that 
which takes place in the external object; it is not the 
cop3' of the external object. 

Accordingly, the mechanical theory of light, if it 
be not regarded as purely symbolical, and is taken in 
its literal significance, attributes as the cause of our 
sensations of light, phenomena that are known to us 
only through other sensations of light: — a theory that 
explains sensations by other sensations. 

To avoid this fallacious reasoning in a circle, it 
suffices to take the mechanical theory of light for just 
what it is. It is not an explanation of the laws of 
light; it is not a representation of the external phe- 
nomena, necessaril}' unknown, that produce our sen- 
sations; it is a simple translation of a certain number 
of sensations into other sensations that seem to us 
more precise. But we shall recur directly to this point. 
Eor the present, let us proceed with our work of 
criticism. 



SiMiL.-\R considerations may be presented respect- 
ing the physical theory of sound. We see by direct ob- 
servation in this instance, and not by mere hypotheses, 
that sound is produced by a vibratory motion of the 
air, or of any medium through which it is propagated. 
Scientists, accordingly, have not failed to attempt an 
explanation of our auditory sensations by air vibra- 
tions communicated to our auditory apparatus. 

This erroneous explanation has been given by a 
great many authors. To illustrate, I shall cite the fol- 
lowing passage taken from a work of Blaserna upon 
Sound and Music. "Observe," says that physicist, 
"that vibrations are something objective; they exist in 
the sounding body, exterior to man. Sound, on the 
contrary, is produced in our ear; it is a subjective phe- 
nomenon. It is permissible to conclude, accordingly, 
that the vibrations are the cause and the sound the 
effect produced upon our hearing, or, in other words, 
that sound is the result of certain vibrations of bodies." 

The reader will have no difficulty in remarking the 
error committed in this citation. The vibration of the 
sounding body, being known to us by sensations, has 
no more objective value than the auditory sensations. 
Sound can no more be explained by vibration than vi- 
bration by sound. All that can be said is, that what 
for the eye, the touch, and the muscular sense is a vi- 
bratory motion, is for the ear a sound. It may be 
added that physics simply establishes constant rela- 
tions between certain qualities of sound: such as pitch, 
intensity, and timbre, and the amplitude, number, and 
form of the motions. But to go beyond that, is im- 
possible; while it is chimerical in the extreme to re- 
gard the vibration of the sounding body as the cause 
of the sound. That cause we cannot know, because 
we cannot pass beyond the boundary of sensation. It 
is possible, that when we perceive a sound, a peculiar 
phenomenon occurs externally to us, which, when ex- 
citing the retina, produces the appearance of a vibra- 
tory movement, and when exciting the organ of hearing, 
produces the impression of sound; but whatever it be. 
it must be added that this external and inaccessible 
phenomenon is in its nature distinct from the two 
effects it produces in us. 

To sum up, and not further to extend the discus- 
sion, I believe that physicists are wrong in seeking to 
explain natural phenomena by phenomena of motion, 
by a system of forces, or by properties of atoms; for 
the ideas that we can form of motion, force, and atoms, 
are constructed by the instrumentality of purely sub- 
jective sensations and give us no light whatever as 
to the nature of the external world. 

IV. 

Before concluding this study, I must sa}' a few 
words relative to a highly interesting question that 



'538 



THE OPKN COURT 



arises. It is incontestable that observers find an in- 
calculable advantage in substituting, in their investi- 
gation of phenomena, the analysis of one of their sen- 
sations for the analysis of another. Acoustics, for ex- 
ample, would have yet made little progress, if it had 
been strictly limited to the investigation of sound sen- 
sations. That it has attained its present state of ad- 
vancement is due to its having systematically studied 
sound under the aspect of motion, instead of having 
considered it under its acoustical aspect. The physi- 
cist has substituted his ej'e for his ear; and the study 
of vibratory motions, which entirely escape the ear 
and which the eye is able to grasp, has served as the 
foundation of acoustical science. 

Furthermore, this is not the only instance where 
we remark that great advantage may be derived from 
substituting one sense for another. Generally, in 
scientific research, the eye alone officiates, and great 
numbers of instruments are designed to translate a 
mechanical, acoustical, or thermal phenomenon, into 
a phenomenon of sight; such, for example, is the ther- 
mometer, which enables the eye to measure tempera- 
ture with much greater delicacy than could be done 
by the sense of touch. 

There are certain circumstances, even, in which a 
visual sensation is replaced by a visual sensation of 
another kind. The graphic method is an instance of 
this. A muscular contraction may be studied in two 
different ways. First, by contenting one's self with sim- 
ply observing the movement of the member, the pro- 
tuberance of the muscle beneath the skin; and sec- 
ondly, by employing the graphical method, which in- 
scribes the phenomenon, upon paper, in the shape of 
a curve. In both cases, the observer is informed of 
the phenomenon by a visual impression. But if the 
observer rests satisfied with merely viewing the active 
member, he sees little; he establishes, in the most fa- 
vorable cases, simply the protuberance that the con- 
tracted muscle produces in the contour of the mem- 
ber. On the other hand, when he has before his eyes 
the curve of contraction, he has the measure of the 
phenomenon; he sees the height of contraction, its pe- 
riod, the shape of the line of ascent and descent, and 
a number of other details. 

Similarly, in the study of an acoustical phenomenon, 
if the physicist prefers the visual sense to the auditory 
sense, it is because the visual senses furnishes him 
with more precise results than the sense of hearing. 
Through the eye, a person grasps a motion; having 
registered that motion, a person sees its form, its ex- 
tent, its velocity. These are exact data, capable of 
Ijeing measured and susceptible of introduction into 
computation. The sensation of sound, on the other 
hand, is a state of consciousness difficult to measure; 
this is why it is neglected. 



The supremacy ordinarily accorded the visual 
sense over the other senses seems to be due not so 
much to the peculiar nature of visual sensation as to 
the presence of an exceedingly important element here 
involved. That element is extension. The testimony 
of the sight is employed to measure phenomena made 
known by other sensations because the intervention . 
of sight reduces the operation to a measurement of an 
extended object, that is to say, virtually to a question 
of mathematics. 

All human sciences hitherto developed, are visual, 
tactile, or muscular sciences; wherein all the phenom- 
ena of nature are brought within the notion of exten- 
sion. A purely auricular science, founded wholly upon 
sensations of sound, has never yet been constructed; 
although auricular aesthetics is at the present time 
highly developed and exceedingly rich in point of com- 
plexity. 

Still, it is not impossible to conceive of a science 
purely auricular; and in order not to remain in the 
dark upon the question, I shall confine myself to cit- 
ing a very simple example, which will show that the 
ear can do the rule of three. If some one, for instance, 
were to propose the following problem to me: I have 
bought three dozen eggs for three dollars and twenty- 
five cents what is the price of an egg, — I believe that 
I would be able to solve that little problem without 
employing figures, pencils, and paper, but simply by 
recourse to my sense of hearing. 

A rule of three can be put in the form of an equa 
tion, thus: 

a c 

1> '~ X 
and we know by means of what algebraical operations 
we can determine the value of x, when the values of 
a, b, and c are given. This method belongs to what 
may be designated visual science. But it is possible, 
we maintain, to proceed differently, by resorting simply 
to the science of hearing. 

Let us take a seat before an open piano. If we 
strike two notes successively that stand in the relation 
oi aio b with respect to the number of vibrations, and 
if thereupon we strike a third note that stands to the 
first in the relation of a to c, 'our ear will naturally 
find the fourth note which will be to c as /' is to a. 
Thus, when one has sounded successively the do and 
mi and then the do of the following octave, the ear will 
spontaneously indicate the mi of the second octave. 

Any one who has a tolerably exact ear, can make 
the experiment and solve the problem. Three notes 
being given, a person by allowing himself to be 
guided by the quality of the sound, is able to find a 
fourth note which stands to the third in the same re- 
lation as the second to the first. Persons having a 
very exact ear and able to distinguish a fifty-fourth of 



THE OPEN COURT. 



1539 



a semitone, will solve the problem with perfect exacti- 
tude. On the other hand, those whose musical sense 
is not so highly developed, will commit slight errors. 

I insist upon the principle of the operation and not 
upon its applications, which are of slight importance 
to me. I do not desire to investigate the degree of 
complexity that it is possible to attain in this direction. 
I do not know whether it would be possible to convert 
the piano into a machine for computation. I have 
simply wished to show that b)' allowing ourselves to 
be guided by the quality of sound sensation, we are 
able to solve numerical problems. 

It is, I hold, the mere quality of the sensation that 
serves us in such experiments; the mind in no wise 
fixes upon the number of the vibrations, which, fur- 
thermore, the ear is incapable of perceiving; it is the 
pitch of the note that is utilized in solving the rule of 
three. 

These considerations, despite their insufficiency, 
show us that the sciences actually existing, sciences 
founded altogether upon extension, cannot furnish us 
the measure of the possible sciences nor even of the 
sciences of the future. We do not know what fu- 
turity has in store for us. But it is probable that it 
will transform our sciences and our conception of' the 
world, as it will transform our organs. 

Paris, February, 1889. 



FORM AS REALITY. 

M. Alfred Binet presents in his essay " Sen- 
sation and the Outer World " the idealistic view of 
the subject. Mr. E. C. Hegeler in his article, " The 
Soul," (published in No. 15 of The Open Court,) 
places himself on the standpoint of Realism. He ex- 
plains the problem by a transfer of motion in a special 
form. We here reproduce the following paragraphs:* 

" Feelings are of different intensity, as one pain is 
stronger than another. Single feelings may be of 
longer or shorter duration, and between them there 
may be definite intervals of time. Feelings also differ 
among themselves as various tastes or odors, or as 
those accompanying different musical notes. 

" I imagine to have two phonographs, and a speech 
recorded on the tin-foil of the one ; in the other the 
tin-foil is blank. The geometrical line imagined as 
resulting from a longitudinal section of the scratch in 
the tin-foil is the analogue to the speech. Both pho- 
nographs are turned at the same time. The scratch 
in the tin-foil of the first speaks ; a similar line is made 
in the tin-foil of the second. Both now have the same 
geometrical line. What has taken place between 
them during the operation ? Energy, coming form- 
less, or rather uniform, from my arm -muscles in 

* See The Open Court, pp. 393, 394. 



turning the phonograph, passed through the air 
in vibrations corresponding to the geometrical line in 
the tin-foil of the first phonograph and was received 
b}' the second, producing the same geometrical line 
in its tin-foil. Is not that what we call form in the 
undulating geometrical line intimately associated with 
energ}' in these vibrations ? 

" In this way I speak of the feelings I have on hear- 
ing a melody, as corresponding to the geometrical 
form of the line in the tin-foil of a phonograph that 
records it." 

HONEST AND DISHONEST WAGES. 

BY WHEELBARROW. 

I SAID a few days ago that although my wages had 
nominally increased from twenty-five to fifty per cent, 
in the last thirty years, it had not swollen in pro- 
portion to the cost of living, and that I find it harder 
'to live now than in 1859. I acknowledge myself a little 
confused and doubtful about it, since a great Chicago 
editor has contradicted me in his testimony before the 
Senate Committee on Education and Labor. He as- 
sures me that I entirely mistake the cause of my pov- 
erty ; that it is not because I do not get wages enough, 
but because I don't save what I get, but squander it 
in luxury, and tobacco, and beer. Well, if I should 
save all of it, and never spend a cent, it would take 
me more than a thousand years to become as rich as 
that editor ; therefore, I prefer the evidence of my own 
home and my own pockets to the opulent moralizing 
of this economical philosopher. In his tenderness for 
the workingman, he travels all the way to New York 
to impress upon the committee the prudent maxim of 
one Dr. Benjamin Franklin, that " a penny saved is a 
penny earned." 

This editor is one of those philanthropists who pay 
fifty cents for a dollar's worth of work, and make up 
the balance in good advice from Poor Richard's alma- 
nac. The question is not what we do with our money, 
but do we get what fairly belongs to us? As for beer, 
I have never read any more glowing tributes to the 
virtues of it than I have found in the editorial columns 
of that very editor's newspaper. No doubt it would be 
a good thing if all poor men would abandon beer, and 
it might be a good thing too if all rich men would take 
the pledge of Sir John Falstaff to " eschew sack and 
live cleanly," but this is a matter of morals and pru- 
dence to be decided by the freewill of each person for 
himself, rich and poor alike. It is not a question of 
wages. In the inventory of the great qualities of a 
certain President of the United States I find recorded 
his boundless capacity for champagne. I think it would 
have been better for him if he had never drank cham- 
pagne; but that is no affair of mine. Mr. Editor will 
not be allowed to confuse the wages question with the 



I540 



XHE OPEN COURT. 



beer question, for each must be discussed on its own 
merits, and decided by itself. 

Speaking for myself, I have long since abandoned 
the use of beer, and all other intoxicating drinks ; first, 
because I couldn't afford to buy them, and secondly, 
because I am stronger and healthier without them. 
As for tobacco, I am still undecided as to whether its 
use is hurtful or beneficial. Of course cigars are be- 
yond my reach, but a pipe of tobacco has a soothing 
influence upon me, and the expense of it is nothing in 
comparison with the solace it brings. I have a fancy 
that to a certain extent it has the virtue of appeasing 
hunger. No doubt a doctor could easily show me that 
I am wrong in this opinion, but I have always noticed 
that whenever I have abandoned the use of tobacco I 
have been hungrier than I was before, so that I really 
believe the cost of it is more than balanced in the sav- 
ing of bread. It may be replied to this that smoking 
must therefore be injurious, as it weakens appetite, 
but this is no argument in my case, because of all hu- 
man blessings a good appetite is the smallest benefit 
to me. I have no use for it. I can stand the expense 
of tobacco much better than the expense of a good 
appetite. 

But I began to write about wages, and have per- 
mitted that editor to switch me off to the side-track of 
beer. I said that I was getting a dollar and a half a 
day. That's what they tell me I get, but I have my 
doubts about it. Do I really get it ? Last week I 
earned nine dollars exactly — nine" silver dollars. I 
spent them for groceries ; did I get nine dollars' worth ? 
I suspect that I did not. I believe I was cheated in 
the weight of the dollars, but I am quite sure that the 
grocer didn't cheat himself in the weight of the gro- 
ceries, and I fear that I only got in goods the value of 
the silver in the dollars that I paid for them. They 
tell me that the quantity of silver in a dollar is worth 
eighty cents in gold, and no more ; if so, then my 
wages is only one dollar and twenty cents a day in 
gold. This is a frightful discount, and it goes far to 
explain the reason why my dollar and a half a day is 
not so much to me as a dollar a day was in the olden 
time, because the extra twenty cents is not half enough 
to cover the extra cost of life. 

I suspect that this twenty per cent, on our wages 
is a tax upon labor, which goes all into the pockets of 
capital — a tribute to monopoly — every dollar of which 
is profit. I believe that this twenty per cent, furnishes 
the capital stock of all the national banks in the coun- 
try, and that it largely contributes to the unjust dis- 
tribution of wealth, which is the reproach of our 
statesmanship, and a menace to the life of our institu- 
tions. It widens the social difference between the 
rich man and me until we scowl at one another — I at 
him with envy, and he at me with fear. It is making 



castes and class distinctions in this country that some 
day will come together with a crash like thunder, as 
they did in France in 1789. A dollar and a half a day 
in silver for me, and ten thousand dollars a day in 
gold for Mr. Vanderbilt, is illogical in a state of society 
pretending to recognize the equality of us both ; it is 
the illegitimate offspring of capital and polluted law. 
I must have more and he must have less, or the 
strained ligament that holds society together will 
break. Not by confiscation, nor by physical violence, 
will the change come — at least in our day — but it will 
come that way in the next generation, unless the moral 
forces now at work shall establish capital and labor on 
a more friendly ai>d equitable basis, unless our social 
system shall be arranged on juster principles, insuring 
a fairer division of the profits of labor between the 
employer and the employed. 

I mentioned my suspicions about the silver dollar 
to a friend who understands monetary science better 
than I do, and he assured me that my argument was 
all unsound, because based on the fallacy that dollars 
of different metals were of unequal value, and the 
additional fallacy that if I should not be paid in the 
cheaper metal I should be paid in the dearer one at 
the same rate of wages. He told me that all dollars 
are of equal value by decree of Congress. He proved 
his case by the practical test of a dollar's worth of 
sugar, which was the same in quantity, whether paid 
for in paper, or silver, or gold. As he brought the 
proof of his argument to actual demonstration, I was 
compelled to yield, but I was not satisfied, although 
the concrete evidence of a dollar's worth of sugar was 
palpable as a church or a barn. 

I learn by object lessons when I learn anything at 
all, because my mind soon tires with metaphysics and 
abstract reasoning. In that way I tried to solve the 
puzzle by the actual experiment of a silver dollar 
which I paid out the other day for coffee. It was a 
bright, good-looking dollar, with stars and other na- 
tional emblems upon it to give it character, and the 
positive statement that it might be depended upon as 
" one dollar." If any suspicion of short weight, or 
fraud, or adulteration attached to it, such suspicion 
immediately vanished on the discovery that it was a 
religious dollar, inscribed with the legend " In God We 
Trust." Not to trust in a pious dollar such as that 
would be to lack faith like an infidel ; but, after all, I 
believe that it did not buy me a dollar's worth of cof- 
fee. As I walked over to the store I said to myself : 
"Does it make any difference whether this coin is 
called a dollar, or a florin, or a doubloon ? Will it buy 
me any more coffee than the worth of the silver in it ? 
The grocer buys his coffee in Brazil, and he pays for 
it in gold ; if this coin is worth eighty cents in gold 
and no more, I can get eighty cents' worth of coffee 



THE OPKN COURT. 



1541 



for it, and no more; unless the government steps in 
and agrees to make up the difterence between the value 
of the cheap dollar and the dear one. If the eighty 
per cent, dollar and the hundred per cent, dollar have 
equal purchasing power, it must be because in some 
way or other the government promises to redeem 
the cheaper coin. Unless this promise of redemption 
can be found somewhere in the fiscal machinery of 
the government, I could not possibly get more than • 
eight}' cents worth of coffee for my silver dollar. There 
is no political economy in the world that will convince 
me that the grocer could afford to give me any more. 
I know that Aladdin gave a new lamp for an old one, 
and got the best of the bargain, but that was an ex- 
ceptional case, the only one in history. Similar good 
luck is not likely to happen in our day. The transmu- 
tation of metals has not been done yet, and until it is 
done we need not expect to buy a hundred cents' worth 
of coffee for eight)' cents' worth of silver. I think I 
am cheated in the dollars I get for my work. 



THE ONENESS OF THE PHENOMENAL AND THE 
NOUMENAL. 

What we call things, what we call our personality, 
our Self, our Ego, are merely abstract concepts that we 
have formed for the purpose of distinguishing them 
from other things. Words serve the practical purpose 
of orientation among the innumerable phenomena of 
nature. Absolutely considered, and independent of 
their properties, things neither exist, nor do we our- 
selves. Properties are parts of a thing, abstracted 
from it in thought. Some, and in fact very man)', of 
these properties are only separable in thought, and not 
in reality, from things; while the totality of all prop- 
erties constitutes the thing entire. Most of the words, 
by which we designate things, are furthermore shifting 
concepts. We retain the same word, even when parts 
or properties of a thing, it may be, have fallen away 
or when new ones are added. The rose-bush in the 
garden continues the same rose-bush, even after we 
have engrafted another species into its stem; it has 
merely lost certain properties and acquired new ones. 
A hat without a band and trimming is still a hat, and 
an old hat with a new band and new trimming con- 
tinues to be the same hat to us. Only when the change 
made is very great do we cease to designate the ob- 
ject by the old name. 

We ourselves remain ourselves, although continu- 
ally changing, in body as well as in mind. Of our 
world of ideas, various parts fade away, or are wholly 
forgotten, while with new experiences new thoughts 
continually grow from the old ones. 

In order completely to understand a thing, we must 
know it in its relation to other things. The character 
of a table is constituted not only by its shape, but also 



by its purpose to serve people as a table. Without 
this purpose, properly considered, a table would not 
be a table. A stone, for instance, that has been acci- 
dentally shaped into the form of a table by the grind- 
ing action of a glacier, is no table. The surroundings 
in which a table serves the purpose of a table, thus 
belong to the table as a property which we cannot 
separate from it. We must learn to understand every- 
thing, therefore, not as the expression of something 
having a separate, absolute existence, that lies con- 
cealed behind its realities, but as a part of the All. 

Our bodies, of themselves, and apart from all else, 
would not be able to exist. Without the pressure of 
the atmosphere, we would burst asunder, while the air 
surrounding us belongs most intimately to our lungs. 
A recent scientist has called the kitchen an extension 
of our chewing and digesting apparatuses. And cor- 
rectly. But also the fields upon which grow the corn 
that miller and baker convert into bread for us, belong 
to our Selves. In reality, the whole world is a part of 
our being, and the manifestation of our existence is 
conditioned wholly by the relations in which we stand 
to the outer world. 

This holds good not only of our physical, but still 
more so of our spiritual existence. Our soul is made 
up of perceptions and ideas. The objects of our per- 
ceptions and our thoughts acquire thereby a relation 
to our Self; they become parts of the Self, which in 
the event of a change also transform the corresponding 
parts of the Self. 

The closer the connection is in which a thing stands 
to us, the more it appears as a part of our being. The 
skilled violin-player feels his violin, as though it were 
a part of his body. He controls it, indeed, as an acro- 
bat does his limbs. A benumbed limb which no longer 
pains, on the contrary, appears as a foreign body that 
does not belong to us. The captain of a com- 
pany conducts his troops, as an engineer controls his 
engine. The engine becomes a part of the engine- 
driver, the company a part of the captain, and the au- 
dience a part of the speaker. Everything it is true, 
rests upon reciprocity. The speaker in his turn is a 
part of the audience. Language is the bond of union; 
in language speaker and audience are one. The 
speaker must speak the language of his audience, and 
the audience must understand the language that he 
speaks. So the engineer is part of the locomotive and 
he must be familiar with it; in other words, a picture 
of the locomotive must exist as a living nerve-structure 
in his brain. 

Although we are, in fact, distinct individuals, 
distinguished from each other by an "I" or a "you," 
by a "he" or a " she " ; yet when closely scrutinized, 
the "you " of our friends and enemies is a part our 
own Self. In everyway the "I," "you," "he," "she," 



'542 



THK OPEN COURT 



and "we" are parts of a great whole; and human so- 
ciety with its social and political institutions, with its 
ethical ideas and ideals, is only possible because these 
"you's" are but little distinct from the " I's." That 
our life and property in general is safe, that we buy 
and sell, marry and are given in marriage, that the 
laws are observed, and that in ordinary circumstances 
we hold intercourse with one another mutually trusting 
in our honest intentions; that, too, we struggle and com- 
pete with one another and try our best to maintain our 
places in the universal aspiration onward: — all this is 
only possible because we are parts of the same hu- 
manity and the children of the same epoch, possessing 
the same ideas of right and wrong, and bearing within 
ourselves in a certain sense the same souls. 

Could some evil spirit, over night, change our souls 
into those of savages and cannibals, or even into those 
of the robber-knights of the middle ages, all our sa- 
cred laws, all our constables, all the police power of 
the State would be of no avail: we would inevitably 
sink back to the state of civilization in which those 
people existed. But could a God ennoble our souls, 
so that the sense of right and reason became still more 
purified in every heart, then better things would re- 
sult spontaneously and much misery and error would 
vanish from the earth. 

And the God that can accomplish that, lives indeed 
— not beyond the clouds, but here on earth, in the 
heart of every man and woman. An absolute God 
exists as little as an absolute soul or an absolute 
thing. We no longer believe in ghosts, and an abso- 
lute God, just as an absolute soul is not distinguish- 
able at all from a ghost. 

By God we understand the order of the world, 
that makes harmony, evolution, aspiration, and mor- 
ality possible. This God is no transcendental thing, 
existing of itself, enthroned above the clouds; he is 
immanent, and lives in the hearts of men as their 
good-will, their honor, their conscience, their ideal, 
or however else we may please to distinguish it. 

The belief in a transcendental God, from lack of 
clearer ideas, long served our forefathers to symbolize 
this immanent God. Therefore we will not vilify the 
old views; they after all contain a great truth. We 
shall treat them with reverence, notwithstanding we 
reject them. To us the idea of a God, absolutely ex- 
isting, has become a superstition; but all the more 
have we thus come to know the meaning of the God 
we have abstracted from the reality of the world and 
from the life of our heart. In this sense, the Faust of 
Goethe speaks: 

" The God that iiwrny breast is owned 
Can deeply stir the inward sources, 
The God above my powers enthroned 
He cannot change external forces." 



The idea of a transmundane God, a God of itself, 
would be an attempt to create 'a noumenon in the 
positive sense,' (as Kant calls it) which is inadmissi- 
ble. There is no reality corresponding to it. How- 
ever, the idea of a God as the possible presence of a 
moral law in the world to which we have to conform, 
is a conception of pure thought which involves no self- 
contradiction. It would be (to use Kant's expression 
again) 'a noumenon in the negative sense,' the use of 
which is admissible and even indispensable for arriv- 
ing at general conceptions. The idea of God in this 
sense, it will be found, has some realities correspond- 
ing to it, just as much as the quality of heaviness or 
weight corresponds to our conception of gravity. The 
God outside of the world is an anthropomorphism, and 
is as such a remnant of former ages. Monism leads 
us to the purer and loftier idea of an immanent God. 

Goethe says: 

" what were a God who from the outside stirred 
So that the world around his finger whirred? 



He from within the Universe must move, 
Nature in Him and Him in nature prove. 
Thus all that in him lives and moves and is 
. Will ne'er his power and his spirit miss." 

Agnosticism believes that the substance of these 
spirits, things absolute, as well as their existence, is 
an inscrutable mystery of which we can know noth- 
ing. Monism goes a step beyond this. According 
to Monism, the division of the world into know- 
able things, as appearing in their operations, and into 
absolutely unknowable things held to. exist behind or 
in phenomena, is an untenable and self-contradictory 
dualism. Monism rejects altogether the ghost-illusion 
of existence absolute, and constantly keeps in mind 
that every thing is a part only of the All, and that 
every natural process is only an aspect of the entire 
indivisible existence of the universe. We,- too, are a 
part of the eternal All in which we live, move, and 
have our being. p. c. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

DREAMS, SLEEP, AND CONSCIOUSNESS. 

To the Editor of The Open Court; — 

The scholarly article entitled " Dreams, Sleep, and Conscious- 
ness," which appeared in a late number of your paper, recalls 
a reminiscence of my own which seems to confirm Dr. Gould's 
opinion, that sensory communication may be had directly with 
(the organ of?) consciousness without connection or communication 
by means of the ordinary senses of preception. Perhaps Dr. Gould's 
theory of the manner in which this takes place may be modified by 
subsequent research, but the fact itself can scarcely be questioned. 

Some years ago I was living in a California mining-town of 
several thousand inhabitants. The greater part of the town con- 
sisted of frame buildings packed closely together, offering the most 
favorable conditions for the rapid spread of fire, and the total de- 
struction of the town, should fire once gain a headway. This fact 
was fully appreciated and several volunteer fire-companies were 
equipped by the citizens. It is hardly necessary to say that every 
ear was alert for the clang of the fire-bell, and at its first sound 
there was an instant gathering of volunteers. 



THLK OPEN COURT 



1543 



One night in midsummer, after I had been several hours in 
bed, my usually dreamless sleep was suddenly disturbed by a vivid 
dream of fire. I saw the flames break out from the roof of the 
building, and, in my dream, ran to the engine-house and pulled 
vigorously at the ropes that sounded the alarm-bell. The result- 
ing clangor was so loud that it awakened me, but the sound which 
I heard in my dreams was not a dream-fancy, — it was the actual 
ringing of the bell and my first act of consciousness was the per- 
ception of this fact. 

Now, it is incredible that a chance dream of fire could have 
occurred at such an opportune moment. Such a coincidence is, 
of course, possible, but as improbable as the chance coincidence 
of certain Fraunhofer lines with the spectrum of iron. It is far 
more reasonable to suppose that the strokes of the bell reached 
my consciousness first by some other channel than the auditory 
nerves. The vibratory impact aroused consciousness, — perhaps 
imperfectly, but still more faithfully than in the case of Dr. Gould 
and his Thomas cat. In the latter case consciousness was lured into 
the belief that the discordant caterwauling was the sweetest of 
music; in the former, there was no deception. The first alarm 
struck upon my consciousness was the alarm of Fire ! In this in- 
stance consciousness was in the wrong as to locality and surround- 
ings — for while the dream-fire was consuming the school-house on 
the hill, the real fire was in an unoccupied building some distance 
away — but it was not deceived as to the fact. 

Dr. Gould mentions also another peculiar feature which per- 
haps may be reckoned among dream-phenomena — namely, the 
dream of impending danger which leads to the conscious necessity 
of awakening. This condition, which is usually brought about by 
an interruption of the function of some nerve-trunk is one of which 
most people have an experience at some time or other in life, and 
all who have passed through it can bear testimony to the energy 
spent in rousing the body into action. Dr. Gould premises his 
description of this phenomena with the statement that he lies 
prone upon his back and then says he can at first move only one 
or two fingers, or perhaps sway his head. In my own experience, 
while the general conditions are the same, the manifestations are 
different. I invariably sleep on my side, and in the process of 
awakening, begin by moving the foot of the upper limb. I am 
not able to move head or hands in the least, and the reason is the 
same as in Dr. Gould's case. The stimulation of the motor nerve- 
centers, although to consciousness the result of a tremendous ex- 
penditure of energy, is but a slight one — hardly more than suffi- 
cient, in fact, to perform its work. Directed by consciousness, it 
must therefore exert its effort in that part of the body, which, be- 
cause of its position, is most easily moved, or in the least con- 
strainment of position. 

In both of the instances noted, the facts show that conscious- 
ness may act and react without the intermediation of the lower 
centers. In the case of the fire-alarm, consciousness was aroused 
and received a message through the sensory fibers; in the night- 
mare it was on the qui vivc, putting forth almost superhuman 
efforts to stimulate the inert and irresponsive motor centers into 
action. J. W. Redway. 

SCIENCE AND WORSHIP. 

To the Editor of The Open Court; — 

The whole field of inquiry seems to me capable of being em- 
braced in this sentence, /. <.'., nature exists; what are its compo- 
nent parts ; what is the action of the parts separately and collect- 
ively ? This, science devotedly investigates ; but when some rashly 
jump to the conclusion that Nature, having parts v; and the parts, 
action, 1' c ; therefore Nature is not created by God ; is there not a 
manifest non-sequitur ? To me it seems so (I am not in any 
sense one of the scientific circle, but only an amateur student of 
philosophy). Then the question also arises how did blind Nature 



change the mode of producing life — there must have been a first 
life, therefore but one life even on the atheist's hypotheses ? How 
came it, then, that life is now produced by the sexes ? Now Jesus 
Christ does not say " Come all ye men of learning and I will dem- 
onstrate the doctrine of the Holy Trinity." So say Aristotle, 
Plato, and all human philosophers, with regard to their doctrines. 
But Christ says ; I am God the Creator and Sovereign Lord of 
Heaven and Earth and therefore I require, command under pen- 
alty, that you shall believe My Word. The issue is then simple 
and direct. Christ is God ; or He is a fraud. 

There is just as much, and more, opportunity of displaying 
profound learning in praising God through His works as there is 
in bluntly opposing God. There can be no conflict between rea- 
son and the revelation once delivered to the saints. 
Yours truly, 

Lincoln, Nee. Michael Corcoran. 

[Concerning ' the idea of God ' and its relation to Nature, we 
refer the reader to the editorial of this number and to the pam- 
phlet "The Idea of God" (Open Court Publishing Co.). 

If Christ had spoken as is quoted above, it is more than 
doubtful whether he would ever have been worshiped as a savior. 
Christ said according to Matthew xi. 28 ; "Come unto me, all ye 
that labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest." — Ed.] 

THE LOST MANUSCRIPT.- 

BY GUSTAV FREYTAG. 

CHAPTER XXXIII. 
c.es.ari.\n insanity in the hummel f.-\milv. 

Mr. Hahn was walking by the side of his garden 
fence, his soul filled with gratitude; but as this was 
prevented from escaping through the usual outlet of 
friendly speech, it compelled him to take refuge in 
those chambers of his mind in which he kept the plans 
for the beautifying of his garden. His noble-hearted 
opponent was about to celebrate his birthday; this 
Mr. Hahn discovered in a roundabout way. On this 
day he might perhaps be able to show him some se- 
cret token of esteem. The greatest treasures in Mr. 
Hahn's garden were his standards and bush roses of 
every size and color, — splendid flowers which bloomed 
almost the whole year, and were much admired by 
the passers-by. They were all in pots. These roses 
he determined to dedicate as a quiet mark of homage 
to Mr. Hummel. 

This thought occasioned Mr. Hahn happy hours. 
The park-keeper, whose house stood at the limit 
of the city by the river, had a little boat; this Mr. 
Hahn borrowed secretly for a few hours in the night. 
Before the early dawn of morning, .on the birthday of 
his enemy, he slipped out of the house, rowed the 
pots in the boat to the small steps which led from the 
water-side into the garden of Mr. Hummel; he glided 
with his loved roses to the circular bed, arranged them 
noiselessly according to their numbers, planted each 
separately, and changed the desert spot into a blooming 
parterre of roses. When the sparrows in the gutters 
twittered out their first querulous abuse, he had 
smoothed down the earth in the bed with a small rake. 

* Translation copyrii^hted. 



1544 



THE OPEN COURT. 



He cast a look of pleasure on his work, and another on 
the still dusk)' outline of the house, within which Mr. 
Hummel still slept, unprepared for the surprise of the 
morning, and then glided with his spade and empty 
pots into his boat, rowed himself up to the house of 
the park-keeper, and concealed himself and his garden 
utensils on his own ground before the first rays of the 
rising sun painted his chimney with roseate colors. 

Mr. Hummel entered his sitting-room at the usual 
hour, received with good-humor the congratulations of 
his ladies, looked graciously at the birthday cake which 
wife Philippine had placed with his coffee, and at the 
travelling-bag which Laura had embroidered for him, 
took his newspaper in his hand, and prepared himself 
by participation in the political concerns of men in 
general, for the business of his own life. When 
towards the middle of the day he returned from the 
office, and the Doctor entered his room to offer his 
congratulations, a dark cloud gathered on the sunny 
countenance of the master of the house, and lightning 
flashed from under his ambrosial eyebrows. 

" What, Saul among the prophets ! Are you come 
to fetch a lost ass back to your father's house ? We 
cannot accommodate you. Or are you going to de- 
liver a lecture upon the language of the orang-outang 
in the land of the cocoas ? 

"My lectures have not caused you any trouble so 
far," replied the Doctor. "I have not come in order 
that your hospitable politeness should take the trouble 
to entertain those present by the outpouring of your 
good humor. I have already expressed to you my 
wish never to be the object of it." 

"Then defend yourself if you can," cried Hummel. 

"lam only prevented," replied the. Doctor, "by 
consideration for those present from giving you in 
your own house the answer which you seem to wish." 

"I should be sorry if you were placed at any 
disadvantage in my house," replied Hummel. " I pro- 
pose to you, therefore, to put yourself on an equal 
footing with me, by remaining in your own house and 
putting your head out of the window. I will do the 
same ; we can then sing out to one another across the 
street, like two canary birds." 

"But as I am here now," said the Doctor, with a 
bow, " I claim to be allowed to eat this piece of birth- 
day cake in peace among friendly faces." 

"Then I beg of you to resign the sight of my face 
without overpowering sorrow," replied Hummel. 

He opened the door into the garden, and went down 
the steps discontentedly. While still at a distance 
he saw the young group of roses smiling innocently in 
the light of the sun. He walked round the spot, shook 
his head, and invited his ladies into the garden. 

"Which of you got this idea?" he asked. 

The ladies showed such lively surprise that he was 



convinced of their innocence. He called to the old 
storekeeper and the book-keeper. All showed entire 
ignorance. The countenance of Mr. Hummel became 
gloomy. 

"What does this mean? Some one has slipped in 
here while we were asleep. Night garden-work is not 
to my taste. Who has ventured to enter my property 
without permission? Who has brought in these pro- 
ducts of nature ? " 

He went restlessly' along the side of the water : be- 
hind him followed Spitehahn. The dog crept down the 
steps to the water, smelt at a bit of brown wood which 
lay on the last step, came up again, turned towards 
the house of Mr. Hahn, and set up his back like a cat, 
mockingly, and made a snarling noise. It meant as 
clearly as if he had spoken the friendly words, " I wish 
you a pleasant meal." 

"Right," cried Hummel; " the intruder has left the 
handle of the rudder behind. The brown handle be- 
longs to the boat of the park-keeper. Take it over to 
him, Klaus. I demand an answer; who has ventured 
to bring his boat alongside here?" 

The storekeeper hastened away with the piece of 
wood, and brought back the answer with an embar- 
rassed air : 

"Mr. Hahn had borrowed the boat in the night." 

"If there are forebodings," cried Hummel, angrily, 
"this was one. This nocturnal prowling of your father 
I forbid under all circumstances," he continued, to the 
Doctor. 

" I know nothing of it," rejoined the Doctor. "If 
my father has done this, I beg of you, even if you do 
not value the roses, to be pleased with the good in- 
tention." 

"I protest against every rose that may be strewed 
on my path," cried Hummel. "First we had poisoned 
dumplings, with evil intentions; and now rose leaves, 
with good ones. Your father should think of some- 
thing else than, such jokes. The ground and soil are 
mine, and I intend to prevent roosters from scratch- 
ing here." 

He charged wildly into the roses, seized hold of 
stems and branches, tore them out of the ground, and 
threw them into a confused heap. 

The Doctor turned gloomily away, but Laura has- 
tened to her father and looked angrily into his hard face. 

" What you have rooted up," she exclaimed, " I will 
replace with my own hands." 

She ran to a corner of the garden, brought some 
pots, knelt down on the ground, and pressed the stems 
with the little balls of earth into them as eagerlj' as 
her father had rooted them up. 

" I will take care of them," she called out, to the 
Doctor ; " tell your dear father that not all in our house 
undervalue his friendship." 



the: open court, 



'545 



"Do what you cannot help," replied Mr. Hummel, 
more quietly. "Klaus, why do you stand there on 
your hind legs staring like a tortoise? Why do you 
not help Miss Hummel in her garden-work. Then 
carry the whole birthday-present back again to the 
youthful flower-grower. My compliments, and he 
must in the darkness have mistaken the gardens. 

He turned his back upon the. compan}^ and went 
with heavy steps to his office. Laura knelt on the 
ground and worked at the ill-used roses with height- 
ened color and gloomy determination. The Doctor 
helped silentl}'. He had seen his father behind the 
hedge, and knew how deeply the poor man would feel 
this latest outburst on the part of his adversary. Laura 
did not desist till she had put all the flowers as well 
as possible into the pots ; then she plunged her hands 
into the stream, and her tears mixed with the water. 
She led the Doctor back to the room ; there she wrung 
her hands, quite beside herself. 

" Life is horrible ; our happiness is destroyed in 
this miserable quarrel. Only one thing can save you 
and me. You are a man, and must find out what can 
deliver us from this misery." 

She rushed out of the room ; the mother beckoned 
eagerly to the Doctor to remain behind, when he was 
on the point of following. 

"She is beside herself," cried Fritz. " What do 
her words mean ? What does she desire of me ? " 

The mother seated herself on the sofa, embarrassed 
and full of anxiety, cleared her throat, and twisted at 
her sleeves. 

"I must confide something to you, Doctor," she 
began, hesitatingly, " which will be very painful to us 
both ; but I know not what to do, and all the repre- 
sentations that I make to my unhappy child are in 
vain. Not to conceal anything from you, — it is a strange 
freak, — and I should have thought such a thing im- 
possible." 

She stopped and concealed her face in her pocket- 
handkerchief. Fritz looked anxiously at the disturbed 
face of Mrs. Hummel. A secret of Laura's that he 
had for weeks foreboded was now to fall destructively 
on his hopes. 

" I will confess all to j'ou, dear Doctor," continued 
the mother, with many sighs. "Laura esteems you be- 
yond measure, and the thought of becoming your wife 
— I must say it in confidence — is not strange or disa- 
greeable to her. But she has a fearful idea in her 
head, and I am ashamed to express it." 

"Speak out," said the Doctor, in despair. 

" Laura wishes you to elope with her." 

Fritz was dazed. 

"It is scarcely for a mother to express this wish 
to you, but I do not know how to do otherwise." 



" But where to ? " cried the Doctor, quite aghast. 

"That is the most painful part of all, as you j'our- 
self must acknowledge. What put the idea into her 
head, whether poetry, or reading about the great world 
in the newspapers, I know not. But to her iframe of 
mind, which is always excited and tragic, I can oppose 
no resistance. I am afraid to impart it to my husband. 
I conjure you to do what you can to calm my child. 
Her feelings are wounded, and I can no longer resist 
the inward struggle for this young heart." 

"I beg permission," replied the Doctor, "to speak 
immediately with Laura on the subject." 

Without waiting for the mother's answer, he has- 
tened up the stairs to Laura's room. He knocked, but 
receiving no answer, opened the door. Laura was 
sitting by her writing-table, sobbing violently. 

" Dear, sweet Laura," exclaimed the Doctor, " I 
have been speaking with j'our mother; let me know 
all." 

Laura started. 

" Every warm feeling is rejected with scorn, every 
hour that I see you is embittered by the hostility of 
my father. The heart of the poorest maiden palpi- 
tates when she hears the voice of the man she loves ; 
but I must ask, is that the happiness of love? When 
I do not see you I am in anxiety about you, and when 
you come to us I feel tormented, and listen with terror 
to every word of my father. I see you joyless and cast 
down. Fritz, your love for me, makes you unhappy." 

"Patience, Laura," said the Doctor; " let us per- 
severe. My confidence in your father's heart is greater 
than yours. He will gradually reconcile himself to me." 

"Yes, after he has broken both our hearts; even 
great love is crushed by constant opposition. I cannot, 
amidst the wrangling of our hostile families, become 
your wife ; the narrow street and the old hatred are 
destructive to me. I have often sat here lamenting 
that I was not a man who could boldly battle for his 
own happiness. Listen to a secret, Fritz," she said, 
approaching him, again wringing her hands ; "here I 
am becoming haughty, malicious, and wicked." 

"I have observed nothing of that kind," replied 
Fritz, astonished. 

"I conceal it from you," exclaimed Laura; "but I 
struggle daily with bad thoughts, and I am indifferent 
to the love of my parents. When my father pats my 
head, the devil cries within me he had better let it 
alone. When my mother admonishes me to have pa- 
tience, her talk secretly irritates me, because she uses 
finer words than are necessary. I hate the dog, so that 
I often beat him without cause. The conversation at 
the Sunday dinner, the stories of the old actor, and the 
eternal little tittle-tattle of the street appear insup- 
portable to me. I feel that I am an odious creature, 
and I have frequently in this place wept over and 



1546 



XHE OPEN COURT 



hated myself. These bad fits are ever recurring and 
become more overpowering. I shall never be better 
here : where we live under a curse, like two spoiled 
children. We sink, Fritz, in these surroundings ! Even 
the loving care of parents ceases to make one happy — 
the anxiety that one should not wet one's feet, that one 
should wear woolen stockings, and have cakes and 
sugar plums on a Sunday — is one to go through all 
this every year of one's life? " 

She hastily opened her journal, and held out to him 
a bundle of poems and letters. 

" Here are your letters ; through these I have learnt 
to love you, for here is what I revere in you. Thus 
would I always have you be. When, therefore, I 
think of what you have to go through between our 
houses and to bear from my father, and when I ob- 
serve that you wear a double shawl under every rough 
bla-st, I become anxious and worried about you ; and I 
see you before me as a pampered book-worm, and my- 
self as a little stout woman with a large cap and an in- 
significant face, sitting before the coffee cups, talking 
over the daily passers by, and this thought oppresses 
my heart." 

Fritz recognized his letters. He had long felt cer- 
tain that Laura was his secret confidant, but when he 
now looked at the loved one who held up to him the 
secret correspondence, he no longer thought of the 
caprice which had occasioned him so much grief; he 
thought only of the true-heartedness and of the poetry 
of this tender connexion. 

" Dear, dear Laura," he exclaimed, embracing her ; 
"it seems as if two souls with which my heart had in- 
tercourse had become one, but you now divide me and 
yourself into human beings of daily life, and into 
higher natures. What has destroyed your cheerful 
confidence?" 

" Our difficulties, Fritz, and the sorrow of seeing 
you without pleasure, and hearing your voice without 
being elevated by it; you are with me, and yet further 
off from me than in those days when I did not see you 
at all, or only in the society of friends." 

She released herself from his embrace. 

"Do you love me? and are you the man who has 
written these? If so, venture to withdraw me from 
this captivity. Begin a new, life with me. I will work 
with you and be self-denying; you shall see of what I 
am capable ; I will think day and night of how I can 
earn our maintenance, that you may be undisturbed 
by petty cares in your learned work. Be brisk and 
bold, cast off your eternal caution, venture for once to 
do what others may look at askance." 

"If I were to do it," answered Fritz, seriously, "the 
risk would be small for me. For you the consequences 
may be such as you do not think of. How can you 
imagine that a rash determination can be good for you 



if it throws fresh discord into your soul, and burdens 
your whole life with a feeling of guilt towards others?" 

"If I take upon m3-self to do what is wrong," ex- 
claimed Laura, gloomily, " I do it not for myself alone. 
I feel but too well that it is wrong, but I venture it for 
our love. Never will my father voluntarilj' lay my 
hand in yours. He knows that I am devoted to you, 
and is not so hard as to wish my unhappiness, but he 
cannot overcome his disinclination. One day he is 
compelled to acknowledge that you are the man to 
whom I ought to belong, the next the bitter feeling of 
how hateful it is to him again returns, If you venture 
to defy him you will do what is really agreeable to him ; 
show a strong will, and, though he may be angry, he 
will easily be appeased by your courage. He loves 
me," she said in a low tone, "but he is fearfully hard 
to others," 

"Is he always so?" asked the Doctor. "It is clear 
the daughter does not know the full worth of her fa- 
ther. I should at this moment be doing both him and 
you an injustice if I were to conceal from you what he 
wishes to keep secret. Listen, then : when my poor 
father was sitting by me in despair, your father en- 
tered our house and gave us in the most magnanimous 
way the means of averting the threatened blow. Do 
you not know that his sulkiness and quarrelsomeness 
are frequently only the expression of a rough humor?" 

Laura watched his mouth as if she wished to de- 
vour every word that fell from his lips. 

"Did my father do this?" she exclaimed, startled 
to the utmost, raising her arms towards heaven, and 
throwing herself down upon her writing-table. 

Fritz wished to raise her. 

"Leave me," she entreated, passionately, " it will 
pass off. I am happy. Leave me alone now, beloved 
one." 

The Doctor closed the door gently, and went down 
to the mother, who still sat on the sofa overwhelmed 
with anxiety, revolving in her mind, with motherly 
alarm, all the exciting scenes of an elopement. 

" I beg of you," he said, "not to worry Laura now 
by remonstrances. She will regain her calmness. 
Trust to her noble heart." 

With these wise words the Doctor endeavored to 
comfort himself. Meanwhile Laura lay supported 
against the chair, and thought over her injustice to 
her father. For years she had borne the sorrow which 
is bitterest to the heart of a child, and now the pres- 
sure was taken from her soul. At last she arose, drew 
out her diary, tore out one page after another, crum- 
pled up the leaves and threw them into the fire — a 
small sacrifice. She watched it till the last sparks 
flickered in the dark ashes, then she closed the stove 
and hastened out of the room. 

( To be continued.) 



XHK OPEN COURT. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

First and Fu.vdamental Truths. A Treatise on Metaphysics. 
Janus McCos/i, D. D., LL. D., etc. New York: Charles 
Scribner's Sons. Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co. S2.00. 

The venerable and scholarly ex-President of Princeton has set 
forth, in this neatly printed volume, the metaphysical principles in 
which his Realistic Philosophy culminate.s. Our readers are presum- 
ably acquainted with the teachings of Dr. McCosh, and have had 
occasion to admire his clear and lucid style of presentation 
Although the positions upheld in the present work are substantially 
the same as those advanced in the author's former publications, 
the arrangement of the theses and the development of the same 
are in this instance altered to conform to the plan of the book. 
The work, in the words of the author, is to be " regarded as the 
cope-stone " of what he has been able to do in philosophy. "I 
define Metaphysics," says Dr. McCosh, " as The Science of First 
and Fundamental Truths. I cherish the conviction that it may be 
made as clear and satisfactory as Logic, the science of discursive 
truth, has been, since the days of .\ristotle. It shows us what we 
are entitled to assume and what we are not entitled to assume 
without mediate proof. It does so by opening to our view those 
primitive truths which at once claim our assent and furnish a sure 
foundation to all our knowledge ; which, like the primitive granite 
rocks, go down the deepest and mount the highest. * * * There 
are Objects, there are Truths, which are perceived Directly and 
Immediately ; this is not the case with the great body of our 
knowledge. * * » On the bare contemplation of these two 
straight lines we perceive that they cannot enclose a space, and on 
a surface being presented to us, that the shortest distance between 
these two points in it is a straight line. In order to convince us of 
these and innumerable such truths, we need no gathered e.xperi- 
ence, and we make no use of inference. * * " Our intuitions 
look to ' Things ' and_the Relations of Things. * * * Our intui- 
tions look to single objects and not to abstract or general notions. 
* * * We can generalize our Intuitions and thus form Philosophic 
Principles. * * * Induction, by which is meant a Gathered and 
Systematic Observation, has a place in Metaphysics. This will 
seem to many an extraordinary position. It will be regarded by 
them as stripping philosophy of its crown and sceptre which place 
it above all the ordinary sciences. It seems to make our deeper 
thinking to have no other foundation than human observation, 
which must necessarily be limited. * * * if we would find 
w'hat intuition is, we must carefully inspect it ; not, indeed, by the 
external senses, which cannot perceive it, but by the internal 
sense, that is self-consciousness. Not only so, but we must seek 
a scientific manner to find out the objects which it looks at and 
makes known to us. In short, we have to construct .the science of 
metaphysics by a process of inductive observation suited to the 
nature of the mental phenomena which are observed." 

Apropos of the discussion in the present number of The Open 
Court, we may quote the following from Dr. McCosh, relative to 
the intuition of body by the senses : ' ' We know the Object as ex- 
isting or having being. * * * W& look on each of the objects 
thus presented to us, in our organism or beyond it, as having an 
existence, a being, a reality. Every one understands these phrases ; 
they cannot be made simpler or more intelligible by an explana- 
nation. We understand them because they express a mental fact 
which every one has experienced. We may talk of what we con- 
template in sense-perception being nothing but an impression, an 
appearance, an idea, but we can never be made to give our spon- 
taneous assent to any such statements. However ingenious the 
arguments which may be adduced in favor of the objects of our 
sense-perceptions being mere illusions, we find, after listening to 
them, and allowing to them all the weight that is possible, that we 
still look upon bodies as realities the next time they present them- 



selves. The reason is, we know them to be realities, by a native 
cognition which can never be overcome." nupn. 



A Friendly Correspondence with Mr. Gladstone about 
Creeds. By Samuel Laing. London: Watts & Co., 17 John- 
son's Court Fleet Street. 

This little pamphlet of only nineteen pages is well worth 
reading. It is a concise expression of the issue between theological 
orthodoxy and agnostic unbelief. Mr, Gladstone had requested 
Mr. S. Laing to furnish him with a short summary of the negative 
creed and Mr. Laing complied with the wish of England's ex- 
premier. Mr. Gladstone shows again in his attitude that noble 
sincerity which distinguishes him in everything he does and says 
and writes. But it is to be regretted that as a theologian he is not 
sufficiently familiar with the present state of things. He proves 
this in his article on the Field-Ingersoll controversy, where he de- 
fends propositions which have been given up even by orthodox 
scholars. Mr. Laing's position can be briefly characterized as 
agnosticism, which says that we cannot know what is behind the 
veil of phenomena. The result of this negative creed is : " * « * 
There may be anything 'va the Unknowable, 'behind the veil,' for 
aught we know to the contrary. * * * Thus, if anyone tells me in 
general. terms that there is a Heaven or Hell behind the veil, I 
reply, ' It may be so ; I do not know.' But, if he attempts to de- 
fine them, and tells me that by going vertically upwards I shall 
meet the one, and by going vertically downwards the other, I reply, 
'This is merely an erroneous guess ; it is simply impossible.' " Our 
criticism of this position appeared in the editorial of No. S2 of The 
Open Court, " Phenomena and Noumena." We need not repeat 
it here. 

NOTES. 
The annual series of Mr. Chadwick's Sermons may be had 
for fifty cents. (George H. Ellis, 141 Franklin Street, Boston.) 

Prof. George B. Fisher, of Yale, contributes to the April 
Forum, a reply to Cardinal Manning's attack upon our public 
school system. 

We have received a little pamphlet by Dr. G. M. Gould, 
" Concerning Reflex Neuroses due to Eye-Strain." (Medical and 
Surgical Reporter. ) 

In Scribner's for April, Charles Francis Adams, President of 
the Union Pacific, discusses in a very practical way the question 
of how to prevent railroad strikes. 

We have received from Mr. Peter McGill a rejoinder to 
Wheelbarrow's remarks upon the strictures of his critics, which 
came too late for publication in the present number. 

The problem discussed by M. Binet, in his essay " Sensation 
and the Outer World," will be treated editorially in the next issue 
of The Open Court, under the title " Idealism and Realism." 

The ' ' Freethinkers' Magazine-" for April contains a full-page 
steel-plate portrait of Dr. R. R. Westbrook, President of the 
American Secular Union, and a likeness of J. J. McCabe, with 
full biographical sketches of each. 

Prof. Max Miiller's Address before the Society for the Exten- 
sion of University Teaching, entitled "Some Lessons of An- 
tiquity," has been published. Prof. Miiller maintains, apropos of 
the present tendency to denounce our university curricula as an- 
tiquated and useless, that it is the duty of all university teaching 
never to lose touch with the past. " It seems to me the highest 
aim of all knowledge to try to understand what is, by learning how 
it has come to be what it is. That is the true meaning of history, 
and that seems to me the kind of knowledge which schools and 
universities are called upon to cultivate and to teach." 



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THE DISCOVERY OF THE VEDA. Translated from the 

Detttsche J^andschnii. H. Oldenberg ^547 

PASSIONS AND MANIAS. Felix L. Oswald, M. D 1551 

IDEALISM AND REALISM. Relative to the Essay of M. 

Alfred Binet, " Sensation and the Outer World." Editor. 1553 
A DEFENDER OF AGNOSTICISM : COL. ROBERT 

G. INGERSOLL. Editor 1554 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

The Spirit of Henry George's Work. Peter McGill. . 1554 



FICTION. 

The Lost Manuscript. (Continued.) Gustav Freytag. 1554 
BOOK REVIEWS. 

French Traits. W. C. Brownell. 

The Government of the People of The United States. 

Francis N. Thorpe. 
Essays Religious, Social, Political. David Atwood 
Wasson. 
NOTES. 



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PSYCHOLOGY AND BIOLOGY. 

Experimental Psychology in France. Alfred 

BiNET No. 74. 

Dream, Sleep, and Consciousness. Dr. George 

M. Gould Nos. 74 and 75. 

Body and Mind; or the Data of Moral Physiol- 
ogy. Felix L. Oswald, M. D. . . .Nos. 72, 75, 78. 
M. Binet's entertaining sketch of the state of Experimental 
Psychology in France is the only direct and convenient source 
from which the reader can obtain a comprehensive idea of the con- 
tributions the author's country is making to this branch of mental 
science. The work of psychologists in France is distinguished by 
its almost exclusive bearing upon the pathological phases of psy- 
chological phenomena. The greatest successes of MM. Ribot, 
Richet, Charcot, and others, have been in treating the diseases of 
the mind. 
PHILOSOPHY. 

Sensation and Memory. Editor No. 74. 

Cognition, Knowledge, and Truth. Editor No. 76. 

Monism as the Formal Principle of Cognition. .No. 78. 
In the two first discussions, the conditions and processes by which 
we start from the bare excitations of the sensory world and attain 
to knowledge, are unfolded. Sensation is the primal condition of 
all knowledge; the products of sensation are preserved and trans- 
mitted as psychological forms; the psychological law of this reten- 
tive power is memory, from which source are evolved the different 
branches and varied forms of human thought. 

The last essay of this series shows that the constitution of the 
human mind naturally predisposes man for Monism. The unitary 
conception which the intellect seeks to formulate respecting all 
things brought within its range, is the inward proof offered to us 
of the correctness of the monistic philosophy. Monism is thus a 
subjective principle, informing us how to unify knowledge and 
make it potent. 

Axioms The Basis of Mathematics. Dr. Edward 
Brooks No. 76. 

The Old AND the New Mathematics. Editor. No. 77. 

A Flaw in the Foundation of Geometry. 

Hermann Grassmann No. 77. 

In No. 76, Dr. Edward Brooks of Philadelphia, takes excep- 
tion to an editorial thesis that "mathematics is unfortunately con- 
structed on axioms." To Dr. Brooks no other way of construction 
is possible. There exist ' 'Jirsl tyiil/is or axioms which the mind 
has power to cognize, " which are incapable of proof, and which 
every system, even though nominally rejecting them, nevertheless 
tacitly employs. The editorial answer to Dr. Brooks, in No. 77, 



is based upon the principles unfolded in the series of disquisitions 
on " Form and Formal Thought," in Nos. 64, 66, 67, and 69. Ax- 
ioms so called, are the result of reasoning, and not the basis of it; 
the laws of formal thought determine the correctness and necessity 
of a proposition; conformity, in every instance, with these laws 
alone makes a truth universal. The relations of actual, material 
space have thus universally coincided with the laws of a formal 
system of third degree, and hence the rigidity and finality of those 
relations. In the same number, a translation from Hermann 
Grassmann's " Theory of Extension " is presented; it contains the 
fundamental points of departure of the new geometry from the old. 
No English version of this epoch-making work exists. The discus- 
sion will greatly interest those who have given their attention to 
the philosophy of mathematics. 

SOCIOLOGY AND ECONOMICS. 

Henry George and Land Taxation. Wheel- 
barrow No. 73. 

Symptoms of Social Degeneracy. Moncure D. 

Conway No. 74. 

Making Bread Dear. Wheelbarrow No. 78. 

Wheelbarrow opposes Mr. Henry George and the doctrine of 
Land Taxation with proper regard for the truth contained in the 
distinguished economist's theories. Objection is mainly taken to 
the universal curative power that the advocates of Land Taxa- 
tion claim for their remedy. In man's obedience to moral laws 
Wheelbarrow finds the only magic wherewith to change the face of 
society. 

Much criticism has been elicited by the bare mention of Mr. 
George's economical doctrines — indubitable testimony of their pop- 
ularity and strength. Letters have appeared in No. 79 and others 
will follow. 

"Symptoms of Social Degeneracy," Mr. Moncure D. Conway 
finds to be not unfrequent even in American civilization. We are 
prone to emphasize the survivals of barbaric institutions in effete 
Europe, while overlooking the excresences of our own body politic. 
Lynch-Law, literary piracy, corruption in administrative circles, 
are signs of the decay of an ethical system and the theology that 
protects it. Worst of all, these evils are not unaccompanied with 
attempts at palliation. 

HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL. 

The Study of Sanskrit. H. Oldenberg No. 79. 

Aspects, Christian and Human. William R. 

Thayer No. 79. 

The study of Sanskrit, upon which a series of articles com- 
mences with No 79, is a department of historical research com- 
paratively new. Prof. Oldenberg, one of the most eminent San- 
skrit scholars of the present day, tells us in popular language the 
story of the origin, growth, and present state of Sanskrit research. 
This department of philological and historical inquiry has done 
more than any other towards the true interpretation of the early 
history, civilization, and religion of the Aryan peoples. Within 
less than a century results have been attained, of which former 
generations would not have presumed to think. The articles have 
been translated from the German. 

Under the title of " Aspects, Christian and Human," Mr. W. 
R. Thayer maintains in lucid and earnest language that the in- 
fluences and forces to which the great changes wrought in modern 
society must be attributed, have not proceeded from sources es- 
sentially Christian. These advances are distinctly secular and hu- 
man in character. " Not the preacher, but the poet: not the poli- 
tician, but the untrammelled agitator, men whose tongues were 
free, and whose hearts were fearless, have been the heralds and 
champions of better things." 



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THE DISCOVERY OF THE VEDA.* 

BY H. OLDENBERG. 

The acquisition of the Veda, to which we have re- 
ferred in our last paper, can hardly be accounted a 
discovery. The existence and position'in Hindu lit- 
erature of this great work, had long been known. At 
every step the writings that had previously been 
brought to light, pointed to the Veda as the source from 
which all proceeded — even more strikingly than in the 
literature of Greece, we are led back, at every turn, to 
the poems of Homer. Manuscripts of the Vedic texts, 
moreover, were to be found, not only in India; they 
had long been possessed in great numbers by the 
libraries of Europe. But an attempt had scarcely, if 
at all, been made to lay hold of these and see if in the 
unmeasurable chaos of this mass of writings a firm 
ground for science could not be acquired. 

The Sanskrit of the great epic poems, or of Kalidasa, 
was understood well enough ; but of the dialect in 
which the most important parts of the Veda were 
written, no more was known than one familiar with 
the French of to da)' would know of the language of 
the Troubadours. Without going deeply into the study 
it was easy to discern its inherent difficulties from the 
unwonted singularity of the text and its strange con- 
tents, which, in part at least, were extremel}' compli- 
cated, and often involved in a maze of minor details. 
Would an earnest explorer of this territory, even in 
case he succeeded, be rewarded for his pains ? 

It was a band of young German scholars who bent 
their energies to this work. Most of them are still 
working in our midst — Max Muller, Ro-th, and Weber. 
Two others, whose names should not be omitted here, 
died a few years ago ; these were Adalbert Kuhn and 
Benfej'. There was no need of undertaking great ex- 
peditions, such as were those that set out for the 
investigation of Egyptian and Babylonian antiquity. 
Those monuments in whose colossal and strange forms, 
fragments of a primeval age meet the eye, were want- 
ing in India. The knowledge which was to be ac- 
quired was not contained in inscriptions, but in 
manuscripts.* Our scholars repaired to London for a 

* Translated from the Deutsche Rundschau. 
■\ The royal library at Berlin also acquired and owns a rich collection of 
Sanskrit manuscripts, for which a foundation was laid by the purchase, at the 
command of Frederick William IV.. of the Chambers manuscripts. 



greater or less length of time, and the work was be- 
gun among the store of manuscripts possessed by the 
East India House. 

There was no lack of confidence. " It would be a 
disgrace," wrote Roth, " to the criticism and the 
ingenuity of our century which has deciphered the 
stone inscriptions of the Persian kings and the books 
of Zoroaster, if it did not succeed in reading in this 
enormous literature the intellectual history of the 
Hindu nation." 

Much that Roth expected has been accomplished 
or is on the way towards accomplishment. Of much, 
that was hoped for at that time, we can now say that 
it was unattainable, and understand why. What has 
been attained, however, has given to the picture, which 
science formed of Hindu antiquity, an entirely different 
aspect. Unbounded in extent, this picture formerly 
seemed to lose itself in the nebulous depths of an im- 
measurable past. Now, determinate limits have been 
found, and the remotest initial point has been discov- 
ered for verifiable history. Authentic sources were 
disclosed, leading to the earliest age of Hindu civiliza- 
tion, from which, and regarding which, historical 
testimony in the usual sense of the word became ac- 
cessible ; and instead of the twilight, peopled with 
uncertain, shadowy giants, in which the epic poems 
made those times appear, the Veda opened to us a 
reality which we may hope to understand. Or, if in 
many instances, instead of the hoped for forms, it has 
afforded the eye but an empty space, even this was a 
step in advance. For then it was at least shown that 
the knowledge which was sought was not to be had ; 
and that which had been given as such, had disclosed 
itself as an imaginative picture born of the caprice of 
a later legend- maker. 

The literature of epic poetry, apparently, could no 
longer lay claim to an incalculable antiquity ; it sank 
back into a sort of Middle Ages, behind which the newly 
discovered, real antiquity loomed forth, studding the 
horizon of historical knowledge with significant forms. 
We shall now see how the task of understanding the 
Veda was accomplished, and shall describe at the same 
time what it was that had thus been acquired. We 
have here a newly disclosed literature of venerable an- 
tiquity, rich in marks of earnest effort, logically devel- 
oped in sharply, nay rigidly, characterized forms ; we 



I54B 



THE OPEN COURT. 



have a newly discovered piece of history, forming the 
historical — or shall we say unhistorical? — foundation 
of a people related to us by race, who at an early day 
set out in paths distinctly removed from the ways of 
all other peoples, and created their own strange forms 
of existence, bearing in them the germs of the mis- 
fortunes they have suffered. 

By what means did we succeed in understanding 
the Veda? 

Almost all the more important parts of the Vedic 
literature — for the Veda, like the Bible, is not a sep- 
arate text, but a literature with wide ramifications — 
are preserved in numerous, and, for the most part, 
relatively modern manuscripts. Only rarely are they 
older than a few centuries; since in the destructive 
climate of India it could not be otherwise. The texts, 
however, which we find in these later manuscripts, 
decend from the remotest antiquity. 

These texts, before they came to us, had to be trans- 
mitted through extended periods of time, written out in 
the present manuscript form, or indeed, in any man- 
uscript form whatever, and have encountered misfor- 
tunes of a varied order. It is the task of the philological 
inquirer to ascertain the character of these events — to 
determine the genetic history of the texts. It may be 
said that these manuscripts in the shajpe they have 
been transmitted to us, resemble paintings by old 
masters, which bear unmistakable traces of alternate 
injuries and attempted restorations by professional and 
unprofessional hands. What we want to know, so far 
as it lies in our power, is their form as it originally 
existed. 

The period to which the origin of the old Vedic 
poems belongs, we cannot assign in years, nor yet in 
centuries. But we know that these poems existed, 
when there was not a city in India, but only hamlets 
and castles ; when the names of the powerful tribes 
which at a later fime assumed the first rank among 
the nations of India were not even mentioned, no more 
so than in the Germany which Tacitus described were 
mentioned the names of Franks and Bavarians. It 
was the period of migrations, of endless, turbulent 
feuds among small unsettled tribes with their nobles 
and priests; people fought for pastures, and cows, and 
arable land. It was the period of conflict between the 
fair-skinned immigrants, who called themselves Arya, 
and the natives, the "dark people," the "unbelievers 
that propitate not the Gods." 

As yet the thought and belief of the Hindus did 
not seek the divine in those formless depths in which 
later ages conceived the idea of the eternal and hidden 
Brahma. Wherever in nature the brightest pictures 
met the eye and the mightiest tones struck the ear, 
there were their Gods — the luminous arch of heaven, 
the red hues of dawn, the thundering storm-god ar.d 



his followers, the winds. The Vedic Aryans had not 
yet reached their later abode on the two powerful sis- 
ter streams, the Ganges and the Yumna; the Sindhu 
(Indus) was still for them the " Mother Stream," of 
which one of the oldest poets of the Rig Veda says : * 

" Froni earth along the reach of Heaven riseth the sound ; 
Ceaseless the roar of her waters, the bright one. 

As floods of thundering rain, poured from the darkened cloud-bosom, 
So rushes the Sindu, like the steer, the bellowing one." 

The poetry of the Rig Veda dates from the time of 
those wanderings and struggles that took place on 
the Indus and its tributary streams. Certain fam- 
ilies exercised the functions of priestly offices, and 
possessed the acquisitions of an artificially connected 
speech together with a simple form of chant using but 
few tones. These families created Vedic poetry, and 
transmitted the art to their posterity. The songs of 
the Rig Veda, which are almost all sacrificial songs, were 
not really what we call popular poetry. We do not 
hear in them the language that pours forth from the soul 
of a nation, as it communes in poetical rhythm with 
itself. It was a poetry that wanted mainly the proper 
hearers — the masses of the people who spoke through 
the mouth of the poet. Their hearers were God Agni, 
God Indra, or Goddess Dawn ; and the poet was not 
he whom the passionate impulses of his own soul or 
his own love of song and legend impelled to sing, but 
he was mainly one who belonged to a poet-family — 
one of the families of men who in the course of time 
became united as a caste and erected ever more insu- 
perable barriers between their sacred existence and 
the profane reality of daily life. For the gods such 
a poet only " could frame a worthy poem, as an expe- 
rienced, skillful wheelwright makes a wagon," — a poem 
which would be rewarded by the rich, princely lords 
of the sacrifice, with steeds and kine, with golden or- 
naments and female slaves from the spoils of war. 
"Thy blessing," says a Vedic poet to a God,f 

" Rests with the givers, 
With the victors, the many valiant heroes, 
Who make gifts to us of clothing, kine, and horses ; 
May they rejoice in the splendor and plenty of divine bounty. 

Let all things waste that they have won 

Who, without rewarding, would profit by our hymns to heaven. 

The godless ones, that boast their fortune. 

The transgressors— cast them from the light of day." 

It has been fatal for all thought and poetry in In- 
dia, that a second world, filled with strangely fantastic 
shapes, was established at an early day beside the 
real world. This was the place of sacrifice with its 
three sacred fires and the schools in which the virtu- 
osos of the sacrificial art were educated — a sphere of 
wonderful activity and the playground of a subtle, 
empty mummery, whose enervating power over the 

* Hundreds of Vedic melodies have been handed down to us in a form the 
interpretation of which can be subject to no real doubt. As it appears, they 
are the oldest but unfortunately the poorest memorials of musical antiquity. 

tRig Veda v. 42. S-9. 



THE OREN COURT. 



1549 



spirit of an entire nation we can scarcely comprehend 
in its full extent. The poetry of the Rig Veda shows 
us this process of disease at an early stage ; but it is 
there, and much of that which constitutes the essence 
of the Rig Veda, is rooted in it. 

In the foreground stands the sacrifice, and through- 
out, only the sacrifice. " By sacrifice the Gods made 
sacrifice ; these regulations were the first," it is said in 
a verse which is thrice repeated in the Rig Veda. The 
praise of the God for whom the sacrificial offerings 
were intended, his power, his victories, and the prayers 
for possessions which were hoped for in return for hu- 
man offerings — the prosperity of flocks and posterity, 
long life, destruction of enemies, the hated and the 
godless — such is the subject-matter of the multitudi- 
nous repetitions that recur throughout the hymns of 
the Rig Veda. Still, among these verse-making sacri- 
ficers there was not an utter absence of real poets. 
And thus among the stereotyped implorations and 
songs of praise we find here and there a great and 
beautiful picture — the wonder of the poet's soul at the 
bright marvels of nature or the deep expression of an 
earnest inner life. A poet from the priestly family of 
the Bharadvajas sings of the goddess Ushas, the 
dawn : * 

■■ We see thee, thou lovely one; far, far, thou shinest. 
To lieaven's heights thy brilliant liKht-beams dart. 
In beauteous splendor shimmering, unveilest thou thy bosom. 
Radiant with heaven's sheen, celestial queen of dawn ! 

'■ The red bulls draw their chariot, 
Where in thy splendor thou o'erspread'st the heavens ; 
Thou drivest away night ; as a hero, a bow-man, 
As a swift charioteer frighteneth his enemies. 



■• A beautiful path has been made for thee in the mountain, 
Thou unconquerable one. thou risest from out the waters. 
So bring thou us treasures to revive us on 
Our fiwther course, queenly daughter of heaven. "t 

Another poet sings of Parjanya, the rain God: J 

'■ Like the driver who forward whips his steeds. 
So he urges onward his messengers, the clouds. 
From afar the thunder-tone of the lion arises 
when the God makes rain pour from the clouds. 

'• Parjanya's lightnings dart ; the winds blow ; 
The floods pour from heaven ; up spring grass and plants. 
To all that lives and moves a quickening is imparted, 
when the God scatters his seeds on the earth. 

" At his command the earth bows deeply down ; 
At his command hoofed creatures come to life ; 
At his command bloom forth the bright flowers : 
May Parjanya grant us strong defence ! 

" A flood of rain bast thou sent ; now cease ; 
Thou didst make penetrable the desert wastes. 
For us thou hast caused plants to grow for food, 
.\nd the prayer of men thou hast fulfilled." 

*The Indian word Ushas is related to the Greek Eos. the Latin .\urora. 

+ Rig Veda VI. 64. The hymn following is V. S3. 

i This God also reappears among the kindred peoples of Europe, as Fior- 
gynn in the northern mythology, and among the Lithuanians and Prussians as 
the God Perkunas, of whom an old chronicle says : " Perkunas was the third 
dol: and him the people besought for storms, so that during his time they had 
rain and fair weather and suffered not from the thunder and the lightning." 



But we must turn from the description of Vedic 
poetry to examine the fortune that this production 
encountered on its way from distant antiquity to the 
present time, from the sacrificial places on the Indus 
to the workshops of the English and German philolo- 
gists. Here a conspicious fact is to be dwelt upon, 
which belongs to the strangest phenomena of Indian 
history, so rich in strange events. The hymns of the 
Rig Veda, as well as the hymns of the other Vedas, 
have been composed, collected, and transmitted to 
succeeding ages. There has been incorporated in 
them a very copious, spiritual prose literature, devel- 
oped throughout the older and later divisions, and 
treating of the art and symbolism of sacrifice. There 
have also arisen heretical sects, like the Buddhists, 
who denied the authority of the Veda, and instead of 
its teachings reverenced as a sacred text the code of 
ordinances proclaimed by Buddha. And all this has 
taken place without the art of writing. 

In the Vedic ages writing was not known. At the 
time when Buddhism arose it was indeed known — the 
Indians probably learned to write from Semites — but 
it was used only for indicting short communications in 
practical life, not for writing books. We have very 
sure and characteristic information as to the role which 
the art of writing pla)'ed, or rather did not play, in the 
church life of the Buddhists at a comparatively late 
age, say about 400 B. C. The sacred text of this sect 
affords a picture, executed even in its minutest features, 
of life in the houses and parks which the brethren in- 
habited. We can see the Buddhist monks pursue their 
daily life from morning to night ; we can see them in 
their wanderings and during their rest, in solitude and 
in intercourse with other monks, or laymen ; we know 
the equipment of the places occupied by them, their 
furniture, and the contents of their store-rooms. But 
nowhere do we hear that they read their sacred texts 
or copied them ; nowhere, that in the dwellings of the 
monks such things as writing utensils or manuscripts 
were found. 

The memory of the spiritual brethren, "rich in 
hearing," — what we to-day call a well-read man was 
then called one rich in hearing, — took the place of a 
cloister library ; and if the knowledge of some indis- 
pensable text, — as, e. g., the formula of confession 
which had to be recited at the full and new moon in 
the assembly of the brethren, — was in danger of 
being lost among a body of priests, they acted on the 
dictum laid down in an old Buddhistic ordinance: "By 
these monks a monk shall immediately be sent to a 
neighboring parish. He must be thus instructed : 'Go, 
Brother, and when thou hast learned by heart the 
formula of confession, the complete one or the abre- 
viated one, come back to us.' " 

It must be admitted that under such circumstances 



'55° 



THE OPKK COURT 



all the conditions for the existence of books, and the 
relations between books and reader — if it be allowed me 
for the sake of brevity to use these expressions — must 
have been of a very different nature than in an age of 
writing or one of printing. A book could then exist 
only on condition that a body of men existed among 
whom it was taught and learned and transmitted from 
generation to generation. A book could be known only 
at the price of learning it by heart, or of having some 
one at hand who had thus learned it. Texts of a con- 
tent which only claimed a passing notice, could not as 
a rule exist. This was fatal for historical writing and 
generally speaking for all profane literature. Above 
all, the existing texts were subjected to the disfigure- 
ments that errors of memory, carelessness, or attempts 
at improvement on the part of the transmitters must 
have imported into them. 

Under conditions such as have been described 
above, the poetry of the Rig Veda has been handed 
down from generation to generation through many 
centuries. Separate poems were brought into the col- 
lection in the course of oral compilation and trans- 
mission. The collection was re-corrected on repeated 
occasions and was brought to greater completeness; 
again only by oral compilation and transmission. It 
is conceivable enough that thus the original structure 
yes, even the existence itself of special hymns was 
often injured, effaced, or destroyed. Remodeling de- 
stroyed their form. The lines of division between 
hymns standing side by side would often be forgotten 
and numbers of them would be merged into an ap- 
parent unity. Modern, and easijy intelligible terms 
drove out the obsolete phrases and the ancient word- 
forms — often the most valuable remains for the inves- 
tigator, whom they help to explain the history of the 
language, just as the scientist deduces froin fossil re- 
mains the history of organic life. 

Especially fatal was it for the old and true form of 
the Vedic hymns that they have been stretched upon 
the Procrustean bed of grammatical analysis. Earlier 
and more strongly than in any other nation of antiquity, 
was interest and pleasure taken in India in scientifically 
dissecting language. Closely examining the separate 
sounds of speech and their underlying modifications, 
they employed exceptional ingenuity and discrimi- 
nation in constructing a S3'stem from which, when 
it became known in Europe, the science of our cen- 
tury found ample reason to learn much that was 
marvellous. The ingenuity and penetration of the 
students of Vedic literature has been burdened like 
a curse with that genuinely Hindu trait, subtlety; 
the jo}' — which at times seems to border on malicious- 
ness — of stretching and forcing things into an artistic 
garment, of building up labyrinths of fine points, in 
whose involved courses the skilled and cunninsr stu- 



dent ostentatiously thought himself able to find his 
way. Thus, in this grammatical science, understanding 
and misunderstanding of correct principles are min- 
gled in ine.xplicable confusion. That under the hands 
of such linguistic theorists the precious wealth of the 
old Vedic hymns has not remained inviolate, is easily 
comprehended. In this fact, a single feature of the re- 
mains of these early times was hit upon with rare 
acuteness and established with wonderful truth ; no 
consideration had prevented the destruction of great 
masses of old and genuine phenomena to suit half- 
correct theories. Thus the most patient penetration 
of our science will be able to restore the lost material 
only in part. 

Finally, however, the caprice under which the 
hymns of the old singers must have suffered, had its 
end. The more people accustomed themselves to see in 
these poems not merely beautiful and efficacious 
prayers but a sacred revelation of the divine, the higher 
did their transmitted form — even when this is, or seems 
to be, of necessity, so irregular — rise in the respect of 
theologians, and the more careful must they have been 
to describe and preserve this form with all its dissim- 
ilarities. 

We possess a remarkable work — it is composed in 
verse like many Hindu treatises and hand-books — in 
which a grammarian, Caunaka, who must probabh' be 
placed about the time 400 B. C, has given a deep and 
unusuall}' well-planned survey of the vocal peculiar- 
ities of the Rig Veda text. The study of Caunaka's 
work affords us the proof that from that ti?ne on the 
Vedic hymns, protected by the united care of gram- 
matical and religious respect for letters, have suffered 
no further appreciable corruptions. The most im- 
portant manuscripts of the Rig Veda which we know, 
may be two thousand years later than this hand-book 
of Caunaka's, but they bear all tests in a remarkable 
way if we compare them with it. 

The Rig Veda, indeed, which that Hindu scholar 
found, was not unlike a ruin. And it was hardly pos- 
sible by the help of Hindu scholarship to transmit it 
to posterity in a better condition than it was received. 
But still the conscientious diligence of the Hindu lin- 
guists and divines accomplished something : for the 
last two thousand years it has preserved these vener- 
able fragments from the dangers of further decay. 
They lie there, untouched, just as they were in the 
days of Caunaka. And the investigation of our day, 
which has already succeeded in bringing forth from 
many a field of ruins the living features of a by-gone 
existence, is at work among them, now with the bold 
grasp of confident divination, now in the quiet uni- 
formity of slowly advancing deliberation, to deduce 
whatever it may of the real forms of those old priestly 
poems. 



THE OP^N COURT. 



'551 



PASSIONS AND MANIAS.* 

BY FELIX L. OSWALD, M. D. 

n. 

Many objections of Pessimism against the Ethical 
Tendency of the Universe can be explained awa}' in 
the light of the axiom that Nature never hesitates to 
sacrifice the welfare of individuals to the welfare of 
the species. At the entrance of the loam-labyrinths 
which cover the table lands of central Africa the war- 
riors of the termite ant can often be seen charging a 
trespasser with a recklessness which frequently re- 
sults in the slaughter of the bold sentinels, but which, 
after all, tends to discourage intrusion and thus to se- 
cure the welfare of the community. The Leming rat, 
in its periodic migrations, travels in swatms, preceded 
by skirmishers who often bridge an ice-cleft with their 
own bodies, and thus enable the main force of the 
wandering host to continue their march unhindered. 

Manj' an apparent paradox of the moral world con- 
ceals a similar significance. The slaughter of millions, 
sacrificed to the ambition of a restless conqueror, is 
only a modified form of the universal struggle for su- 
premac)', which on the whole, results in the survival 
of the fittest and thus secures the ultimate progress of 
the species. The passien of inquiry, which has braved 
the fire of the stake and disturbed the mental peace of 
countless children of faith, has guided the progress of 
mankind from error to truth, and like the ardor of pa- 
triotism, often compensates, by methods of its own, 
even the individual sacrifices of its martyrs, whose 
courage, in exile and chains, has been sustained by the 
genius of the species, and whose toils have been re- 
warded by confident previsions of immortal fame. 
There is, indeed, no doubt, that the interests of the 
Species are often promoted through the medium of in- 
dividual motives, as in the instinctive delusions of the 
sexual passion, or in the impulse of .that ambition 
which unconsciousl}' sacrifices the temporary comfort 
of its votaries to the permanent benefit of their fellow- 
men. 

It is less directly evident, but not less certain, that 
under a similar disguise, even the passion of hatred 
often subserves an unpersonal purpose. An assassin 
who under the sway of resentment risks his own life 
to accomplish the ruin of an enemy, might seem to use 
evil means for a purely evil end ; yet it is certain that 
of all the motives apt to restrain the reckless gratifica- 
tions of selfishness, the most potent is not the influ- 
ence of law codes or religious precepts, but the dread 
of personal revenge. The court of private vendetta has 
again and again avenged the deeds of evildoers who 
could defy all other tribunals, and the assassin's dag- 
ger has thus more than once discouraged crime by 

♦Copyrighted under " Body and Mind ; or, The Data of Moral Physiology." 
Part XXII. 



restraining the passions of unscrupulous egotists through 
the dread of a more reckless passion. 

That passion, in its fiercest forms, can acquire a 
force overpowering even the instinct of self-preserva- 
tion, and history abounds with the records of despots 
and oppressors slain in the midst of their vassals, and 
under circumstances making the avenger's deed an 
almost certain equivalent of suicide. 

Nor is the sway of that self-sacrificing fury always 
confined to a momentary impulse. The assassin of 
Pedro Arbues, was proved to have prepared for the 
consequences of his deed a year in advance, and seems 
to have undertaken a journey of several hundred miles 
in the full assurance that the murder of the fanatical 
Grand Inquisitor would cost him his own life. Ravaillac 
confessed to have haunted the favorite promenades of 
Henri IV. for three weeks, and Sir Emerson Tennent 
mentions the case of a Malay servant who had hired 
himself to a relative of a mortal enemy and watched 
his chance for two years before he finally found the 
desired opportunity for gratifying his revenge. Ani- 
mals, under the spur of rage have been known to fol- 
low their offenders for days together. A she-leopard, 
in the foothills of the Abyssinian Alps, was chased up 
a tree by a pack of hounds, while the companions of 
the traveler Riippei destroyed her young, but effected 
her escape after being wounded by a shot that tore off 
one of her ears. Three days after, the tent of the 
traveler was attacked by a raging beast, which suc- 
cumbed only to a repeated volley of rifle-balls, and by 
a half-healed scar was recognized as the victim of that 
adventure in the foothills, where she must have taken 
up the trail of her assailants and followed it for a 
distance of sixty English miles. The naturalist Buck- 
land relates an anecdote of a dog that had to be sold 
on account of its persistent hostility to a man who had 
incurred its resentment by an act of cruelty. Six years 
after that dog met its enemy in the streets of a suburb 
of Bristol, and at once attacked him with a fury which 
its new owner could explain only on the theory of hy- 
drophobia, as the terribly mangled stranger seemed to 
have been the victim of a wholly unprovoked attack. 
For reasons of his own the wounded man endorsed 
that hypothesis and insisted on the dog's being slain 
on the spot, but laughed at the apprehensions of his 
private friends, and, indeed, was eventually justified 
in the prediction that his wounds would heal without 
any perilous after-effects. 

Hatred is as persistent a passion as love, and the 
devotion of dying lovers consecrating their last hours 
to the task of securing the happiness of a beloved sur- 
vivor, is offset by the posthumous revenge of impla- 
cable haters. De Witt, in the agony of his djdng hour, 
roused himself on the arrival of his sons, to exact an 
oath of life-long hostility, to the house of Orange. Pozzo 



1552 



XHK OPEN COURT. 



di Borgo, the Corsican patriot, inspired all his young 
relatives with the passion of his hatred to the person 
of the first Napoleon ; and the blood-feuds of Scotch 
and .Italian families have often been perpetuated for a 
series of generations. 

There are race-feuds which at bottom represent 
the antagonism of irreconcilable tendencies, and the 
unconscious influence of that antagonism might often 
explain the enigma of "hatred at first sight," an in- 
stinctive and unconquerable antipathy between two 
persons who perhaps have never exchanged a word 
and mutually avoided any act of direct discourtesy. 

"Do you believe that the ' Daimon-warnings ' of 
Socrates can be explained on the theory of clairvoy- 
ance?" I once asked a specialist in psychological 
studies. " I do not know how spiritualists would ac- 
count for it," said he, after a pause of introspection, 
"but I am tempted to ascribe such presentiments to 
a more permanent instinct. You remember that the 
promptings of that daimon were dissuasive rather than 
persuasive, and I have had a similar experience at the 
first sight of total strangers, who somehow or other 
impressed me with an intuitive certainty of hostile in- 
tentions, or of danger to be avoided only by cutting 
their acquaintance as short as possible. And more 
than once I have in vain tried to explain such presen- 
timents by any peculiarity in the appearance' or the 
manners of the ominous individuals. Their physiog- 
nomical characteristics might be prepossessing rather 
than otherwise and their manners unexceptionable, nay 
their impression on others might be decidedly favor- 
able ; and yet I seemed to know, rather than to suspect, 
that to me individually any intimate relation with such 
persons would imply trouble. My first conjecture in 
such cases was generally the idea that their personal 
appearance must have clearly recalled that of some 
half-forgotten rascal who had revealed his character at 
my expense ; but after reviewing the portraits of that 
rogue's gallery, I came to the conclusion that the 
origin of the ominous impression must antedate my 
personal experience. Years ago — perhaps generations 
ago — the path of one of my ancestors may have been 
crossed by an ancestor of that obnoxious stranger, or 
for all I know his smooth manners may conceal ten- 
dencies at daggers-drawn with hereditary tendencies 
of my own, and which some time or other may have 
exploded in a mortal feud, and would explode again 
in the first favorable opportunity." 

Race-antipathies certainly survive the practical 
motives of their origin, and often assert themselves in 
a manner which can be explained only by the influence 
of hereditary intuition. After centuries of political 
and religious association the Semitic elements still an- 
tagonize the Latin elements in the population of 
Southern Spain, and even the cosmopolitan tendencies 



of our own " universal nation " have failed to harmon- 
ize the discords of Celtic and Germanic characteristics. 
" We have a German-Irish family in our neighbor- 
hood," wrote a Texas friend of mine at the time of 
the Franco-Prussian war, "and it was most amusing 
to see how unconscious instinct prompted the five 
children of that neighbor to take part for or against 
King William. The news from Sedan fairly electrified 
a youngster with the flaxen hair of his Teuton father, 
though that father was not a Prussian at all, but a 
Hessian, with a private pique against the annexators 
of his native land. One of his brothers, with the black 
eyes of his Limerick mother, persisted in cheering for 
the defenders of Strassburg and after the surrender of 
that stronghold of Celtic prestige, avenged himself by 
kicking his brother's bulldog." 

Yet Celts and Teutons have for ages been next- 
door neighbors ; but the inveteracy of such neighbor- 
hood-feuds can often be explained by the circumstance 
that more dissimilar nations often dwell too far apart 
to develop the antagonism of rivalry. The Portuguese 
with all their bigotry, grant foreign heretics numerous 
privileges which they obstinately refuse to their next 
neighbors, the hated Spaniards. Persians eagerly 
fraternize with western Giaours to gain allies against 
their fellow-Moslem, the obnoxious Turks. Exile, 
however, is apt to correct such prejudices, and in the 
heart of the black Continent, Caucasians of all subdivis- 
ions become impressed with the advantage of a tem- 
porary truce — though the Cuban Cazique Hatwai, 
stoutly protested his resolution to go to Hades rather 
than run the risk of meeting Spaniards in Heaven. 
As a rule, exiled individuals will prefer" the society of 
their nearest ethnological relatives. Darwin's experi- 
ments induced a menagerie keeper to cage a she- 
baboon with, a couple of Brazilian ringtail-monkeys, 
whom she consented to adopt, but at once discarded 
when the keeper introduced an African ape, and it 
seems a significant circumstance that the Chinese im- 
migrants seem to feel quite at home in Peru, among a 
race whose ancestors dated their origin from a land 
on the other side of the Pacific. 

Instinct also guides the apparent caprices in the 
association of certain antipathies. It has been ob- 
served, as a moral curiosum that hatred is transferred 
from parent to children, far more frequently than from 
children to parents, though the rationale of that 
idiosyncrasy is probably the intuitive perception of 
the fact that parental love has deeper and more sensi- 
tive roots than filial affection, and that the attempt to 
wound an enemy by a blow at his child is not apt to 
miss its purpose. In the death of an old man's chil- 
dren an implacable enemy can moreover hope to ac- 
complish the conclusive ruin of a hated lineage, and 
Oriental despots have often contented themselves with 



THE OPKN COURT. 



1553 



effecting such purposes b}' a slaughter of innocents, 
sparing the patriarchs and female infants of a rival 
djmasty. 

The transfer of vengeance from women to husbands 
(oftener than vice versa) may, on the other hand, be 
founded on an instinct developed in an age of univer- 
sal polygamy, supplemented by female slavery and 
suttee rites. From modern data the evolution of that 
disposition could perhaps be explained only from the 
fact that a bereaved husband, even after the middle 
of life, has a chance for repairing his loss by means 
often denied to an aged widow. The feud of rival 
queens sealed the doom of the Nibelungen ; but even 
the massacre bulletins of the Pentateuch rarely record 
the slaughter of female captives. 

IDEALISM AND REALISM.* 
Idealism starts from thought and sensation, from 
the subjective aspect of phenomena, and in its most 
consistent form, as spiritualism, denies the existence 
of matter. Realism starts from real existence, from 
the objective aspect of phenomena, and in its most 
consistent form, as materialism, denies the existence 
of spirit. 

Now, as a matter of fact, neither spirit nor matter 
exist of themselves: they are abstracts. Realism is 
right in so far as the facts of reality cannot be consid- 
ered as sham. Idealism, on the other hand, is also right, 
in as far as the building-stones of all knowledge are our 
sensations; they are the facts of reality. However, 
the processes that within our body produce the sub- 
jective feeling of sensations, can not be considered as 
essentially different from the phenomena of the outer 
world; since science, the classified system of obser- 
vations, shows that the former not only are most in- 
timately interwoven with and conditioned by the latter, 
but that they must have grown from them in the pro- 
cess of natural evolution. 

Idealism pretends that sensations are radically 
different from the phenomena perceived. The sensa- 
tion of light is different from ether-waves, the sensation 
of sound different from the vibrations of the air. In 
his excellent essay, " Sensation and the Outer World," 
in No. 83 of The Open Court, M. Alfred Binet says : 

" Suppose that, my eyes being closed, I lay ray hand upon 
my table, and that I feel a pin rolling about beneath my fin- 
ger ; I experience a sensation o£ a tactile kind, which excites in 
me a series of inferences, conscious, sub-conscious, and uncon- 
scious, and the whole occurrence is comprised in the following 
judgment: I touch a pin. In this way, through external percep- 
tion, we possess knowledge of objects by the sensations they pro- 
duce in us. * * * 

" That which has produced our sensation of a pin, is not 
dii-ectly the pin ; it is the nervous modification which that object 
has produced, in acting upon our sense of touch ; our sensation 
follows this ner%-ous modification. * * * 

* Relative to the essay of M. Binet, " Sensation and the Outer World." 



" Nothing resembles less the external object than the excita- 
tion it propagates in our nervous substance. What resemblance 
is there, for example, between the head of a pin that lies beneath 
my finger, and the physico-chemical phenomenon that pisses 
through the sensitive fibers of my hand and that reaches my brain 
through the spinal marrow, where it gives rise to the conscious 
perception of a pin. Plainly, here are phenomena entirely dis- 
similar. It follows, therefore, that if there is a fact, at the pres- 
ent day, firmly established, it is that the sensations we experience 
upon contact with external objects are in no particular the copy of 
those objects. There is nothing outside of my eye that is like 
color or light, nothing outside of my organ of hearing that is like 
noise or sound, nothing outside of my sense of touch that is like 
hardness or softness or resistance, nothing outside of my sense of 
smell that is like a perfume, nothing apart from my sense of taste 
that is like a flavor. " * * ••' 

Sensation and the phenomena of the outer world 
are different. Sensations are not the real copies or 
images proper of things. The nervous system is not 
actually a mirror to reflect phenomena just as they 
are. Yet we may justly compare it to a mirror. For, 
after all, certain features of the phenomena are pre- 
served. They are consequently not so entirely different 
as is maintained. A certain form of a phenomenon 
corresponds to a certain form of sensation. The phe- 
nomena being different among themselves produce sen- 
sations that in their turn also are different among them- 
selves. And the difference suffices to distinguish them. 

The electric current in the wire of a telephone is 
entirel}' different from the air-waves of sound. Never- 
theless the form of air- waves produced by spoken words 
can be translated, as it were, into the electric current 
and from the electric current back again into air-waves. 
Both can adapt themselves to the same form and thus 
become messengers of information. Must we declare 
that all communication through the telephone is im- 
possible because electricity and sound-waves, wire and 
air, are entirely different ? 

It is true that the pin on the table does not re- 
semble the physico-chemical phenomenon that takes 
place in our nerves. But it is true nevertheless that 
this physico-chemical phenomenon of our sensation to- 
gether with the memories of other sensations, especial- 
ly those of touch and sight, produces in our mind 
the conception of a pin. In spite of all difference be- 
tween the outer world and sensation, the pin as we 
conceive it to be, is the net result of such sensations. 
This is possible as in the example of the telephone 
by a transference of motion from one medium to an- 
other through the preservation of form. The same is 
true of the whole world. Our conception of the world, 
in order to be true, must ultimately be based on the 
facts of sensation — not on the subjective aspect of 
sensation only, but also and especially on its objective 
aspect as motions of a special form. In this way only 
can we acquire a conception of the objects, as they 
must be supposed to be independent of the subject. 



'554 



THE OPEN COURT. 



The difference between the phenomena of the outer 
world and sensations, appears more striking than it 
really is, because, in order to understand a process 
fully, we must reduce it to some form which can be 
expressed in mathematical symbols or figures. For- 
mal thought is always the basis of a scientific com- 
prehension, and in order to comprehend a phenome- 
non, so as to measure and calculate it, we must in many 
cases translate it, as it were, into the language of that 
sense which is the organ of measurement and calcu- 
lation. Therefore audible sound-phenomena are rep- 
resented as visible air-waves. Hence the growing im- 
portance of the sense of sight. 

" Every manifestation of nature that affects us either 
directly or indirectly can thus afford us material for 
our sensation. Inasmuch as all existence must man- 
ifest its existence somehow (if it did not, it could not 
be said to exist), we maintain that all existence can at 
least indirectly be or become an object of cognition. 
Cognition never alters the data of sensory experience, 
although the invention of instruments may enlarge its 
reach. The Copernican system differs from the na'ive 
view, that the earth is a flat disk, not because it denies 
or contradicts the facts of sensation, but because it ar- 
ranges them more systematically with the assistance 
of mathematics {i. e. the method of formal thought). 

It is a misconception of knowledge to demand that 
it should be something different than a methodical 
arrangement of facts. Our cognition, although it may 
translate one sensation into another, never indeed 
goes, nor need it go, be3'ond sensation. p. c. 

A DEFENDER OF AGNOSTICISM. 

Col. Ingersoll declares in his article "Professor 
Huxley and Agnosticism,"* that the Agnostic "has 
ceased to inquire into the origin of things. He has 
perceived the limitations of. the mind." Thus our fer- 
vent iconoclast shuts the door to investigation, and 
"restricts himself to the examination of phenomena, 
to their relations, to their effects," because, as he says, 
" he has no means of a scientific knowledge of the un- 
seen world or of the future." 

If by the unseen world we understand the aspira- 
tions of man's moral and intellectual nature, the spirit- 
ual treasures which neither moth nor rust corrupt 
and which thieves do not steal, we can indeed have 
positive knowledge of it, and we are little helped by a 
simple denial of its knowability. 

We side with Col. Ingersoll whenever he opposes 
the superstitious notions of old theologies; but we 
urge like many of his opponents, that he should not 
take "something of value from the life of man," unless 
he can give something more valuable in its stead. We 
do not live for the present only, and not merely to 
make ourselves happy here. 

*A^, A. A'.TvVlf, April, l88g. 



" Life is real, life is earnest. 
And the grave is not its goal." 

Col. Ingersoll saj's that the Agnostic "endeavors to 
find in the complexity of things the true conditions of 
human happiness." It is not clear how complexity 
can be the condition of happiness. But we recognize 
that the duties of hfe must be placed above happiness 
and even above life itself. We must not confine our- 
selves to the horizon of our present existence. We 
live, and think, and work in the present, but let us live 
so that we continue to live in future generations. 

Col. Ingersoll opposes supernaturalism and meta- 
physicism, and he is right in that. But not perceiving 
how inconsistent he is, he establishes at the same time 
another supernaturalism and metaphysicism in the Un- 
knowable that limits our mind. p. c. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

THE SPIRIT OF MR. GEORGE'S WORK. 

To the Editor of The Open Court:— 

Wheelbarrow has failed to catch the real spirit of Mr. 
George's work. 

His friend Tom Clark was not confronted with Mr. George's 
law when he selected a quarter section of land in Boone County. 
Under Mr. George's plan the government would not say to Tom 
Clark, " This land is the common property of all the people, and 
before you can have it you must pay the land-value of that quarter 
section. This is fixed at $1.25 an acre." But it would say to him: 
" There are thousands of acres of land around here that no one is 
using, you just go ahead and take as much of it as you can use and 
it will cost you nothing, until such time as the country settles 
up. Then you will have to pay in the shape of taxes, annually, 
whatever the privilege of the exclusive use of this land may be 
worth." Tom Clark would then have the $200 which he paid for 
the mere privilege of access to this wild land left in his pocket, and 
this would greatly aid him in improving his land. Indeed, with 
money he could have broken the "forty acres at a cost of $3 an 
acre," and have S80 left to enable him to purchase a pair of oxen, 
or something of the like. Bear in mind that Tom Clark, bowing 
to the Divine Mandate, " In the sweat of thy brow shall thou eat 
bread," simply wanted this land that he might, by applying his 
labor to it, extract a living for himself and family. ' 

Tom Clark works hard early and late. By the hardest kind 
of toil and the practice of patience and the exercise of self-denial 
he has made " his plantation in the rough worth about $500." 
Wheelbarrow is right in saying that the community did not put 
this value on the land. Tom Clark, by the sweat of his brow, put 
it there, and it should be his as against the world. Yet under our 
present system the tax collector would come around and tax him 
on the full value of his improvements. He has done a good thing. 
By improving his farm, building a house, and raising food, he has 
added to the world's wealth. 

Now, there is no doubt that all this time there were thousands 
of acres of land all around Tom Clarks farm, held by people who 
had no idea of using it. They bought it for speculative purposes. 
They do not propose to do anything with it by which labor can be 
employed. They do not propose to invest a dollar, or do a day's 
work in the improvement and cultivation of this land. Yet they 
intend to get rich out of it nevertheless, by holding it until such 
time as the pressure of population makes the competition for it 



THE OPEN COURT 



1555 



sharp, and men will be willing to pay a high price for it, rather 
than be driven out beyond the confines of civilization. Now the 
essence of the evil lies in this : Under the present system, Tom 
Clark must pay the government say i per cent, taxes on his land 
and improvements amounting to $5 per year, and if he does not 
pay it, his farm, improvements, and all, will be sold for taxes. (Let 
Wheelbarrow say whether this is " arbitrary " and " despotic " or 
not, as he charges Mr. George's plan with being.) 

The speculator, however, is only taxed on the prairie value of 
his farm, or say $2 per year. Yet he has the same power over the 
land he holds that Tom Clark has over his. He has the power of 
excluding others from it. Then why should he not pay as much 
for the privilege of holding it idle as Tom Clark does for improv- 
ing his. Other hard working farmers like Tom Clark settle in the 
neighborhood, and by their common energy and toil will add 
yearly to the value of the speculator's land. But will they get any 
benefits from this increase in the value of his land, which they 
themselves have caused. Will the speculator give them any of 
this unearned increment which they themselves have produced ? 
Not at all. But on the contrary, should one of these farmers de- 
sire to enlarge the boundaries of his farm, or settle his son on ad- 
joining land, he will have to pay the speculator for the very increase 
of the value of the land which has resulted from his own labor on 
his own land, and his own presence in the community. Thus the 
speculator gets something for nothing, and it is at this Mr. George's 
plan is aimed 

Tax unimproved land as much as you tax improved land, and 
speculators will be compelled either to put it to some use, or aban- 
don it. Working farmers like Tom Clark would be benefited. 

One word more. The passages Wheelbarrow refers to in 
Progress and Poverty, and upon which he bases all his anxiety for 
his friend Clark, occur in discussions of the abstract question of 
the right of ownership as now understood; a question that must be 
settled in Wheelbarrow's mind before the details of the practical 
application can be fairly discussed. I beg to refer him to the 
e\g\ith hook ot Progress and Poverty vihere the application of the 
proposed remedy is fully gone over. 

Milwaukee, March 25, 1889. Peter McGill. 



THE LOST MANUSCRIPT.* 



BY GUSTAV FREYTAG. 

CHAPTER ^vOr///.— Continued. 

Mr. Hummel was sitting' in his warehouse before a 
battahon of new hats with broad brims and round 
crowns, which were placed for review before his field- 
marshal's eye, and he spoke reprovingl}' to his book- 
keeper: 

" They are like mere barbers' basins ; man is losing 
his dignity. At all events, we shall make profit by 
these coverings: no one notices the cats'-hairs of which 
they are made ; but they rob the head of the German 
citizen of the last breath of fresh air that he has 
hitherto secretly carried about with him in his high 
hat. In mj' j'outh one recognized a citizen by three 
points: on his body he wore a coat of blue cloth, on 
his head a black hat, and in his pocket a great house- 
key, with the ring of which, in case of assault by night, 
he could twist the noses of assassins. Now he goes 
off in a gray jacket to drink his beer, opens the door 
of the house with a small corkscrew, and the last high 

* Translation copyrighted. 



hat will probably be bought up as a rarity for art col- 
lections. You may immediately put aside part of our 
manufacture for antiquarians." 

This pleasant grumbling was interrupted b)' Laura, 
who entered eagerly, seized her father's hand with an 
imploring look, and drew him from his warehouse into 
his small office. Mr. Hummel submitted to be thus 
le_d, as patiently as Lot when the angel led him from 
the burning cities of the valley. When she was alone 
with her father she threw her arms about his neck, 
kissed and stroked his cheek, and for a long time could 
bring out nothing but "My good, noble father." Mr. 
Hummel was well pleased with this stormy fashion of 
endearment for a time. 

" Now I have had enough of this caressing. What 
do you want ? This introduction is too grand for a 
new parasol or a concert ticket.". 

" Father," cried Laura, " I know all that 3'ou have 
done for our neighbor. I beg your forgiveness; I, 
unfortunate one, have misunderstood your heart, and 
have many times inwardly resented your harshness." 

She kissed his hands, tears falling from her eyes. 

" Has that dough-face over the way been blabbing?" 
asked Mr. Hummel. 

" He was obliged to tell me, and it was a happy 
moment for me. Now I wJU acknowledge all to you 
with shame and repentance. Forgive me." 

She sank down before him. 

" Father, I have long been sick at heart. I have 
thought you pitiless. Your eternal grumbling and 
enmity to our neighbor have made me very unhappy, 
and ni}' life here has often been miserable." 

Mr. Hummel sat erect and serious, but a little dis- 
mayed at the confession of his child, and he had an 
indistinct impression that he had carried his rough 
opposition too far. 

" That is enough," he said; " this is all excitement 
and imagination. If I have been vexed through all 
these years, it has not done me any harm, nor the peo- 
ple over the way either. It is an unreasonable sorrow 
that now excites your lamentations." 

" Have consideration for me," entreated Laura. 
"An irresistible longing to go forth from this narrow 
street, has entered my soul. Father, I would like to 
take a leap into the world." 

" Indeed! " said Mr. Hummel. " I also should like 
to take a leap into it, if I only knew where this jolly 
world could be found." 

" Father, you have often told me how light was 
your heart when you wandered forth as a boy from 
your native town, and that from these wanderings you 
became a man." 

" That is true," replied Hummel. " It was a fine 
morning, and I had eight pence in my pocket. I was 
as lively as a dog with wings." 



1556 



THE OPKN COURT. 



" Father, I also should like to rove about." 

" You?" asked Hummel. " I have laid aside my 
knapsack; there are only a few hairs remaining on it, 
but you may tie your boots over it ; then one cannot 
see it." 

" Good father, I also want to go out and seek my 
way among strangers, and look out for what will please 
me. I will try my powers, and fight my may with m_y 
own hands." 

" You must put on breeches," said Hummel; "you 
cannot otherwise go alone in your wanderings." 

" I will take some one with me," answered Laura, 
softly. 

" Our maid Susan ? She can carry a lantern for you. 
The paths in this world are sometimes muddy." 

" No, father; I mean the Doctor." 

She whispered to him : 

" I want the Doctor to elope with me." 

" Ah, you little spider!" cried Hummel, amazed. 
"The Doctor elope with you! If you were to elope 
with him, there would be more sense in it." 

" That's just what I want to do," replied Laura. 

"Mutually, then!" said Hummel. "Listen: the 
matter becomes serious. Leave off embracing me, keep 
your hands away, and make a face beseeming a citizen's 
daughter and not an actress." 

He pushed her down on the window-seat. 

" Now speak to the point. So you intend to carry 
off the Doctor ? I ask you, with what means ? For 
your pocket-money will not reach far, and he over the 
way has not much to spare for such Sunday pleasures? 
I ask you, will you first marry him ? If so, the elope- 
ment would be very suspicious, for I have never j^et 
heard of a woman carrying off her husband by force. 
If you do not marry him, there is something which 
you must learn from your mother, and which is called 
modesty. Out with it! " 

" I wish to have him for a husband," said Laura, 
softly. 

" Ah, that is it, is it ? and was your Doctor ready 
to take charge of you before marriage, and to run 
away with you ?" 

" No; he spoke as you do, and reminded me that I 
ought not to give you pain." 

" He is occasionally humane," replied Hummel; 
" I am indeed indebted to him for his good intentions. 
Finally, I ask you, where will you carry him off to ?" 

" To Bielstein, father. There is the church in which 
Use was married." 

"I understand," said Hummel, "ours are too large; 
and what afterwards ? Do you mean to work as a day- 
laborer on the estate ?" 

" Father, if we could but travel," said Laura, im- 
ploringly. 

" Why not," replied Mr. Hummel, ironically; " to 



America, perhaps, as colleagues of Knips junior ? You 
are as mad as a March hare. The legitimate and only 
daughter of Mr. Hummel will run away from her father 
and mother, from a comfortable house and flourishing 
business, with her neighbor's only son, who is in his 
wa}' also legitimate, to a fools' paradise. I never could 
have thought that this hour would arrive." 

He paced up and down. 

" Now hear your father. If you had been a boy I 
would have had you well thrashed; but you are a girl, 
and your mother has formed you according to Jier 
principles. Now I perceive with regret that we have 
allowed you to have your own way too much, and that 
you may be unhappy for your whole life. You have 
got the Doctor into your head, and you might as well 
have fixed upon a tragic hero or a prince, and it shocks 
me to think of it." 

" But I have not thought of such," replied Laura, 
dejectedly; " for I am my father's daughter." 

Hummel laid hold of the plaits of her hair and 
examined them critically: 

" Obstinacy ; but the mixture is not throughout 
the same; there is something of higher womanliness 
with it; fancifulness, and whimsical ideas. That is 
the misfortune ; here a powerful stroke of the brush is 
necessary." 

These words he repeated several times, and sat 
down thoughtfully on his chair. 

" So you wish for my consent to this little elope- 
ment. I give it you upon one condition. The affair 
shall remain between us two; you shall do nothing 
without my consent, and even your mother must not 
know that you have spoken to me of it. You shall 
take a drive into the world, but in my way. For the 
rest, I thank you for this present that you have made 
me on my birthday. You are a pretty violet for me to 
have brought up ! Has one ever heard of such a plant 
taking itself by the head and tearing itself out of the 
ground ?" 

Laura embraced him again, and wept. 

" Do not set your pump again in motion," cried 
Mr. Hummel, untouched, "that cannot help either of 
us. A happy journey. Miss Hummel." 

Laura, however, did not go, but remained clinging 
to his neck. The father kissed her on the forehead. 

" Away with you; I must consider with what brush 
I shall stroke you smooth." 

Laura left the room. Mr. Hummel sat alone for a 
long time by his desk, holding his head with both 
hands. At last he began to whistle in a low tone the 
old Dessauer — a sign to the book-keeper, who was 
entering, that soft feelings had the upper hand with 
him. 

" Go across to the Doctor, and beg him to take the 
trouble of coming over to me immediately." 



XHE OPEN COURT. 



1557 



The Doctor entered the office. Mr. Hummel rum- 
maged in his desk and brought out a little paper. 

" Here, I return 3'ou the present that you once made 
me." 

The Doctor opened it, and two little gloves lay 
within. 

" You may give these gloves to my daughter on 
the day on which you are married to her, and you can 
tell her the}' come from her father, from whom she has 
run away." 

He turned away, approached the window, and 
thrummed on the pane. 

" I have already told you before, Mr. Hummel, 
that I will not take back these gloves. Least of all 
■ will I do it for this purpose. If the happy day is ever 
to come to me when I can take Laura to my home, it 
will only be when you put your daughter's hand in 
mine. I beg you, dear Mr. Hummel, to keep these 
gloves until that day." 

"Much obliged," replied Hummel; "you are a 
miserable Don Juan. I am in duty bound," he con- 
tinued, in his usual tone, " to communicate to you 
what is of fitting importance to you. My daughter 
Laura wishes to elope with vou." 

" What now disturbs Laura," answered the Doc- 
tor, " and has given her these wild thoughts, is no 
secret to you. She feels herself oppressed by the un- 
pleasant relations which subsist between us. I hope 
this excitement will pass away." 

" May I be allowed to ask the modest question, 
whether it is 3'our intention to agree to her plan ? " 

" I will not do it," rejoined the Doctor. 

" Why not ?" asked Hummel, coldly. "I for my 
part, have no objection to it." 

" That is one reason the more for me not to act 
inconsiderately by you, nor to be treated in a like 
manner." 

" I can bequeath my money to the hospital." 

" To this remark I have only one answer," replied 
the Doctor. " You yourself do not believe that this 
consideration influences my actions." 

" Unfortunately not," replied Hummel ; " you are 
both unpractical people. So you hope that I will at 
last give you my blessing without an elopement ?" 

"Yes, I do hope it," exclaimed the Doctor. "How- 
ever you may wish to appear to me, I trust that 
the goodness of your heart will be greater than your 
aversion." 

" Do not count upon my indulgence, Doctor. I do 
not believe that I shall ever prepare a marriage-feast 
for you. My child gives herself with confidence into 
j'our hands; take her." 

" No, Mr. Hummel," replied the Doctor, " I shall 
not do it." 

" Has mv daughter sunk so much in value because 



she is ready to become your wife?" asked Mr. Hum- 
mel, bitterly, and with a rough voice. "The poor girl 
has acquired some notions among her learned ac- 
quaintances, which do not suit the simple life of her 
father." 

" That is unjust towards us all, and also towards 
our absent friends," said the Doctor, indignantly. 
"What now distracts Laura is only a petty enthusiasm; 
there is still in her some of the childish poetry of her 
early girlhood. He who loves her may have perfect 
confidence in her pure soul. Only in one respect must 
he maintain a firm judgment in dealing with her; he 
must here and there exercise a mild criticism. But I 
should be unworthy of the love of her pure heart if I 
should agree to a hasty proceeding, which would at a 
later period occasion her pain. Laura shall not do 
what is unbecoming to her." 

" So that is Hindoo," replied Mr. Hummel ; " there 
is a spark of sound common sense in your Botocudens 
and Brahmins. Do your learned books also find an 
excuse for a daughter not feeling happy in the house 
of her parents ?" 

" That is your fault alone, Mr. Hummel," replied 
the Doctor. 

" Oho! " said Mr. Hummel; "so that's it." 

" Forgive me my plain speaking," continued the 
Doctor. " It is the fashion of Laura's father to play 
the tyrant a little in his family, in spite of all his love 
for them. Laura has from her childhood been accus- 
tomed to view your strange nature with fear ; therefore 
she does not form the impartial conception of your 
character, nor feel the pleasure in your mischievous 
humors that those not so intimately acquainted enjoy. 
If you had seen Laura's transport when I made known 
to her what you had done for my father, you would 
never doubt her heart. Now she is overcome with 
anguish about our future. But you may be as- 
sured, if Laura were to give in to her fancy and sep- 
arate herself from her parents' house, she would soon 
feel gnawing repentance and longing for her parents. 
Therefore, the man for whom she would now make 
this sacrifice acts not only honorabty, but also pru- 
dently, in resisting it." 

Mr. Hummel looked fiercely at the Doctor. 

" There is the old bear tied to a stake, the young 
puppies pull at his fur, and the cocks crow over his 
head. Take warning by my fate ; under all circum- 
stances avoid having female offspring." He put his 
hand upon the gloves, packed them up again, smoothed 
the paper, and shut them in his writing-desk. "Thus 
shall I lock up again my unnatural child ; for the rest 
I remain your devoted servant. So your old Hindoos 
tell you that I am a droll screech-owl, and a jolly boii- 
vivaut to strangers. Is that your opinion of m}' natural 
propensities?" 



1558 



THE OPEN COURT. 



" You are not quite so innocent," replied the Doc- 
tor, with a bow. " To me 3'ou have been alwaj's par- 
ticularly rCide." 

"There is no one I would rather wrangle with than 
with you," acknowledged Mr. Hummel. 

The Doctor bowed, and said: 

" When you play with other men as with cats, they 
only bear such treatment because they perceive good 
intentions under your cross-grained exterior. I can 
say this to you, because I am one of the few men to 
whom you have shown real dislike ; and, as you are 
also obstinate, I know very well that I shall still have 
to have many a tilt with you, and I am not at all sure 
how it will end between us. That, however, does not 
prevent my acknowledging the bitter amiability of your 
nature." 

"I object to any further enlightenment as to my 
real character," exclaimed Mr. Hummel. "You have 
a disagreeable way of viewing your fellowmen mi- 
croscopically. I protest against your painting me like 
a flea in the shadow on the wall. As concerns your 
proceedings as my daughter's lover, I am content with 
them. You do not choose to take my child in the way 
in which she is to be had ; I thank you for your scru- 
ples. In this matter we are entirely of the same opin- 
ion, and you therefore shall not have her at all." 

The Doctor wished to interrupt him, but Hummel 
waved his hand. 

" All further talk is useless ; you renounce my 
daughter, but you preserve the esteem of her father, 
and you have moreover the feeling of acting for the 
best for Laura. As you feel such great uprightness, 
you may console yourself with it. You will, devote 
yourself to celibacy, and I should envy you, if it were 
not for the consideration of Madame Hummel." 

" This will not avail, Mr. Hummel," replied the 
Doctor; "I have not the least intention of renouncing 
Laura's hand." 

"I understand," replied Mr. Hummel; "j'ouwishto 
besiege my daughter still, from across the street. This 
quiet pleasure I can, unfortunately no longer allow, 
for I am certainly of opinion that Laura must at some 
time leave mj' house; and as you have chosen the good 
opinion of the father rather than the daughter, we will 
confer on this point in mutual understanding. You 
are mistaken if you think that my daughter Laura will 
give up her fancies upon wise admonition. Have }'ou 
not sometimes appealed to my conscience ? It was 
all that could be expected, considering your age ; but 
it has been of no avail with me. It will be the same 
with this obstinate child. Therefore I am, as a father, 
of opinion that we must give in to a certain degree to 
the folly of my child. Consider how far you can go to 
please us. She wishes to join the Professor's wife. 



She shall not go to this capital where my lodger has 
no home, but she has frequently been invited to Biel- 
stein." 

The Doctor answered: 

" I have urgent reasons for going to my friend 
during the next few days. I will gladly make a detour 
by Bielstein, if you will allow me to accompany Laura 
on this journey, I shall make no secret of its purpose, 
— and least of all to my parents." 

" This elopement is so shabby that, were I a girl, 
I should be ashamed of taking part in it. But one 
must not expect too much of you. I will not be at 
home when this departure takes place: you see, that is 
natural. I have already made my plans concerning my 
child's future. I give her over to you for the journey, 
with confidence." 

" Mr. Hummel," exclaimed the Doctor, disquieted, 
" I ask for still greater confidence. How have you 
decided concerning Laura's future?" 

" As you have determined to show me such respect, 
I beg you will be content with the confidential inti- 
mation, that I have no intention of .making you any 
such communication. You preserve my esteem, and 
I my daughter. My compact is concluded." 

" But the compact is not quite satisfactory to me, 
Mr. Hummel," answered the Doctor. 

" Hold your tongue. If in consequence of this 
agreement your resume your theatrical career, I should 
advise 3'ou never to act the 7-6le of lover. The audiences 
will run out of all the doors. Do I treat people like 
cats? — So I treated your father and his flowers this 
morning. You can give him an intimation of that. My 
wife has plucked to-day a few roosters for my birth- 
day; if roasting these namesakes of yours does not 
exite painful feelings in you, it will give me pleasure 
to see you at dinner. You will not be under the em- 
barrassment of having to talk only to my daughter, 
for the family clown is invited: he will keep up the con- 
versation — you may be silent. Good morning. Doctor." 

The Doctor again stretched out his hand to him. 
Mr. Hummel shook it, grumbling all the while. When 
he was again alone in his office the melody of the old 
Dessauer again sounded in the narrow room, now 
brisk and hearty. Then, soon after, Mr. Hummel broke 
forth with the second of the two airs — " the Dear 
Violet" — to which he had recourse when in an un- 
constrained humor. At last he mixed up the drum- 
ming of the Dessauer with " the Dear Violet " in an 
artistic medlej'. The book-keeper, who knew that this 
pot pourri betokened a state of the highest spring 
warmth, popped his face, smiling respectfully, into the 
office. 

" You may come to dinner to da)'," said Mr. Hum- 
mel, graciously. 

( To be continued.') 



TME OFEN COURT. 



Ill 



BOOK REVIEWS. 
French Traits : A Study in Comparative Criticism. 11'. C. 

Brownell. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Chicago: A. 

C. McClurg & Co. 

Mr. Brownell, in this series of collected essays, has attempted 
a logical analysis of the prominent traits of French character. The 
inconsistent features of Gallic life — inconsistent at least to the 
Anglo-Saxon — are brought into harmony by a reference to funda- 
mental principles which have determined the civilization of the 
French people. The instinct that dominates France is distinctly 
social, propounds Mr. Brownell, as a thesis ; the French have little 
individual life ; manners are more than character, etc. This prin- 
ciple is traced by the author in every phase of the life of the na- 
tion. He quotes the words of Gambetta who says, ' There are no 
questions but social questions.' Their morality, their art, their 
government, and their women are explainable by that apothegm. 

Mr. Brownell's " Study in Comparative Criticism " undoubt- 
edly is entertaining and instructive: the chapters on ' ' Intelligence, " 
"Women," " The Art Instinct" may be cited. We feel at times, 
however, the presence of an effort to find more in the subject than 
its nature admits ; the method is often one of hyper-analysis ; the 
ideas become blunted by the frequency of their application. The 
essays were not originally intended for simultaneous publication, 
which may account for unavoidable repetition. ha/m. 

The Government of the People of the United States. By 
Francis N. Thorpe, Ph.D. Philadelphia: Eldredge & Bro. 
The work of Prof. Thorpe — of the ordinary school-book size — 
is adapted peculiarly to class-room purposes. It contains much 
material, statistical and explanatory. In addition to the " State 
Papers" usually contained in such works, the author has incorpo- 
rated "The Mayflower Compact," "The First Declaration of 
Rights," and " The Emancipation Proclamation." An instructive 
feature is the map showing the various acquisitions of land made 
by the United States since 1783, as are also the diagrams illustra- 
tive of the divisions of the public domain into townships and sec- 
tions. We believe the work well fitted, upon the whole, for in- 
struction in schools. There are to be found, however, and par- 
ticularly in the introductory chapters, many metaphysical gener- 
alities respecting the nature of government and rights, that the un- 
critical minds of young scholars, who rely implicitly on the teach- 
ings of such a work, are not competent to analyze and interpret. 
The impressions thus received often form the foundation of erro- 
neous political opinions which in later life it is hopeless to confute. 
The definitions of " Communism " and " Socialism," on page 234, 
might, we think, be made more conformable to the truth con- 
tained in the leading principles of these doctrines ; some of the 
most salutary institutions of Europe and America are communistic 
and socialistic in core, however they may be styled. jinpn. 

Essays Religious, Social, Political. David Atwood VVasson. 

Bo.ston : Lee & Shephard. Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co. 

About one third of the volume "Essays Religious, Social, 
etc.," is taken up with a biographical sketch from the pen of 
tha editor, Mr. O. B. Frothingham. David Atwood Wasson was 
born in 1823, in Maine, and came of a sturdy and respected Scotch- 
Irish family. His boyhood life is told in an autobiography, abound- 
ing in artistically arranged incidents, where the serious verges into 
the comical. New England religious discipline evidently was not to 
his taste : " It was Calvinism to which all the heaviest sorrows of 
my childhood were due. Calvinism that glowers upon all natural 
joy, that denies to human being any intrinsic worth, to human 
culture any permanent use, to human perfection any loveliness in 
heaven's eye ; — Calvinism was the curse of my young life." Yet 
" my case was not so bad," for Mr. Wasson had a father of sterling 
character and a mother from whom there had always seemed to 



comedown to him " a breath of sweetness, a beam of light too 
subtle for words." In 1845 he went to Bowdoin College, left in 
junior year, and in 1849 joined the Theological Seminary at Ban- 
gor. Two years later he was ordained pastor of an evangelical 
church in Groveland, Mass., where the non-conforming and he- 
retical character of his sermons led to a violent severance of his 
connections with the church. An independent congregation was 
established in Groveland. It was a critical epoch. Parker and 
Emerson were shaking the spiritual world of the New England 
States. " The air was full of new views." Radicalism was settling 
down in philosophy. The slavery conflict was raging. The po- 
sition assumed demanded courage, and Mr. Wasson, sensible of 
the heavy responsibility devolving upon him, was "stimulated to 
the utmost ; he became one of a brilliant company of teacheirs." 

Mr. Wasson's life was preeminently intellectual But the 
spiritual element predominated. His views were founded upon 
conviction — upon the kind of conviction that is inwardly im- 
posed and not the conviction that logically results. Logic, with 
him came afterwards, to justify to others the results he had 
reached, never to indicate to himself the paths he was to follow. 
Spiritual assurances he regarded as the highest expression of 
truth. " The soul of man was in his speculation the centre of all 
belief." It was infinite in depth, " contained in God, heir to the 
utmost resource of His being. That is the starting point — pure 
spiritual unity, pure personality." Mr. Wasson was, in public 
life, a firm champion of "advanced thought." He sympathized 
with the Free Religious Association and contributed frequently to 
The Radical and The Index. His most finished essays appeared in 
The Atlantic Monthly, The Xorth American Retiiew, and The Chris- 
tian Examiner. Part of the memoir is devoted to an analysis of Mr. 
Wasson's intellectual methods, his view of life, and of the world. 
The essays published are: "Nature the Prophecy of Man," 
"Unity," " Social Texture," "Conditions of Social Productive- 
ness," "The Puritan Commonwealth," The New Type of Op- 
pression," "Authority," " The Genius of Woman"; of which the 
last two may be mentioned as characteristic and uniting qualities 
of a high order of excellence. jiKpK. 



NOTES. 

The Magazine of American History for April contains the De 
Peyster portrait of Washington, never before published. 

Wide Awake for April publishes a novel and graceful Easter 
game for young people, "The Cascaroni Dance," illustrated by 
Edmund H. Garrett. 

St. .Vicholas for April is a charming issue. The illustrations 
are highly creditable to the character of the text. Lieutenant W. 
R. Hamilton contributes an article, which will be interesting to 
young readers, on " Ancient and Modern Artillery." The con- 
tinuation of Mr. Edmund Alton's "Routine of the Republic," 
forms a proper counterpart to the former. 

The Century for the present month, a Centennial number, is 
devoted mainly to topics suggested by the inauguration of Pres- 
ident Washington. The illustrations are rich and numerous ; 
many are copies of unpublished prints and portraits in the pos- 
session of private families and private collections. Mr. John Bach 
McMaster, in " A Century of Constitutional Interpretation," traces, 
with a masterly hand, the origin of many political problems. 

In a pamphlet of ninety-nine pages, entitled "Pioneer Pith. 
The Gist of Lectures on Rationalism," (Truth Seeker Co., New 
York), Mr. Robert C. Adams discusses the conditions and methods 
of progress inhuman thought. "The first essential to efficient 
action," says the author, "is aright conception of the universe. 
* * * All religions, therefore, depend upon a Cosmogony, a theory 
as to the origin and nature of the world." 



iv 



THE OPEN COURT. 



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CONTENTS 



MAKING BREAD DEAR. A Criticism of Wheelbarrow. 

A Sympathizer 1559 

THE INTERPRETATION OF THE VEDA, AND THE 

HINDU EPIC. Translated from the Deutsche Rmidschait. 

Prof. H. Oldeneerg 1561 

ETHICS AND NATURAL SCIENCE. Editor 1563 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

Ground-Rent and Land-Values. Hugh O. Pentecost. 1566 



A Farmer on Henry George 1567 

FICTION. 

The Lost Manuscript. (Continued.) Gustav Freytag. 1567 
BOOK REVIEWS. 

Times and Days. 

His Broken Sword. Winnie Louise Taylor. 

Ultimate Finance. William Nelson Black. 
NOTES. 



Three Introductory Lectures 

The Science of Thought. 



J Court of June, July, 



BY F. MAX MULLER. 

1. The Simplicity of Language; 

2. The Identity of Language and Thoughtjand 

3. The Simplicity of Thought. 

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BUtschli. Lieberkiihn. 

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Review of Recent Work of THE OPEN COURT. 

PSYCHOLOGY AND PHILOSOPHY. 

Sensation and The Outer World. ..A. Binet. . . .No. 83, 

Idealism and Realism. Editor No. 84. 

Drea.ms, Sleep and Consciousness. 

M. Binet, after having animadverted upon the impropriety of 
excluding metaphysical questions from the domain of science, pro- 
ceeds in the above-mentioned essay to discuss the interesting ques- 
tion of the relation between human sensation and its normal 
excitant, the external world. No resemblance is predicable, main- 
tains M. Binet, between the perceptions of consciousness and the 
bodies that exist beyond us. Doctrines enunciating such resem- 
blance, the author declares fallacious, and terms them " crude and 
naive realisms." This fallacy, however, is widely prevalent in 
science. Physicists and philosophers still hold that the definitive 
explanation of natural phenomena is a mechanical explanation, 
wherein the concepts of mass and force are the ultimate and fun- 
damental data. They fail to recognize, in this, the purely subjec- 
tive character of sensations. They translate, merely, sensations 
of one kind into sensations of another kind, which seem to us 
more precise ; thus, they explain the phenonenon of sound by the 
phenomenon of a vibration ; merely substituting, thereby, a visual 
sensation for an auditory sensation. This leads the author to 
discuss the supreme importance of the visual ^ense in the investi- 
gation of phenomena ; the possibility of a purely auricular science 
is held forth ; the author shows that the ear, by noting the qualities 
of sound, can solve numerical -pzohXevas,. Thus, the progression of 
human knowledge is accompanied by a progresion of human capa- 
bilities. The future will transform our sciences ; it may transform 
our senses. 

Sensation and the phenomena of the external world, it is 
granted, are different. But does it follow that knowledge of ex- 
ternal objects is therefore impossible ? The electrical phenomenon 
traversing the wire of a telephone bears no resemblance to the 
spoken words thrown against the mouth-piece in the shape of air- 
waves ; no more so than does sensation the external object. Yet 
is communication by means of a telephone impossible ? Are not 
the spoken words reproduced at the other end of the line in sub- 
stantially the form in which they were received ? Preservation of 
form fs all that is necessary ; and this is possible even where there 
is no superficial resemblance. It is a contradiction to demand 
that knowledge should be other than it is. Cognition does not, 
and need not, go beyond sensation. 

In Numbers 82 and 83 two interesting letters appear, discuss- 
ing questions raised by the articles of Dr. G. M. Gould upon 
Dreams, Sleep, and Consciousness — practical studies upon the 
psychology of consciousness. 



ETHICS AND SCIENCE. 

Ethical Evolution. Prof. E. D. Cope No. 8z. 

The utilitarian theory o£ morals, says the distinguished author 
has found in the law of evolution a permanent substantiation. Yet 
does that doctrine embrace the whole truth, does it embody exclu- 
sively the law of human ethical progress ? Ethical conduct, it is 
true, is an outgrowth of natural mental constitution ; it differs 
among individuals, among families, among races ; physical neces- 
sities, and conditions of environment direct it. But the knowledge 
of right is an intellectual faculty. Ethical life expresses, further, 
the highest development of humanity. Accordingly, mora! con- 
duct has various phrases of evolution : the ratiolial as well as the 
natural, the individual as well as the social ; J:o which correspond- 
ing motives of utility, egoism, and altruism belong. We find these 
motives interacting, each predominant in their respective spheres. 
The rational element has found its expression in generalization, in 
the formation by far seeing men of ethical codes ; the affectional 
element, the element of Love, has found its expression in beneficent 
altruism, wherein the filial relation to God forms an abiding motive 
to action. The faculty of reason and the sentiment of love ensure 
ethical perfection. 

Passions and Manias. Felix L. Oswald, M.D. Nos. 81, 84. 
Interesting essays in moral physiology, abounding in citations 
from history and science in support of the positions taken. 

News About the Planets and the Moon No. 80. 

This constitutes a survey of the latest astronomical observa- 
tions. It includes a brief account of the canals on the surface of 
Mars, with their various attendant phenomena ; the rotation of 
Jupiter ; the temperature of the moon ; and the strange light-phe- 
nomena recently observed in the neighborhood of Saturn. 

SOCIOLOGY AND ECONOMICS. 

Henry George and Land Taxation. Wheel- 
barrow No. 73 

Corbespondence Upon the Doctrine of Henry 
George Nos. yg, 80, 82, 84. 

The criticisms by Wheelbarrow, touching the doctrines of 
Henry George, have evoked much comment and discussion. The 
main bulk of the correspondence relative to this. question, remains 
still unpublished ; showing the ^wide-spread interest taken in the 
subject, and the undoubted popularity of Mr. George's theories. 
The main endeavor of our correspondents seems directed towards 
demonstrating Wheelbarrows ignorance and misunderstanding of 
the great economist's position. This Wheelbarrow seeks to refute 
in a letter in No. 82. 

HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL. 

The Dilemma of Double Allegiance. Gen M. M 

Trumbull No. 81. 

The article by Gen. Trumbull is opportune. Its tone and 
position is commendable. Amid the chauvinistic fanfaronade of 
demagogic statesmen and bellicose newspapers, evoked by petty 
irritations over Samoa coal-stations and bait for cod-fish, the 
thoughtful citizen of foreign birth must often feel the appalling 
meaning that the problem of double allegiance embodies. " What 
is the ethics of patriotism that must guide us in case of actual 
war ?" " The duty of men embarassed by the ties of double alle- 
giance," says Gen. Trumbull, " is to stand bravely by the republic 
whatever comes, but they ought to unite their moral and political 
influence to promote the settlement of all international disputes by 
peaceful arbitration." The question has excited much comment 
from the press throughout the country. 



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MAKING BREAD DEAR. 

A CRITICISM OF WHEELBARROW, BY A SYMPATHIZER. 

In Number 78 of your paper, I read an article 
signed "Wheelbarrow." Too easily affected perhaps 
by the unfortunate condition of m}' fellow- men, I was 
greatly moved by the description given b}' Wheelbar- 
row of the hard Ijnes in which his life is set. To be 
forever pushing a wheelbarrow at the meagre remuner- 
ation of Si. 25 per day, with a hard taskmaster stand- 
ing near (at much higher wages per diem), forever 
crying, " Fill up the barrow," is indeed an unhappy 
lot. But this is only part of the picture he drew. 
While he secures for his toil only the small wages at- 
taching to this most common kind of human labor, 
there is, according to him, a wicked design on the part' 
of those superior to him in position, to render his pit- 
tance the most inadequate for his numerous wants, 
by artificiall}' raising the prices of those things which 
his necessity demands. 

M3' heart burned with indignation as I read his 
eloquent, if somewhat ambiguous, indictment of so- 
ciety ; for he is truly eloquent, and when I read his 
glowing words, I wondered why he did not turn his 
attention to the Bar, the Pulpit, or the Press, because 
in either of these his mental gifts give promise of suc- 
cess ; and by his own confession, pushing a wheel- 
barrow is hard, monotonous, and unprofitable work. 
But this reflection made the contrast between what he 
might have been, and what he is, the more painful, 
and served only to aggravate the wickedness of those 
who tr}' to oppress him. With these thoughts in mind 
I read again his pungent article. On the second read- 
ing, doubts arose in my mind. I asked myself the 
question, " Is this the statement of real fact, or is it a 
sketch in which a fervid imagination has outrun sober 
fact and reasonable judgment?" This I determined 
to ascertain if possible. I took the following extracts 
as fairly representative of his chief grievances, and 
said : " If I find this true, I will take his statement for 
the other specifications." 

"All through the summer time. Nature, the boun- 
" teous mother, covers our share of the earth with a 
•■'carpet of grain, resplendent in green and gold, while 
" bands of criminals are permiited by the law to discount 
" it and corner it, to bewitch it, and bedevil it, that it 
" may become costlv and scarce to the luorkini^maii. The 



" guilt}' profit goes to them, and with it they corrupt 
" our laws in the very capitol where they are made. 

"While one gang of food gamblers raises the price 
" olhrea.d, another gang raises the price of meat. * * * 
" As making bread dear is morally a crime, let us 
" make it a crime by law; let us build new peniten- 
"tiaries to accommodate those vermin of trade who 
" make dear the food of the poor. They are the lineal 
" descendants of the sordid Egyptian speculators whO' 
" tried to corner all the corn in Egypt, because there 
"was a famine in the land of Canaan." 

Determ.ined to be thorough in my examination of 
the matter, I called upon a farmer friend, showed him 
the article, and asked if the farmers were engaged in 
the wicked combination. He replied : " I know of no 
combination to make wheat or flour high. I do know 
that the price is very low — so low as to afford the far- 
mer but little remuneration for his toil. Statistics 
prove that the average pay to the farmer is about 82 
cents per day, or about two-thirds of what Wheelbar- 
row earns, and the truth is that many from the coun- 
tr}' are moving into the city to secure, if possible, a 
more remunerative job, such as Wheelbarrow enjoys." 
I then called upon a miller who I know is honest. He 
said : " There is no combination among millers. On 
the contrary, competition is very fierce. If we get 25 
cents per barrel for the use of our mill, and the risk 
we take, we are satisfied. In fact we do not average 
so much." 

I had anticipated about this form of reply from 
facts already within my knowledge, and therefore was 
not much disappointed that in these two places — the 
farm and the mill — Wheelbarrow's trouble did not 
originate. 

I then went to the Board of Trade. I visited a 
man, not an operator himself, but well acquainted 
with all the course of trade and speculation in the form 
of cereal and other product dealt in in this market. 

He read the accusation of Wheelbarrow and said : 

" This kind of loose talk is hard to answer. It has 
no real foundation in fact. The only reply possible, 
is to set forth the real facts ; and that requires a great 
many more words than it is necessary to use in accusing 
a man of murder, conspiracy, or other crime. No one 
wants to make bread dear ; no one wants to make it 
cheap. The speculator operates to make money. He 



1560 



THE OPEN COURT. 



bu3's hoping for a rise, or he sells for future deliver}' 
hoping for a decline. There can be no buyer without 
a seller, and no seller without a buyer. If the short 
seller was too numerous, grain would go down, and 
bread would be cheap ; but the agriculturalist would 
suffer, and if this influence continued long enough, he 
would cease to raise wheat, when a reaction would 
ensue, wheat would be scarce and high, and bread 
would become dear. 

"Against this influence, the speculative buyer 
offers the only barrier. He is handicapped at the be- 
ginning by charges and expenses from which the short 
seller is free, i. e., if he buys and carries wheat or 
other property, he is subjected to the cost of storage, 
interest, insurance, and the risk of deterioration in 
quality. Both the buyer and the seller are governed 
b}' their conclusions, reached from the best examina- 
tion they can make of the present and prospective 
quantity of grain, as compared with the present and 
prospective demand for it, whether for home consump- 
tion or foreign exportation. 

" One immediate effect of the operations described 
is to make a continuous cash market for all products 
so dealt in, and the two forces, it may be safely as- 
serted, operate to bring the average price of wheat to 
a fair equilibrium under the law of supply and demand. 
At least it is true that in an open market such as 
usually exists, the current price is an expression of the 
agreed opinion of the world as to the fair value of the 
article. I say world, because the world trades in our 
market. If the price is for a moment higher than any 
individual trader's opinion of the real price he will 
offer for sale, and thus affect the price downward. If 
he thinks it too low, he will buy in the market, and 
thus influence the market upward. The opinions thus 
backed by monied risk, are much superior to the ex 
parte notion of Wheelbarrow, or any other person who 
merely stands off and looks on. 

" I might go on and speak about ' corners ' so- 
called," my informant continued, "but perhaps I have 
said enough." 

No, I replied, it is about corners that I especially 
want to hear, for I suspect that there, if anywhere, 
will be found the true occasion for Wheelbarrow's 
severe strictures. 

" Well," he said, " I will tell you all I know about 
them. I have already spoken about an open market, 
meaning by that a market which is under no individual's 
or syndicate's control. Now, it occasionally happens, 
at infrequent intervals, that some one man, or a small 
group acting together, will take advantage of a mo- 
ment when the actual stock of wheat or provisions in 
store is small, and secretly buy it all. With the 
actual property thus in possession, they will make 
contracts of purchase with the unsuspecting seller for 



future delivery. When the contract is due, the seller 
must buy in what he had previously sold, but as the 
stock is already in his adversary's hands, he can buy 
only of him, and at his price. The short seller is thus 
occasionally caught and put in chancer)' by the wih', 
and perhaps unscrupulous, dealer, who has thus cor- 
nered the market. 

" But in the nature of things, such a' condition 
must be of short duration. The operator who lias 
cornered the market must buy all that comes. The 
advancing price, which is its inseparable feature, brings 
into the market the reserve from all points, and under 
the rapidly increasing load, the cornerer usually finds 
himself unable to continue to bu}', and is at last 
obliged to let go of his holdings, suffers enormous 
losses, and frequently involves himself in ruin. 

" Some years ago, Jim Keene, of New York, tried 
the game. He lost two millions of dollars or more. 
Afterward McGeoch tried it. His losses amounted to 
millions, and he retired a ruined man. Ten years ago, 
a Cincinnati clique tried it. They lost enormousl)', and 
some of those interested are now in the penitentiary, 
where Wheelbarrow says they belong. But those are 
episodes. They are like raids in the rear of an arm)', 
or piratical excursions over ordinary peaceful seas. 
Their influence is so brief they seldom affect the price 
of the product to the actual consumer. 

"As an illustration ; in a celebrated pork corner 
some three years ago, the price for regular delivery on 
change rose to S35 per barrel, but the consumer could 
buy for use or shipment to other parts of the country 
for $14 per barrel in any quantity he desired. This is 
a brief, but substantial statement of the fact. The}- 
cannot be said to make bread dear as Wheelbarrow- 
alleges, for in a swing of months or years, their influ- 
ence is next to nil in that direction." 

Having thus exhausted the chief specification of 
Wheelbarrow, I did not pursue the question into other 
fields. My own mind was greatly relieved, and I have 
thought others among your sympathizing readers 
might be similarly affected by this perusal. 

Part of Wheelbarrow's unhappiness arises from the 
alleged fact that since "' I first worked with the wheel- 
barrow * * * wealth has multiplied fourfold or more. 
Of that multiplied wealth I get no share at all." Now, 
he might be asked in what way he has contributed to 
increase wealth fourfold. As a wheeler of earth, has 
his power increased fourfold, or even doubled, over 
his predecessor in the same line a thousand years ago ? 
He can walk no faster, he is no stronger, and he works 
fewer hours than his brother laborer of a century ago. 
By what right then can he demand that he share in 
an increase which he did not contribute to produce? 
As a matter of fact, however, he has shared in the 
larger productivity which society as a whole has 



THE OPEN COURT. 



1561 



brought about. When he went to railroading, " my 
wages was a dollar a day; it is now from a dollar and 
a quarter to a dollar and a half." This itself is a gain 
of from 25 to 50 per cent., and if he will take note of 
the table of prices for the things which he consumes, 
he will find the purchasing power of his dollars has 
increased. 

I dislike to characterize his essaj' in unfriendly 
terms, but it is that kind of writing, now so much in 
vogue from labor agitators and would-be reformers, 
which hurts the cause it would help, confuses the true 
issues, obscures sound judgment, and helps to par- 
alyze the efforts of those who would gladly aid the 
humbler members of society to attain a better hold 
on life. 

THE INTERPRETATION OF THE VEDA, AND THE 
HINDU EPIC. 

BY H. OLDENBERG. 

We may say, that the greatest undertakings planned 
and the most important results achieved in the field 
of Sanskrit research, are linked with the names of Ger- 
man investigators. If we add that this could not easily 
be otherwise, it is not from national vanity; we should 
but express the actual facts of the case, based upon 
the development of the science. It was natural that 
the first movements toward the founding of Hindu re- 
search, the first attempts to grasp the vastly accumu- 
lated material and find provisional forms for it, should 
have been the work of Englishmen, men who spent a 
good part of their lives in India, and were there 
brought in constant contact with native Sanskrit 
scholars. But not less natural was it that the honor 
of instituting further progress and gaining a deeper in- 
sight should be accorded to Germans. The two fields 
of knowledge by which, 'especially, life and power were 
imparted to Hindu investigations were and are essen- 
tially German. These are comparative grammar, which 
we may say was founded b}' Bopp, and that profound 
and potent science, or perhaps more correctly ex- 
pressed art, of philology, which was practiced by 
Gottfried Hermann, and likewise by Karl Lachmann, 
the enthusiastic follower of Lessing — an art full of 
acute and purposeful ability, exact and truthful in 
small matters as in great. Representatives of this 
philology, moved to antipathy by many characteristic 
features cf the Hindu spirit, and not the least influ- 
enced by the assertion that Latin and Greek grammar 
has this or that to learn from the Sanskrit, might meet 
the new science of India with reserve or more than 
reserve. Still this could in no wise alter the truth that 
the stud}' of Hindu texts, the investigation of Hindu 
literary remains, could be learned from no better teach- 
ers than from those masters who had succeeded in im- 
proving and interpreting the classical texts with un- 
erring certainty and excellence of method. 



It was a Leipsic disciple of Hermann and Haupt 
who, at the instigation of Burnouf, in 1845, in Paris, 
conceived the plan of publishing the Rig Veda with 
the commentary of its Hindu expounder, the abbot Sa- 
yana, Avho flourished in the 14th century after Christ. 
This was the great work of Max Midler, the first of 
of those fundamental undertakings on which Vedic 
philology rests. It was necessary above all to know 
how the Brahmins themselves translated the hymns 
of their forefathers, which were preserved in the Rig 
Veda, from the Vedic language into current Sanskrit, 
and how they solved the problems which the grammar 
of the Veda presented, by the means their own gram- 
matical system offers. Herein lay the indispensable 
foundation of all further investigation. It was ne- 
cessary to weigh the Hindu traditions concerning the 
explanation of the Veda, which erred in underestima- 
tion as well as overestimation, and to test the conse- 
quences of both errors, in order final^ to learn the art 
of scientifically estimating them. This constitutes the 
great importance of Max Miiller's work extending 
through a quarter of a century (1849-1874). To com- 
plete was easy, but to begin was exceedingly difficult ; 
for most of the grammatical and theological texts 
which formed the basis for Sayana's deductions, were, 
when Max Miiller began the work, books sealed with 
seven seals. 

A few years after the first volume of Max Miiller's 
Rig Veda appeared, two other scholars united in a 
work of still greater magnitude. It has long since be- 
come to all Sanskritists the most indispensable tool 
for their labors. , I refer to the Sanskrit dictionar}', 
compiled under the commission of the Academy of 
St. Petersburg, Russia, by Roth and Bohtlingk. It 
was intended to make a dictionary for a language the 
greatest and most important part of whose texts were 
still not in print. The work was similar to that 
which the Grimm Brothers began at the same time 
for the German language. Roth undertook the Vedic 
literature, the foundation of the whole ; Bohtlingk the 
later periods. Friendly investigators, and especially 
Weber, helped them by bringing into use the known 
and accessible texts or manuscripts that were service- 
able to them. The most important thing was, that the 
Veda had now for the first time — setting aside a few 
previous studies — to be gone through with a view to 
lexicography. The explanations which the Hindus 
themselves were wont to give of the words, of the Vedic 
language were regarded as a valuable aid for under- 
standing it. But the matter did not rest here. "We 
do not hold it," said the two compilers in their preface, 
"to be our task to acquire that understanding of the 
Veda which was current in India some centuries ago ; 
but we seek the sense which the poets themselves gave 
to their liymns and maxims." They undertook "to get 



.562 



THE OPEN COURT 



at the sense from the texts themselves, by collating 
all the passages related in word or meaning." In this 
wa)' they hoped to re-establish the meaning of each 
word, not as a colorless conception, but in its sepa- 
rateness and therefore in its strength and beauty. The 
Veda was thus to re acquire its living sense, the full 
wealth of its expression. The thought of the earliest 
antiquity was to appear to us in new forms full of life 
and reality. 

The execution of this work, carried on with tena- 
cious industr}' and brilliant success for four and twenty 
years (1852-1875), did not fall short of the magnitude 
of the plan originally conceived. In minor points we 
find it easy to point out numerous deficiencies and 
errors. The two compilers well knew that without 
that spirit of boldness which does not stand in fear of 
unavoidable errors, it were better never to undertake 
their task. In face, however, of the great value of that 
which they have«accomplished, all faults sink into in- 
significance. 

What a chasm separates their work from that of 
their predecessor, Wilson ! * In Wilson's work there is 
little more than a fair enumeration of the meanings 
which Hindu traditions assigned to the words ; for his 
dictionary the Veda scarcely exists, if it does so at all. 
Here in the work of Roth and Bohtlingk on the other 
hand, is brought to light the immense wealth, replete 
with oriental splendor, of the richest of all languages ; 
the history of each word, and likewise the fortunes 
that have befallen it in the different periods of the lit- 
erature and have determined its meaning, are brought 
before our eyes. The difference between the two great 
periods in which the development of Hindu research 
falls, could not be incorporated more clearly than in 
these two dictionaries. In the one instance are found 
the beginnings, which English science, resting imme- 
diately on the shoulders of the Indian pandits, has 
made ; in the other is the continuation of English 
work conducted by strict philological methods to a 
breadth and depth incomparably beyond those begin- 
nings, and at the head of this undertaking stand Ger- 
man scholars. 

To MuUer's great edition of the Rig Veda and to 
the St. Petersburg Dictionar}^ further investigations 
have been added in great abundance, and these have 
more and more extended the limits of our knowledge 
of the Veda. Already a new generation of laborers 
have taken their places beside the original pioneers in 
these once so impassable regions. As a whole, or in 
its separate parts, the Rig Veda has been repeatedly 
translated. Its equipment of words and forms has 
been studied from ever new points of view and with 
ever new questions in mind. To many a picturesque 



word of the strong, harsh Vedic language its full weight 
has thus been given back. 

The principles and practices according to which 
the old collectors and revisers of the Veda text pro- 
ceeded, have been examined by us ; and consequently 
we are able to decide what they have received as re- 
mains and what they themselves have incorporated 
into those remains. The readings of the passages 
quoted from the Rig Veda in the other Vedas have 
been collected in order to find in them the remains of 
the genuine and oldest textual form. The religion and 
mythology of the Veda have been described ; the na- 
tional lives of the Vedic tribes has been portrayed in 
all its phases. The texts afford the data for such a 
portraiture of these features that it has justl}' been 
said that the description given surpasses in clearness 
and accuracy Tacitus's account of the national life of 
the Germans.* Finally an attempt has been made — 
or rather an attempt will have to be made, for even at 
this time the work is in its beginnings — to discover 
amid the masses of Vedic praj^ers and sacrificial 
hymns something which must be an especially welcome 
find to scientific curiosity — the beginning of the Indian 
Epic.f 

In a time so rich in poetry and reverence for poetry 
as the epoch of the Rig Veda was, the pleasure of ro- 
mancing must also have produced its blossom of poetic 
fancy. Undoubtedl}- this was so. Short narratives, 
short hymns must then have existed, enclosed, as it 
were, in narrow frames. Thus, in general, are the be- 
ginnings of epic poetry shaped, before poetic ability 
rises and ventures to narrate in wider scope and with 
more complicated structure the fate of men and he- 
roes. It seemed as though those beginnings of the 
Indian epic were lost. And still they were preserved, 
though to be sure in a peculiarly fragmentary form. 
In the Rig Veda there is many a medlej' of apparentl}' 
disconnected verses in which we have thought to dis- 
cover the accumulated sweepings of poetic workshops. 
In fact they are fragmentarj' remains of epic narra- 
tives, verses, which were once couched in prose form 
— narratives in prose, and speeches and counter- 
speeches in verse, just as, often, in Grimm's fairj'-tales 
when the poor daughter of the king or the powerful 
dwarf has to speak an especially weighty or touching 
word, a rhyme or two appears. 

Now, the Vedic tale-tellers impressed in their 
memory only the verses having a fixed form. Each 
new narrator would repeat the prose with new words, 
and finally its subject-matter would pass almost wholly 



* H. Zimnier: Altindischcs Lcben : die Cultur tier -vdise/ien Arier. (Ancient 
Indian Life; the Civilization of the Vedic Aryans.) Berlin: 1S79, p. vii. 

tThe remarks here made on the beginnings of the Indian Epic, rest on 
conceptions which I have before briefly sought to establish. V. Zeitsc/tri/t 
der Dcutscheii ATorgeiiUihi. Gesellsch.. 1S85, p. 52, et seq. 



THE OPEN COTJRT. 



1563 



into forgetfulness, so that only the verses would sur- 
. vive, sometimes as a series of dialogues, long and 
copious enough for us to understand their connection 
with the whole, and sometimes as unrecognizable frag- 
ments, which supply as little respecting their antece- 
dents and connections in which they belong as — to 
keep the same comparison as above — a couple of 
rhymes in one of Grimm's fairy-tales would represent 
of the whole tale. 

It may be permitted, for the sake of making clear 
what has been said, to cite here a passage from one of 
those old narratives whose connection, at least as a 
whole, may be conjecturally determined.* The scene 
is between gods and demons, its subject is the great 
battle which was fought in heaven, the thunder fight, 
which for the strife-loving spirit of that age was the 
pattern of their own victories. Vritra, the envious 
fiend, kept the waters of the clouds in captivity, that they 
might not pour down upon the earth; but God Indra 
smote the demon with his thunderbolt and let the lib- 
erated waters flow. Indra — this must have been said 
in the lost prose introduction to the narrative — felt, as 
he entered the battle, too weak for his terrible oppo- 
nent. The gods, faint-hearted, withdrew from his 
side. Only one offered himself as an ally, Vayu (the 
wind),t the swiftest of the gods, but he demanded as a 
reward for his fidelity, part of the sacrificial draught 
of Soma, which men offer to Indra. Vayu speaks : 

" Tis I. I come to thee the foremost, as is meet ; 
Behind me march in full array, the Gods. 
Givest thou me, O Indra, but a share of sacrifice. 
And thou shalt do, with my alliance, valiant deeds of might." 

Indra accepted the alliance : 

" Of the honied draught I give thee the first portion ; 
Thine shall it be ; for thee shall be pressed the Soma. . 
Thou shalt stand as friend at my right hand ; 
Then shall we slay the serried hosts of our foe." 

Then a new person appears, a human singer. We 
know not whether a definite one among the great 
saints of that early time, the prophets of the later 
generation of singers, was thought of or not. He 
wished to praise Indra ; but can Indra now be praised? 
The hostile demon is not yet conquered ; doubts as to 
Indra and his might come to the singer. He says to 
his people : 

" A song of praise bring ye who long for a blessing. 
If truth be truth, sing ye the praise of Indra." 

" There is no Indra," then said many a one, 

" Who saw him ? Who is he whom we shall praise ?" 

Then Indra himself gives answer to the weak- 
hearted : 

" Here stand I before thee, look hither, O Singer : 
In lofty strength I tower above all beings. 
The laws of sacred order make me strong ; 
I, the smiter, smite the worlds." 

* Rig Veda 8,100.. I omit a few verses of obscure meaning, and say noth- 
ing of difficulties, for which this is not the place to give a solution. 

t He is also called Vata. This name has been identified— though the cor- 
rectness of this is highly questionable— with the German name Woden. 



The confidence of the pious in their God is re- 
stored, his hymn of praise is sounded. And now Indra 
enters the conflict. The falcon has brought him the 
Soma, and in the intoxication of the ambrosial drink, 
the victorious one hurls his thunderbolt at the demon. 
Like a tree smitten by lightning, falls the enemy. Now 
the waters may flow forth from their prisons : 

" Now hasten forth I Scatter thyself freely I 
He who detained thee is no more. 
Deep into the side of Vitra has been hurled 
The dreaded thunderbolt of Indra. 

" Swift as thought sped Indra along ; 
Pierced into the citadel, the brazen. 
And up to heaven, to the thunderer. 
The soaring" falcon bore the Soma. 

" In the sea the thunderbolt rests, 
Deep engulfed in the watery billows. 
The flowing and ever-constant waters 
To him bring generous gifts." 

I pass over the difficult conclusion of the poem — 
the creation of language by Indra after the battle with 
Vitra. One fourth of the languages that exist on earth, 
Indra formed into clear and intelligible speech ; these 
are the languages of men. The other three fourths, 
however, have remained indistinct and. incompre- 
hensible ; these are the languages that quadrupeds and 
birds and all insects speak. 

This is one of the early narratives of the Hindus 
concerning the deeds of their gods and heroes. We 
must not endeavor here, to restore the lost portions 
written in prose which served to connect the strophes. 
To make the modern reader clear as to the connection 
of the verses, another method of expression must be 
chosen than that peculiar to the narrators of the Vedic 
epoch. As it appears, they were content with recount- 
ing the facts they came across, or rather with recalling 
them to their hearers, in short and scanty sentences. 
The poems incorporated in the narrative — which has 
been shown by the poem of Indra's battle — are not 
wanting in flights of poetic eloquence. Without the 
finer shades of human life, it is true, yet in earnest, 
simple power, like mountains or old giant trees, stand 
the productions of that poetry. What took place in 
them, is similar, nay more than similar, to the occur- 
rences taking place in nature. For as yet the primitive 
natural significance of those gods has not been veiled 
by the human vesture which they wore ; and in the 
narratives of their deeds the great pictures of nature's 
life with its wonders and its terrors are generally pro- 
jected. The duty of bringing together and interpret- 
ing such fragments of this the oldest epic, Vedic re- 
search must regard as its most fruitful, though perhaps 
not its easiest, task. 



ETHICS AND NATURAL SCIENCE. 

The beginning of ethics is thought. The animal 
who cannot think or reason cannot be called an ethical 
being. When man begins to think, he commences to 



•564 



THE OREN COURT 



understand his relations to others and thus learns his 
duties. He formulates his duties in general principles 
and regulates his actions according to maxims of uni- 
versal application. In this way only can he place him- 
self and his life in harmon}' with the order of All- ex- 
istence. 

When we reflect a moment upon what we owe our 
ancestors, we shall soon find that we owe them all we 
have and even more : we owe them all we are. What 
are we but the accumulated activity of all our ances- 
tors from the very beginnings of life, the monad and 
the monad's struggles for existence included? Our 
nineteenth century civilization is not a revolution 
which has introduced any new idea that inverts or de- 
stroys the thoughts, ideas, or aspirations of former cen- 
turies. The most advanced view, however different 
from the old views, is a further evolution of the past. 

The recognition of this truth is the essence of his- 
torical research, and those who are most advanced in 
the culture of true progress, who acknowledge the 
principle of scientific investigation in ethics and re- 
ligion, those who are decided to modernize their mor- 
als and adapt themselves to the spirit of the dawning 
future, should be the first to understand this truth. 
Yet many radical thinkers overlook it. Through their 
opposition to the errors of the past they become blind 
to its merits. Only by understanding the connection 
of the present with the past will they be able to do 
justice to the cause which they defend, for they can 
gain justice for themselves only by doing justice to 
others, and the just claims of the present can only be 
established by showing that they are the logical out- 
come of the past. 

Ethics is not, as some modern philosophers try to 
make us believe, an arithmetical example by which to 
calculate how we can purchase, at least sacrifice, the 
greatest amount of happiness. This barter morality 
of hedonism is a pseudo-ethics which indeed would 
make true ethics impossible. 

The pseudo-ethics of hedonism starts from the 
wrong idea that man lives solely for being or becom- 
ing happy. If this were true, the great pessimist 
Schopenhauer would be right in saying that life is a 
failure and that existence is not desirable because a life 
without trouble and pain, a victory without battle, a 
conquest without wounds and anxiety, are impossible. 
Ethics is so much at variance with man's craving for 
happiness that if man lived merely to be happy there 
would be no ethics whatever. Ethics indeed is taught 
to counteract the dangerous, although perhaps inborn 
and natural, craving for happiness. 

The beginning of ethics is to reflect upon our- 
selves, our surroundings, and our actions. Before we 
act we must stop to think. The brute animal follows 
his impulses; so does the savage. The thoughtful man 



takes into consideration all possible results of his 
action ; and however dimly at first, he soon learns that 
his person is intimately connected with his surround- 
ings, with his fellow-beings, and with nature. 

Even a savage knows that he is no absolute entity, 
no unit by himself. His very existence is the product 
of his parents, and his life is sustained through certain 
natural conditions by a constant struggle in which he 
is aided or hindered by his fellow-men. His relation 
to his fellow-men, and his dependence upon nature 
which yields to him substance that maintains his life, 
teaches man that he has some duties to perform, which 
if neglected will prove disastrous to himself and his 
fellow-beings. The relations in which man stands to 
others imply duties ; and the man who attends to these 
duties is moral. 

When man earnestly attends to what he recognizes 
as his duties, he will progress and in consequence 
thereof his comfort and prosperity will increase. His 
pleasures will be more refined ; his happiness, his en- 
joyments, and recreations will be better and nobler. 

The increase, or rather refinement of happiness, 
however, cannot be considered as the ultimate aim of 
ethics, for pain and affliction increase at the same 
rate, because man's irritability, his susceptibility to 
pain, grows with the growth of his intellectualitj'. 

The pain of a more civilized man will be more in- 
tense than that of a savage, and it is an undeniable 
fact that people of a lower degree of culture are as a 
rule merrier than the more educated classes. There 
is sufficient occasion in this country to observe the 
glad and hearty happiness of the negro, who is so easily 
satisfied. In comparison with the African the more 
cultured American of European ancestry must appear 
morose. 

If all the advancement of our civilization had no 
other object than to produce a greater amount of hap- 
piness, the anthropoids would have better remained 
in their forests and have lived upon the tropical trees, 
subsisting on their fruit. They would thereby have 
better attained this end. Therefore we maintain that 
the elevation of all human emotions, whether they are 
painful or happy, the elevation of man's whole exist- 
ence, of his actions and aspirations, is the constant aim 
of ethics. 

* * 

The hostility which prevails between scientists on 
the one side and moral teachers on the other is pro- 
duced through a misunderstanding. The^moral teacher, 
and especially the clergyman, is afraid lest science 
undermine the principles of ethics. The doctrine of 
the survival of the fittest appears to contradict the 
principle of morality. And the scientist in his turn 
does not find the moral law as i't is commonly preached 
in the pulpit, justified in nature. 



XHE OPEN COURT 



Professor Huxley says : 

" From the point o£ view of the moralist the animal world is 
on about the same level as a gladiator's show. The creatures are 
fairly well treated, and set to fight — whereby the strongest, the 
swiftest, and the cunningest live to fight another day. * * * 

■ In the cycle of phenomena presented by the life of man, no 
more moral end is discernible than in that presented by the lives 
of the wolf and of the deer. * * * 

" .\s among these, so among primitive men, the weakest and 
stupidest went to the wall, while the toughest and shrewdest, those 
who were best fitted to cope with their circumstances, but not the 
best in any other sense, survived. * * * 

" The history of civilization — that is, of society — on the other 
hand, is the record of the attempts which the human race has 
made to escape from this position. * * * 

" But the effort of ethical man to work toward a moral end by 
no means abolished, perhaps has hardly modified, the deep-seated 
impulses which impel the natural man to follow his non-moral 
course. " * * * 

Professor Huxley adds with special reference to 
the civilization of the English nation of to-day : 

"We not only are, but, under penalty of starvation, we are 
bound to be, a nation of shopkeepers. But other nations also lie 
under the same necessity of keeping shop, and some of them deal 
in the same goods as ourselves. Our customers naturally seek to 
get the most and the best in exchange for their produce. If our 
goods are inferior to those of our competitors, there is no ground 
compatible with the sanity of the buyers, which can be alleged, 
why they should not prefer the latter. And, if that result should 
ever take place on a large and general scale, five or six millions of 
us would soon have nothing to eat. We know what the cotton 
famine was ; and we can therefore form some notion of what a 
dearth of customers would be. 

"Judged, by an ethical standard, nothing can be less satis- 
factory than the position in which we find ourselves. In a real, 
though incomplete, degree we have attained the condition of peace 
which is the main object of social organization (and it may, for 
argument's sake, be assumed that we desire nothing but that which 
is in itself innocent and praiseworthy — namely, the enjoyment of 
the fruits of honest industry). And lo ! in spite of ourselves, we 
are in reality engaged in an internecine struggle for existence with 
our presumably no less peaceful and well-meaning neighbors. We 
seek peace and we do not ensue it. The moral nature in us asks 
for no more than is compatible with the general good ; the non- 
moral nature proclaims and acts upon that fine old Scottish family 
motto, 'Thoushalt starve ere I want.' Let us be under no il- 
lusion, then." 

If the unitary conception of the world is true, that 
all existence is but one great continuous whole ; that 
all difference is but variety in unity ; that one truth 
is in harmony with all other truths as every part of ex- 
istence is related to the whole existence of the One and 
All : — if this is true, how can there be a difference be- 
tween the moralist's and the naturalist's views? Should 
we not declare a priori that there can be no contra- 
dictory truths? Either the naturalist or the moralist, 
perhaps both, are wrong. 

With all due respect to the facts presented by 
Professor Huxley, we must object to the conclusion at 
which he arrives. Professor Huxley's view of morals 



is based on the error that the wolf is immoral while 
the sheep is moral. The strong one is supposed to be 
anevil-doer,simply on account of his strength, while the 
weak one is supposed to be good simply on account of 
his weakness. Not the hero is glorified that " fights 
the good fight of faith," but the martyr that allows 
himself to be slaughtered without resistance. 

This ethics has long been fostered by Christian 
moralists, because unfortunately Christ was compared 
to a lamb that is sacrificed, and because, in one of his 
allegories, Christ compares the good to sheep whom 
he will place at the right hand. The allegory is mis- 
interpreted. It is not the weakness, not the inactivity, 
but the purity of the sheep that is approved by Christ. 
How much is blamed, in another parable, the inactive 
and cowardly servant who buried the talent that was 
entrusted to him ! 

This ovine morality has detracted much of the 
pith and strength from Christian ethics. It has made 
it tame and weak and even despicable. Morality is not 
as many lamb-souled moralists pretend, the negative 
quality of suffering ; morality according to modern 
ethics is the positive virtue of energetic activity. Ours 
is, as the scientist correctly states, a struggle for ex- 
istence ; and those who consider it meritorious to suc- 
cumb to injustice and violence justly go to the wall. 
Their enemies, unjust though they may be, are com- 
paratively more moral, for they are their superiors in 
the virtue of courage which gives them strength and 
power. 

Prof. Huxley describes how the moralist, in the 
effort to restore harmony, tries to account for the in- 
iquities in this world. He says : 

" From the theological side, we are told that this is a state of 
probation, and that the seeming injustices and immoralities of 
Nature will be compensated by and by. But how this compensa- 
tion is to be effected, in the case of the great majority of sentient 
things, is not clear. I apprehend that no one is seriously pre- 
pared to maintain that the ghosts of all the myriads of generations 
of herbivorous animals which lived during the millions of years of 
the earth's duration before the appearance of man, and which 
have all that time been tormented and devoured by carnivores, are 
to be compensated by a perennial existence in clover ; while the 
ghosts of carnivores are to go to some kennel where there is neither 
a pan of water nor a bone with any meat on it." * * * 

This would indeed be a consistent consequence of 
a soft-brained and weak-hearted system of ethics, 
which praises the innocence and meritoriousness of 
mere suffering, and depicts as the ideal of morality a 
millennium of eternal peace, where the struggle for ex- 
istence is unknown, where no labor or painstaking is 
necessary and all time is spent in the glorification of 
an all-wise Creator. 

Such a state of absolute perfection is impossible 
and we must smile at the ingenuousness of those phi- 
losophers who pretend to teach modern ethics and still 



1566 



THE OPEN COURT 



adhere to the old millennium idea of a life of perfect 
adaptation where universal happiness will prevail. 

The error in this Utopian idea is easily seen if we 
understand that the struggle for existence is inherent 
in nature. The struggle for existence is not only not 
in contradiction to ethics, it is on the contrary its most 
important factor, which must be taken into considera- 
tion and is taken into consideratien by the monistic 
view of ethics. The old ethical view demands that 
man shall not resist evil ; that he shall leave off 
fighting and humbly allow himself to be trodden under 
foot. But the ethics of monism does not make man un^ 
fit for life, it renders him fitter in the struggle for ex- 
istence. It teaches that so long as we are in harmony 
with the One and All of nature, so long as we remain 
in accord with natural laws, we shall be best able to 
resist evil. And this we can only do by constantly ex- 
ercising our faculties and strengthening brawn and 
brain for the continued struggle, — which will cause us, 
it is true, much trouble and uneasiness, but at the 
same time will raise us to a higher level; it educates 
us and enhances the work of our existence. 

The moral law is a natural law, it may be con- 
trasted to, but does not stand in contradiction with, 
the other natural laws of a lower order. The deeper 
we investigate the more we shall be convinced that 
benefits acquired by injustice will prove to be injurious 
in the end : very often they are even the beginning of 
ruin. Truth and justice are the most powerful weap- 
ons in the struggle for existence. Truth and justice 
will always conquer in the end. It often takes more 
time than the life of a single individual to see the 
triumph of truth ; but we can be sure, even if the 
defenders of truth and justice die, if they succumb 
to their immoral enemies, that truth and justice will 
survive. 

It is the belief in truth and justice which lies at 
the bottom of the old religious and ethical views. 
This belief was a faith, but took the shape of a creed. 
The moral quality of a religious virtue soon ossified 
as a system of dogmas. It was mixed with supersti- 
tious notions, with anthropomorphic ideas, and with 
unwarranted phantastical expectations of a compensa- 
tion in a supernatural Utopia. It grew powerful be- 
cause, after all, it was more in harmony with truth than 
the views of those who saw onlj' the surface of natural 
facts and could detect no order and no moral law in 
nature. But it became intolerable through the errors 
taught and the wrongs committed. 

If, now, new ideas triumphantly break their waj', 
let us remember that the new ethics and the religion 
of the future do not come 'to destroy, but to fulfil.' The 
present is the product of the past and the future will 
be the product of the present. A Latin proverb says, 
Sic )ias non nobis! It is we who stand here as the rep 



resentatives of humanity, but it is not for ourselves, 
nor for the gratification of personal vanity. It is we 
of the nineteenth centurj', but not by the wisdom of 
the nineteenth century, which would not exceed the 
wisdom of former ages if it were not benefited by their 
experience. Nor do we work and struggle to benefit 
ourselves. As our ancestors worked and struggled for 
us, so we have to struggle and fight for future genera- 
tions. 

Sic vos non vobis! Bear in mind it is you who work 
for the advancement and elevation of the human mind. 
But it is not you or you alone that you aspire for; it is 
humanity which is represented in you. 

All life on earth forms one great, unbroken chain, 
one continuous whole, the unity and law of which we 
comprise in the formula of evolution. Let us regard 
ourselves as the representatives of this great whole, 
let us faithfully act according to this view and we need 
not trouble for the rest. Our actions will be moral 
and we shall at the same time be allied to those powers 
of nature which grant the strength of survival and 
represent advancement, progress, and the elevation of 
humanity. This ethics is in harmony, not at vari- 
ance with natural science, and this is not the destruc- 
tion but the fulfilment of the old religious faiths and 
their ethical aspirations. p. c. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

GROUND-RENT AND LAND-VALUES. 

To the Editor of The Open Court:— 

Wheelbarrow says in his article in The Open Court of March 
21, on "Who makes the ' Land Values' of a Farm ?" in speaking 
of the farm of his old acquaintance Tom Clark : 

" Now, which of the ingredients of this farm shall bear the single tax ? Is 
it the breaking of the wild sod ? Is it the fence, the barn, or the apple-trees ? 
This is a fair question, and it ought to be fairly answered. It is never an- 
swered. It is evaded thus : ' We do not propose to tax any of these improve- 
ments nor the land itself; we only propose to tax the land-valicc of the whole 
farm.' In that evasion the single tax on values' theory vanishes 'like the 
feverish dream of a summer's night.' " 

The answer to this question is exceedingly simple and-is never 
evaded by any intelligent Single-taxer, Neither " the breaking of 
the sod," nor "the fence, the barn, nor the apple-trees" will bear 
any of the single tax. 

1, If Tom Clark's farm is worth nothing, as Wheelbarrow 
says, without Tom Clark's improvements it will be taxed nothing 
under the Single-tax regime. 

2. If it is worth the dollar and a quarter an acre which Tom 
Clark paid for it, without his improvements, it will be taxed upon 
that much value. 

What Tom Clark has done to make the farm more useful does 
not enter into the question of what renting value the bare, unim- 
proved land has. The farm will be taxed upon its bare rental 
value without improvements. 

If Wheelbarrow cannot separate the idea of ' ' the value of land 
from the land," as he confesses, he certainly ought to understand 
that one piece of land has more renting value than another, and 
he ought to be able to understand so simple a proposition as having 
ground-rent and nothing else paid into the public treasury. That 
is all there is to the " George theory." It is simply to "pay ground- 



THE OPEN COURT 



567 



rent and nothing else into the public treasury. Wheelbarrow does 
not understand that : if he does he would not have written as he 
did about Tom Clark's farm. But why should Wheelbarrow or 
any one else find any difficulty in understanding what it means to 
pay grounJ-rent and nothing else into the public treasury ? Why 
should Wheelbarrow ask whether the single-tax would fall on Tom 
Clark's fence, or barn, or orchard ? Tom Clark would simply have 
to pay grounJ-rent no matter how useful his farm was to him, if it 
had no selling or renting value over and above the value of his im- 
provements Tom Clark would pay no taxes. The single-tax means 
simply ground-rent. If a man does not know what ground-rent is 
he cannot understand the single-tax. 

Wheelbarrow may have studied ' ' Progress and Poverty " a 
great deal but he certainly does not understand Mr. George. And 
yet why should he find the least difficulty in understanding him ? 
Is it so hard to understand what ground-rent is ? 

Respectfully Yours, 

New York. Hugh O. Pentecost. 



A FARMER ON HENRY GEORGE 

To the Editor of The Open Court. 

Sir: — A word about the '■ George Theory." If the object be 
to increase the number of land holders it almost atones for the 
utter lack of judgment in the method designed to bring it about. 
I am not speaking of cities ; my objections only apply to farming 
communities. Land owners are "pirates, robbers, and parasites," 
are they?" It does look so, perhaps, to Mr. George, but my 
opinion is that intelligent farmers owning their own land are 
guardian angels. The rural "greeny" is often made the material 
of a joke in the " funny papers," but the intelligent farmer often 
has occasion to smile at the ignorance of the "smart" city people 
concerning rural economy. James Malcolm (p. 1507 of The Open 
Cqurt) hints that the producing capacity of nature — meaning the 
soil— is infinite. If this is true it is true in the same sense that 
nature in man is capable of resisting disease. Let man fail to con- 
serve his vitality he soon falls a prey to disease. Just so with land. 
This may seem to be false as regards the rich prairie soil of the 
west, but wait. Ohio was said to have inexhaustible soil and where 
is it now ? About here, unless a very slow rotation of crops is em- 
ployed, pound for pound of potash and phosphoric acid taken from 
the soil must be restored to the soil to retain its fertility. Even 
when rotation is employed large quantities must be used. And 
also of our land — not very hilly — five sixths at least cannot be 
tilled more than one half the time for it would wash away. In- 
stances are all about us of temporary farmers — not through igno- 
rance but by greed — bringing farmers down to sterility in a very 
few years. The true farmer "improves" his holidays in quite a 
different line from that which is generally called "improvements," 
and the single tax cannot be adjusted to meet this contingency. 
The Desert of Sahara is a notable example of failure to conserve 
the soil's fertility. 

No ! If you takte away land ownership you pull down the 
foundation — the fertility of the soil — on which the whole country 
rests. You will be unjust to farmers but your injustice will not 
be confined to them. When the foundation falls, not only the sills 
of the house — the farmers — but the whole house falls. It would 
be different at the equator where bread and fruit grow without 
ploughing up the soil, and I advise Mr. George and his followers 
to go there for I think his theory would suit there to perfection. 
Again no ! ! Limit ownership to 100 acres, to 10 acres, even to one 
acre, if it must be done, but let us oiun that acre and if you tax 
that, tax our buildings too. 

Yours Truly, 

One of the Law's "Inf.ants." 

Mill Green, Md. 



THE LOST MANUSCRIPT.* 

BY GUSTAV FREYTAG. 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 
OLD ACQUAINTANCES. 

Since the conversation upon the Roman emper- 
ors, the Sovereign had withdrawn for a few days from 
his Court. He was ill. His nervous prostration, as 
the physicians declared, was the usual consequence of 
a cold. Only a few privileged persons — among them 
Master Knips — had access to him during this time, 
and they had no cause to rejoice in their confidential 
position, for it was difficult to deal with the princely 
invalid. 

To-day the Sovereign was sitting in his study ; be- 
fore him stood an old official, with a weazen face, re- 
porting the daily occurrences of the capital, opinions 
which were expressed in public places concerning the 
Sovereign and his illustrious house, small scandalous 
family anecdotes, also observations that had been 
made in the palace to which the Princess had gone 
within the last few days, and the persons she had seen 
there. Prince Victor paid daily visits to the Baroness 
Hallstein, and passed the evening with the officers of 
his former regiment; he had returned unexpectedly 
that morning. 

"How do things go on in the Pavilion?" asked the 
Sovereign. 

"According to the account of the lackej-, there 
have been no visitors from the cit}', nor any letters ; 
everything as usual in the afternoon. When the 
strangers were sitting in front of the door, the lady 
had spoken of a journey to Switzerland, but her hus- 
band replied that there could be no thought of it until 
he had finished his business. Then there had been an 
uncomfortable silence. In the evening both attended 
the theatre." 

The Sovereign nodded, and dismissed the official. 
As he sat alone, he pushed his chair against the wall, 
and listened to the sound of a small bell which, from 
the further end of the room, was scarcely audible ; he 
hastily opened the door of a niche in the wall, and 
took out the letters which a confidential secretary 
had sent up through a tube from the lower story. 
There were various handwritings : he passed quickly 
through the contents. At last he held a bundle 
of children's letters in his hand. Again he laughed. " So 
the great ball has burst already." His countenance 
became serious. " A genuine peasant, he has no sense 
for the honor of having the top-boots of a prince among 
his fields." He took another letter. "The Hered- 
itary Prince to his sister. It is the first letter of the 
pious John Patmos, saying nothing, as if it had been 
written for me. That may possibly be so. The con- 

* Translation copyrighted. 



f56S 



THE OPEN COURT. 



tents are scanty and cold. He expresses the wish that 
his sister also may pass a pleasant time in the country. 
We wish the same," he continued, with good humor ; 
" she may pluck flowers .and talk with scholars about 
the 'virtues of Roman ladies. This wish shall be 
fulfilled by all parties." He laid the letters back in 
the niche, and pressed a spring in the floor with his 
foot ; there was a slight rustling in the wall, and the 
packet glided down. 

The Sovereign raised himself from his chair and 
walked about the room. 

" My thoughts hover restlessly about this man. I 
have received him with complaisance; I have even 
treated his insane hopes with the greatest considera- 
tion, and yet this unpractical dreamer mocks at me. 
Why did he make this insidious attack on me ? He 
did it with the malicious penetration of a diseased 
person, who knows better than a sound one what is de- 
ficient in another. His prating was half vague reflec- 
tion and half the silly cunning of a fool who also car- 
ries about him a worm in his brain. It does not mat- 
ter : we know one another, as the Augur knew his 
colleagues. Between us a family hatred burns, such 
as can only exist between relations — an enduring, 
thorough hatred, which conceals itself beneath smiles 
and polite bows. Trick for trick, my Roman cousin. 
You seek a manuscript which lies concealed with me, 
but I something else, which you would withhold from 
me." 

He sank back in his chair, and looked timidly 
towards the door ; then put his hand into a pile of 
books, and drew out a translation of Tacitus. He 
tapped the book with his finger. 

"He who wrote this was also diseased. He spied 
incessantly into the souls of his masters ; their pictures 
so filled his fancy, that the Roman people and the 
millions of other men appeared unimportant to him : 
he suspected every step of his rulers, yet neither he 
nor his generation could do without them. He gazed 
at them as on suns, the eclipse of which he investi- 
gated, and which reflected their light on him, the little 
planet. He began to doubt the wisdom of the order 
of things ; and that to every human mind is the be- 
ginning of the end. But he had wit enough to see 
that his masters became diseased through the miser- 
able meanness of those like himself, and his best policy 
was that of the old High Steward, to bear all with a 
silent obeisance." 

He opened the leaves. 

" Only one, whom he has included in his book," 
he began again, "was a man, whom it moves one to 
read about. This was the gloomy majesty of Tiberius : 
he knew the rabble, and despised them, till the miserable 
slaves at last placed him among the madmen. Do you 
know. Professor Tacitus, why the great Emperor be- 



came a weak fool ? No one knows it — no one on earth 
but me, and those like me. He went mad because he 
could not cease to be a man of feeling. He despised 
many and hated many, and yet he could not do without 
the childish feeling of loving and trusting. A common 
youth, who had once shown him personal devotion, 
caught hold of this fancy of his earthly life, and dragged 
the powerful mind down with him into the dirt. A 
miserable weakness of heart converted the stern poli- 
tician of Imperial Rome into a fool. The weak feelings 
that rise up in lonely hours are the undoing of us all ; 
indestructible is this longing for a pure heart and a 
true spirit — undying the seeking after the ideal con- 
dition of man, which is described by the poet and be- 
lieved in by the pedant." He sighed deeply ; his head 
sank on the table between his hands. 

There was a slight sound at the door. The Sov- 
ereign started The servant^ announced — "The Grand 
Marshal von Bergau." The Grand Marshal entered. 

"The Princess inquired at what hour your High- 
ness will take leave of her." 

"Take leave?" asked the Sovereign, reflecting. 
"Why?" 

"Your Highness has been pleased to order that the 
Princess shall this morning go to her summer casiie 
for a few days." 

"It is true," replied the Sovereign. " I am well to- 
day, dear Bergau, and will breakfast with the Princess. 
Will it be agreeable to you to accompany her?" he 
asked, kindly. 

" I am very grateful to my gracious master for this 
favor," replied the Grand Marshal, honestly. 

" What lady has the Princess chosen as her at- 
tendant ?" 

" As your Highness has given her the choice, she 
has decided upon Lady Gottlinde." 

" I agree to that," said the Sovereign graciously. 
" The good Lady Gottlmde may be invited to break- 
fast, and you yourself may come also, that I may see 
you all once more about me before the journey. I 
have one more thing to say. Mr Werner will follow 
you ; he wishes to examine the rooms and chests of 
the castle for his scientific purposes. Render him 
assistance in every way, and show him the greatest 
attention. I have also a confidential commission for 
you." 

The Grand Marshal made a piteous face, which 
plainly indicated a protest. 

" I wish to win for us this distinguished man," 
continued the Sovereign. " Sound him as to what 
place or distinction would be acceptable to him. I 
wish you to observe that I am most anxious to keep 
him." 

The Grand Marshal, much discomposed, answered: 

" I assure your Highness, with the greatest respect,. 



Xtl£ OREN COURT 



1569 



that I know how tp value your confidence, yet this 
commission fills me with consternation ; for it exposes 
me to the danger of exciting the displeasure of my 
gracious master. I have had opportunities of remark- 
ing that one cannot count upon gratitude from these 
people." 

" You must not offer him anything ; onlj' endeavor 
to make hmi express some wish," replied the Sov- 
ereign dryly." 

" But if this wish should exceed the bounds of 
moderation?" asked the Marshal hesitatingl}'. 

" Take care not to object to it ; leave it to me to 
decide whether I consider it immoderate. Send me 
a report immediately." 

The Sovereign gave the signal of dismissal ; 
watched sharply his bow and departure, and looked 
after the departing gentleman and gravel)^ shook his 
head. 

" He is not old, and yet the curse has overtaken 
him ; he becomes grotesque. Here is another riddle of 
human nature for you learned gentlemen : the person 
who has every hour to control his countenance and man- 
ner, to whom the most rigid tact and correct forms are 
necessary in his daily intercourse, should, just when he 
becomes older, lose this best acquisition of his life, and 
become troublesome by his weak chattering and un- 
restrained egotism. You know how to answer, Em- 
peror Tiberius, why your service, clever man, grad- 
ually made your servants caricatures of your own 
character ? Now they have revenged themselves on 
you ; it is all right. There is a desperate rationality 
in the links of the world. O misery, misery, that we 
should both have so little cause to rejoice at it I" 

He groaned, and again buried his head in his hands. 

Shortly after Use received the latest letters from 
home. 

" How can the four-leaved clover be lost out of a 
well closed letter ?" she asked her husband. " Luise, 
on her birthday, found some clover leaves and sent 
them in her former letter, to bring you good luck. 
The child is just at the age in which such nonsense 
gives pleasure. The dried clover was not in her let- 
ter, and as she is careless, I scolded her for it in my 
answer. To-day she assures me that she put them 
into the envelope the last thing." 

" It may have fallen out when you opened the let- 
ter," said the Professor consolingly. 

" M}' father is not contented with us," continued 
Use, discomposed ; "he does not like it that the Prince 
has come into the vicinity ; he fears distraction in the 
farm and gossip. Yet why should people gossip ? 
Clara is still half a child, and the prince does not live 
upon our estate. There is a dark cloud over every- 
thing," she said : " the light of the dear sun has ceased 



to shine. Nothing but disturbances, the Sovereign 
ill, and our Hereditary Prince vanishes as if swept 
away by a storm. How could he go away without 
bidding us good-bye? I cannot set my mind to rest 
as to that ; for we have not deserved it of him, nor of 
his courtly Chamberlain. I fear he does not go into 
the country willingly; and he is angry with me, Felix, 
because I said something about it. No good will come 
of it, and it makes me heavy at heart." 

" If this trouble leaves you any thought for the af- 
fairs of other people," began the Professor, gaily, 
" you must allow me a small share. I think I have 
found the hidden castle which I have so long sought. 
I see from this chronicle that in the last century the 
country seat to which the Princess is going was sur- 
rounded by a forest. I hear that in this remote place 
much old household rubbish is preserved. I feel like 
a child on the eve of its birthday. I have made 
known my wishes to fate, and when I think of the 
hour when the present shall come to me, I feel the 
same heart-beating expectation which scares away 
sleep from the boy. It is childish. Use," he continued, 
holding out his hand to his wife, " I know it is ; but 
have patience with me ; I have long wearied you with 
my dreams, but now it will come to an end. The hope 
indeed will not come to an end, but this is the last 
place I have any reason to search for it." 

" But if it should again happen that you do not 
find the book ?" asked Use, sorrowfully, holding his 
hand. 

•A gloomy expression came over the Professor's 
face ; he turned around abruptly, and said, harshly : 

" Then I shall seek further. If Fritz had but 
come '" 

" Was he to come ?" asked Use, with surprise. 

" I have requested him to do so," replied her hus- 
band. " He answered that his father's business and 
his relations with Laura prevented him. To him also 
it appears that a crisis is impending ; he has suspi- 
cions with respect to the specification that I found 
here, which I consider unfounded." 

" Oh, that he were with us!" said Use ; " I long for 
a friendl)' face, like one who has for many days been 
traveling through a desert wilderness." 

The Professor pointed towards the window. 

"This wilderness looks tolerably humanized, and a 
visitor, such as you desire, seems already coming up 
to the house." 

Use heard the rumble of wheels coming along the 
gravel of the castle road. A carriage stopped be- 
fore the Pavilion, and the country coachman cracked 
his whip. The servants hastened to the door ; Gabriel 
opened the carriage door ; a little lady descended, 
gave a parcel to the lackey and a bandbox to Gabriel, 
and called out to the coachman to inquire about put- 



I570 



THE OPEN COURT 



ting up the horses. She hastily ascended the steps, and, 
as she did so, gazed on the paintings and carved scrolls. 

"This is a great pleasure, Mrs. Rollmaus," ex- 
claimed Use, delighted, meeting her at the door. 

The Professor hastened to the stranger 

" My dear Use," cried the little lady ; " revered 
and highly honored Professor, here I am. As Roll- 
maus has been charged with the superintendence of 
an estate in the neighborhood, in trust for a nephew, 
and as he has had to travel into this country to put 
things in order, and will stop only a short time, I 
thought I would take the pleasure of paying you a visit. 
Your father, brothers, and sisters wish to be remem- 
bered toyou. Claraisgrowing up the very image of you." 

" Come in, come in," said Use ; you yourself are 
the best greeting from home." 

Mrs. Rollmus stopped at the door. 

" Only a moment," she said, pointing to the bandbox. 

" You come to old friends." 

" You must allow me however, that I may not dis- 
grace this princely house." 

Mrs. Rollmaus was taken into an adjoining room, 
the bandbox opened, and, after the best cap was put. 
on, as well as white collar and cuffs, the learned lady 
floated into the sitting-room with Use. 

" Magnificent," she exclaimed, looking with admi- 
ration at the ceiling, where the god of love held out 
to her his bunches of poppies. "One can see at once 
by the cross-bow that it is a Cupid ; one frequently 
sees them on gingerbread figures, where they stand 
between two burning hearts. Dear Professor, the 
pleasure of meeting again, and in such surroundings, 
is truly very great. I have long looked forward with 
pleasure to this hour, when I could express to you my 
thanks for the last book you sent me, in which I have 
gotten as far as the Reformation. Rollmaus would 
gladly have come with me, but he has business to at- 
tend to in the distillery on account of the old boiler, 
which must be removed." 

During this speech the eye of Mrs. Rollmaus wan- 
dered inquisitively into every corner of the room. 

" Who would have thought, dear Use, that you and 
the Professor would have come into friendly relations 
with our princely personages? I must confess to you 
that I have already looked about me in driving here 
for the princely court-yard, which, however, probably 
lies on the other side, as I see only gardens here." 

"There are no offices at the castle," explained Use, 
" only the stable and the large kitchen have remained." 

"They say there are six cooks," rejoined Mrs. 
Rollmaus, "who are all great head-cooks; although I 
do not know for what other part of the human body 
they could be cooking. But the originalities of a Court 
are very great, — amongst. which are the silver-cleaners, 
who, I verily believe, do not do their duty ; at least. 



the small coin in our country is very dirty, and a great 
scouring day would be necessary for them. They say 
that the young Prince has now gone to the Chief For- 
ester's lodge. Our Chief Forester is fully occupied ; 
he grumbles over this royal quartering, and has or- 
dered himself a new uniform." 

She became serious and thoughtful, and there ensued 
aa awkward pause, during which she rubbed her nose, 
looked at Use good-humoredly, and pressed her hand. 

" There appears to be a storm coming," she con- 
tinued, in a low tone, " and the country. gentlemen com- 
plain that the spring grub has eaten the rapeseed. 
Here, indeed, it seems like a paradise, although I 
hope that no wild beasts rove about here, and it is 
not the season to pluck the apples from the trees with 
pleasure. Something seems to have turned up in the 
capital which is very remarkable ; for as I came to the 
estate with Rollmaus, the Inspector told me of a fortune- 
teller who prophesied wonderful things of the people of 
this city. Do you know anything certain about her?" 

"We have few acquaintances," answered Use; "we 
only get news from the papers." 

" I should be glad to hear something about that 
person, for I have latterly begun the study of phren- 
ology ; and I hear, dear Professor, that these investi- 
gations are much combated. I do not myself feel sure 
about them. I have examined the head of Rollmaus, 
and am surprised to see how niuch the bump of de- 
struction is developed behind his ear, though he is an- 
noyed at every cup-handle the maid servants break. 
Nevertheless, dear Professor, I find the powers of 
thought shown upon 3'our brow. The bumps are very 
large, by which I do not mean to say that they are un- 
becoming to you. But to return to the fortune-teller. 
She told the Inspector that he was married, and had 
two children, and that his wife was dead, and that he 
wished to take another, who would add two more. 
This is all correct, for he is again courting. Now, I 
ask you, how could this person know it? " 

"Perhaps she knows the Inspector ? " replied the 
Professor, rummaging among his papers. " I advise 
you not to confide in her art, and I do not recommend 
to you the study of phrenology. But now let us know 
how long you can remain with us. I am obliged to go 
to the Museum, and hope to find you on my return." 

'• I can remain a few hours," said Mrs. Rollmaus. 
" I have three miles to go, but the roads here are bet- 
ter than with us. Although now our highway is being 
built, and the road commissioners already go along it 
to the town of Rossau. Only think, dear Use', the 
stone bridge between your estate and the town is 
already pulled down, but they have put up a tempo- 
rary one in its stead. For a few hours, then, I beg of 
you to be satisfied with my company." 

( To be continued.') 



THE OPEN COURT. 



Ill 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

Times and Davs: Being Essays in Romance and History. 

London and New York : Longman's, Green, & Co. Chicago : 

A. C. McClurg & Co. 

This neat and dainty volume presents us with a collection of 
studies in life and character. Their form is that of designedly 
unfinished portraitures ; reflections, it appears, mainly suggested by 
incidents and experiences of the writer's life. Many — though we 
cannot say it of all — are rich in delicate fancies, witty conceits, 
and touches of consummate irony and sarcasm. We quote the 
following, entitled " Rivers," as representative : 

" There is a quiet beauty in the upper reaches of the river. 
Here it is only a small musical stream. There it laughs over a 
little weir, or puts its white shoulder to the old wheel of a small 
flourmill. Here it slips through green bowers, peeped at through 
thick leaves by the high sun. Here it passes by smooth lawns 
which trail their fringes of willows in the water. Here a great 
market boat lolls along, lazily propelled by long sweeps, and bear- 
ing down garden products to the city. 

" But see the stream after it has washed foully through the 
town. Water ? It is ink, and bad at that. It has passed by high 
towering wharves crowned by warehouses, under stately bridges 
thunderous with traffic. It has reflected in its greasiness palaces 
and high-domed churches. And now it has come out of its bur- 
row, the town, into the country again — a flat bare country. But 
how different it is now. Its banks are slime. It no longer laughs, 
but from its depths, when it is disturbed, patches rise, like leprous 
spots on its surface. Its quiet is all gone. Its surface is crowded 
with journeying craft. Here with a hayboat piled high. There 
with great silent-going screw-steamers moving grimly out of and in 
the busy port. Its sky is full of the trailing serpents which these ' 
leave. Here, too, trains of towed barges burden the tide. It is a 
great highway carrying fleets .of commerce this way and that. It 
is no longer the pleasant stream that whispered comfort to the 
soul ; this only suggests comfort to the pocket. And man's life, as 
has often been said, is not unlike such a stream. Pure in child- 
hood, given to business in the haunts of men — and it issues there- 
from smudged and befouled, and withal richly prosperous — but 
ugly, unwholesome, slimy, until it is lost in the great pure sea of 
death." 

His Broken Sword. Winnie Louise Taylor. Chicago : A. C. 

McClurg & Co. 

The above is a novel combining a very beautiful and stirring 
love'Story with a description of modern methods of criminal legis- 
lation and punishment. It is a book of unusual merit and interest 
throughout, written with an evident, but very noble purpose, a 
little " preachy " in its style now and then, but devoid of all cant 
and sentimentality, and a worthy contribution to modern fiction. 
Miss Taylor is a resident of Illinois, who for several years has de- 
voted herself to a study of the problem of prison-reform. She 
locates the story, in which she illustrates her views on this subject 
in Wisconsin, a state far in advance of our own in its general sys- 
tem of pauper and criminal legislation. Thus she does not preju- 
dice her critics in advance, with a picture of old-time methods and 
results. On the contrary her spirit seems most fair and just 
throughout. She brings a clear mind and warm heart, sound 
judgment and loving sympathy to the solution of her problem, and 
the result is given in the history of the strange but not impossible 
fortunes of Robert Allston. His Broken Sword is, like most novels 
of the day, without a plot ; but the interest increases with every 
page, and this is a high compliment to pay to the writer's fitness 
for her task, and the worthy purpose which led her to its under- 
taking The main motive of the work is not fully developed until 
near the middle of the book, which is thus relieved of a too severe 
didacticism of tone and intent. It dates back to the early sixties, 



and the opening of the Civil War, and to the older reader revives 
many mingled sad and pleasant memories of that time. We pur- 
posely refrain from giving the outline of the story in the hope of 
more successfully arousing interest in a work which cannot but 
create a new enthusiasm for humanity in every one who reads it. 

c. p. w. 

The Humboldt Publishing Co., No. 24 East Fourth Street, 
New York, have issued in pamphlet form, an essay by William 
Nelson Black, UlliimUe Fimiiice ; a True Theory of Wealth. It is 
the merit of this series of publications to have brought within the 
public reach, numerous works of scientific excellence, and the 
character of Mr. Black's treatise justifies the present selection. 
The first two chapters treat of the origin of property and the evolu- 
tion of wealth, the third and fourth discuss the principles and 
possibilitiea of banking and insurance, and the fifth, sixth, and 
seventh are devoted to a correction of the many misconceptions 
that abound on the nature of accumulation, and the administration 
of property. The main purpose is an exposition of the theory of 
bonded insurance. Our readers will find it a clear and concise 
exposition of the principles of finance. 

The Art Amateur for April has man-y good things, but we are 
a little staggered by the first sentence that meets our eyes in a 
notice of the Whistler Exhibition. " Every artist is of necessity 
an abstractor of quintessence." Surely Concord School never pro- 
duced anything more delightfully abstract and absurd. The rest 
of the article is written in simple English but surely the art of 
writing should be respected by the amateur as well as those of 
painting and sculpture. 

"The Atelier" is filled with good matter and good illustra- 
tions. The best method of work in pen and ink sketching is clearly 
described and very good examples are given from Liphart's works. 
A " rapid sketch of a passing object " by Vierge shows how such 
action may be given in the slightest work by one who knows how 
to seize the characteristic points and lines of his subject. 

A very peculiar drawing by Bontet de Monvel has much the 
effect of a negative photograph or a Chinese embellishment of a 
fan — there is such a strong and unexpected contrast of large lights, 
and black shadows in it. The Crayon drawings by Clausen, by 
Jean Aubert, and Leon Perrault, are all spirited and pleasing. 

The season for flower painting is just approaching. Those 
who love the beauty of flowers as well as their scientific meaning — 
will find it a great pleasure in traveling in summer to be able to- 
paint the rare flowers they find as well as to preserve them for the 
herbarium. A good representation in water colors may be made 
very quickly, even while the train is stopping at way stations, by 
one skilled in the art. The Amateur has many good suggestions 
for such work. 

NOTES. 

We have received great quantities of letters relative to the 
Henry George discussion. Our limited time has alone prevented 
us from considering them. We shall, however, select the best for 
publication. 

In 1749, says Life Lore, in a charming little essay, Beguelin 
bethought himself of the Columbus joke and cut a window in a 
egg. Prof. Gerlach has now constructed, practically upon this 
idea, a contrivance styled the embryoscope. The professor's ap- 
plication of glaziery to embryology has not been without success. 
It is " particularly instructive for those who are interested in the in- 
fluence of outside upon inside to look through this window, to see 
how one chemical acts as a brake, and another as a stimulus, to 
observe how under pressure the chick does not lose heart but forms 
a double one ; to notice how, disgusted with its uncovering, K 
sometimes neglects altogether to draw over it one of its orthodox 
birth-robes, which students call the amnion. Like, a disturbed 
infant, it kicks off its clothes." 



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CONTENTS 



MAKING BREAD DEAR. An Answer to the Criticism of 

" A Sympathizer." Wheelbarrow 1571 

THE HISTORY OF THE VEDIC EPOCH. Translated 

from the Deutsche Rundschatt. Prof. H. Oldenberg.. 1573 

NO CREED BUT FAITH. Editor 1577 

POETRY. 

The Friar. By * * * 1577 

Sonnet. Louis B elrose, J r 1 577 



To John Bright. Louis Belrose, Jr 1577 

CORRESPONDE^NCE. 

Throw Open Natural Opportunities. Benj. Doelin... 1577 

Natural Opportunities and Tom's Boot. Wheelbarrow. 1578 

NOTES 1578 

FICTION. 

The Lost Manuscript. {Continued.) Gustav Freytag. 1579 
BOOK REVIEWS. 



Introductory Lectu 



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Psychic Life of Micro-Organisms 

A Study in Experimental Psychology 
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3. The Psychology of Nutrition : Holophyiic, Sap- 
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Biitschli, Lieberkiihn. 

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Review of Recent Work of THE OPEN COURT. 

PSYCHOLOGY AND PHILOSOPHY. 

Sensation and The Outer World.., A, Binet. . . .No. 83. 

Idealism and Realism. Editor No. 84, 

Dreams, Sleep and Consciousness. 
M. Binet, after having animadverted upon the impropriety of 
excluding metaphysical questions from the domain of science, pro- 
ceeds in the above-mentioned essay to discuss the interesting ques- 
tion of the relation between human sensation and its normal 
excitant, the external world. No resemblance is predicable, main- 
tains M. Binet, between the perceptions of consciousness and the 
bodies that exist beyond us. Doctrines enunciating such resem- 
blance, the author declares fallacious, and terms them " crude and 
naive realisms." This fallacy, however, is widely prevalent in 
science. Physicists and philosophers still hold that the definitive 
explanation of natural phenomena is a mechanical explanation, 
wherein the concepts of mass and force are the ultimate and fun- 
damental data. They fail to recognize, in this, the purely subjec- 
tive character of sensations. They translate, merely, sensations 
of one kind into sensations of another kind, which seem to us 
more precise ; thus, they explain the phenonenon of sound by the 
phenomenon of a vibration ; merely substituting, thereby, a visual 
sensation for an auditory sensation. This leads the author to 
discuss the supreme importance of the visual sense in the investi- 
gation of phenomena ; the possibility of a purely auricular science 
is held forth ; the author shows that the ear, by noting the qualities 
of sound, can solve numericai problems. Thus, the progression of 
human knowledge is accompanied by a progresion of human capa- 
bilities. The future will transform our sciences ; it may transform 
our senses. 

Sensation and the phenomena of the external world, it is 
granted, an different. But does it follow that knowledge of ex- 
ternal objects is therefore impossible ? The electrical phenomenon 
traversing the wire of a telephone bears no resemblance to the 
spoken words thrown against the mouth-piece in the shape of air- 
waves ; no more so than does sensation the external object. Yet 
is communication by means of a telephone impossible ? Are not 
the spoken words reproduced at the other end of the line in sub- 
stantially the form in which they were received ? Preservation of 
form is all that is necessary ; and this is possible even where there 
is no superficial resemblance. It is a contradiction to demand 
that knowledge should be other than it is. Cognition does not, 
and need not, go beyond sensation. 

In Numbers 82 and 83 two interesting letters appear, discuss- 
ing questions raised by the articles of Dr. G. M. Gould upon 
Dreams, Sleep, and Consciousness — practical studies upon the 
psychology of consciousness. 



ETHICS AND SCIENCE. 

Ethical Evolution. Prof. E. D. Cope No. 82. 

The utilitarian theory of morals, says the distinguished author 
has found in the law of evolution a permanent substantiation. Yet 
does that doctrine embrace the lahole truth, does it embody exclu- 
sively the law of human ethical progress ? Ethical conduct, it is 
true, is an outgrowth of natural mental constitution ; it differs 
among individuals, among families, among races ; physical neces- 
sities, and conditions of environment direct it. But the knowledge 
of right is an intellectual faculty. Ethical life expresses, further, 
the highest development of humanity. Accordingly, moral con- 
duct has various phrases of evolution : the rational as well as the 
natural, the individual as well as the social ; to which correspond- 
ing motives of utility, egoism, and altruism belong. We find these 
motives interacting, each predominant in their respective spheres. 
The rational element has found its expression in generalization, in 
the formation by far seeing men of ethical code; ; the affectional 
element, the element of Love, has found its expression in beneficent 
altruism, wherein the filial relation to God forms an abiding motive 
to action. The faculty of reason and the sentiment of love ensure 
ethical perfection. 

Passions and Manias. Felix L. Oswald, M.D, Nos. Si, 84. 
Interesting essays in moral physiology, abounding in citations 
from history and science in support of the positions taken 



News About the Planets and the Moon. 



.No. 80. 



This constitutes a survey of the latest astronomical observa- 
tions. It includes a brief account of the canals on the surface of 
Mars, with their various attendant phenomena ; the rotation of 
Jupiter ; the temperature of the moon ; and the strange light-phe- 
nomena recently observed in the neighborhood of Saturn. 

SOCIOLOGY AND ECONOMICS. 

Henry George and Land Taxation. Wheel- 
barrow No. 73 

Corbespondence Upon the Doctrine of Henhv 
George Nos, 79, 80, S2, 84, 

The criticisms by Wheelbarrow, touching the doctrines of 
Henry George, have evoked much comment and discussion. The 
main bulk of the correspondence relative to this question, remains 
still unpublished ; showing the wide-spread interest taken in the 
subject, and the undoubted popularity of Mr. George's theories. 
The main endeavor of our correspondents seems directed towards 
demonstrating Wheelbarrows ignorance and misunderstanding of 
the great economist's position. This Wheelbarrow seeks to refute 
in a letter in No. 82. 

HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL. 

The Dilemma of Double Allegiance, Gen. M. M, 

Trumbull No. 81. 

The article by Gen. Trumbull is opportune. Its tone and 
position is commendable. Amid the chauvinistic fanfaronade of 
demagogic statesmen and bellicose newspapers, evoked by petty 
irritations over Samoa coal-stations and bait for cod-fish, the 
thoughtful citizen of foreign birth must often feel the appalling 
meaning that the problem of double allegiance embodies. "What 
is the ethics of patriotism that must guide us in case of actual 
war ?" " The duty of men embarassed by the ties of double alle- 
giance," says Gen. Trumbull, " is to stand bravely by the republic 
whatever comes, but they ought to unite their moral and political 
influence to promote the settlement of all international disputes by 
peaceful arbitration." The question has excited much comment 
from the press throughout the country. 



The Open Court. 

Devoted to the Work of Conciliating Religion ^A/'ith Science. 



No. 86. (Vol. III.-S.) 



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MAKING BREAD DEAR. 

AN ANSWER TO THE CRITICISM OF "A SYMPATHIZER" 
BY WHEELBARROW. 

In the last number of The Open Court I find a 
formidable criticism by a " Sympathizer " who reproves 
me as a " would be reformer," " paralyzing the efforts 
of those who would gladly aid the humbler members 
of society to attain a better hold on life." 

At first I was disposed to regret my article "Mak- 
ing Bread Dear" if the tendency of it was to such a 
mischievous result; but on reflection I saw that it had 
worked the other way; and I felt rather proud that it 
had not been without a good effect on Sympathizer. 
It did not paralyze him. It aroused him. It moved 
him so strongly that he investigated the evils I de- 
nounced. He examined my accusations and answered 
them. 

The first witness offered by Sympathizer for the 
defense is a farmer, who did not know of " any com- 
bination to make wheat or flour high." Sympathizer 
went to the wrong farmer. He should have gone to 
one of those grateful farmers who sent a memorial to 
the very forestaller I complained of, thanking him for 
raising the price of wheat by working a " corner " in 
which hundreds of men were "squeezed" into poverty, 
the prime article of life bewitched, and the hunger of 
the poor increased. I assert that any agency is im- 
moral which obstructs the natural ebb and flow of the 
tide running up and down between the producer and 
the consumer, that healthy, navigable stream which is 
called " supply and demand." It is an immoral agency 
that by conspiracy or cunning raises the price of bread 
to the hod-carrier, or lowers the price of wheat to the 
farmer. 

It is a mistake that the farmer's pa}' is only 82 
cents per da}^ Statistics may say that, but they can- 
not prove it because it is not true. Sympathizer's 
friend, I suppose, meant a net income of 82 cents a da}' 
over and above all expenses. It must also be a mis- 
take that farmers are moving into the city to compete 
with shovelers. I have not yet seen any farmers who 
desire to trade ploughs for wheelbarrows. If the 
statement were true it would prove that agriculture 
had become the weak, attenuated base of American 
existence, and our social fabric would topple over, 
splitting itself to pieces in the fall like an iceberg in 



the sea. I admit that the farmer is much poorer 
than he ought to be ; I admit that he is the victim 
of numerous legalized extortions, but as he seems 
to enjoy them, and fears that they may be lifted from 
him, I will try to bear /ns poverty with resignation, 
although I have no patience with my own. 

The next witness is a miller who testified as fol- 
lows, "There is no combination among millers. On 
the contrary, if we get twenty-five cents per barrel for 
the use of our mill and the risk we take we are satis- 
fied." The honesty of millers is proverbial, but I think 
this testimony will not stand the test of cross-exami- 
nation. Did the witness mean that he made a barrel 
of flour for twenty-five cents, paying his workmen out 
of that, and also his taxes, and insurance? " Or did he 
mean that his profit was twenty-five cents a barrel ? 
As to the " combination," I fear that Sympathizer's 
miller has npt yet got the key t6 it. According to the 
journals published in the milling interest, negotiations 
have been for several months in progress looking to a 
combination of the big millers to freeze out the little 
ones, and abolish that "fierce competition." I have 
no doubt that the conspiracy will eventually succeed. 

The next witness was a man who testified for the 
Board of Trade. He was not himself a member of the 
Board but he knew all about its machinery and 
methods. He was one of those exasperating witnesses 
who know too much, and hoodoo the side that calls 
them. It will be necessary now to bring on a real 
member of the Board to contradict or explain the tes- 
timony of Sympathizer's friend. His evidence verified 
my complaint, and showed that the price of bread ra?! 
be artificiall)' raised by "operations" on the Board of 
Trade. Nothing can be more cold-hearted and selfish 
than the following testimony: " The speculator operates 
to make money. He buys hoping for a rise, or he sells 
for future delivery hoping for a decline." Let Sym- 
pathizer read that sentence carefully and he will see 
that it springs from the ethics of the "pit" where con- 
science is drugged and stupefied. Let him bear in mind 
that the "speculator" spoken of "operates" on the 
bread of the poor; I say the bread of the poor because 
bread is literally the staff of life to the working man, 
while it is a trifling element in the rich man's bill of 
fare. 

What is it that the speculator buys " hoping for a 



1572 



THE OPEN COURT. 



rise? Wheat! Just think of a man wasting his religion 
in praying for a rise in the price of wheat! This, too, 
in a prayer sometimes three months long. ' Or to sell 
for future delivery hoping for a decline.'' " What a per- 
verted moral instinct it must be that prompts a man 
to hope that the value of an article will diminish after 
he has sold it to his neighbor. Is it really true that 
no man can prosper unless at the expense of others ? 

The defense is as bad as the offense. Here is the 
explanation ; The speculator sold at a stated price 
for future delivery that which he did not have, but 
which he must buy before the day agreed on to deliver 
it. For instance, on the first day of May, Peter sold Paul 
one hundred thousand bushels of wheat at one dollar 
per bushel to be delivered on the 30th day of June. Peter 
doesn't own a bushel of wheat but has two months in 
which to buy it. He spends the two months in pray- 
ing that wheat may fall to seventy-five cents a bushel. 
His prayers are granted, and he buys the hundred 
thousand bushels of wheat for seventy-five thousand 
dollars. He delivers them to Paul and demands and 
receives from him a hundred thousand dollars for the 
wheat. He cares nothing for the fact that the wheat 
is not worth what he takes for it, nor for the further 
fact that the twenty-five thousand dollars won by 
Peter may be the measure of Paul's ruin. 

Not only do the "operators" pray for those unnat- 
ural prices, but they also work for them, and effect 
them. Here is the confession of sympathizer's wit- 
ness : "If the price is for the moment higher than any 
individual trader's opinion of the real price, he will 
offer for sale, and thus effect the price downward. If 
he thinks it too low, he will buy in the market, and 
thus influence the market upward. The opinions thus 
backed by monied risk, are much superior to the ex 
parte notion of Wheelbarrow, or any other person who 
merely stands off and looks on." 

I do not see the superiority of those opinions to 
mine, for they are the very same opinions that I my- 
self expressed. I complained that rich operators could 
affect the market, and effect the rise or fall of wheat by the 
aid of money. What is gambling but "opinions backed 
by monied risk ? " That expression is a plagiarism 
from the invitation of the man who runs the wheel of 
fortune at the races. " Step forward, gentlemen, and 
back your own opinions." 

Manufacturing or Commercial industry "backed by 
monied risk" is a very different thing to the specula- 
tion on the prices of things which the seller does not 
own and the buyer does not want; things which are 
not now and never will be in the possession of either 
party, and which perhaps are not yet in existence. This 
kind of speculation does not equalize the temperature 
of prices, and make a fair average one month with 
another between the producer and the consumer. In 



a market subject to artificial derangement, the poor 
man must always pay for a speculative margin which 
the baker must keep on the price of bread to protect 
him from a possible rise in flour. Every man who han- 
dles the wheat from the time it leaves the farm until 
it is sold in the form of bread, is compelled to insure 
himself against a possible speculative inflation of its 
price, and the consumer pays the insurance. 

The witness did not deny that " corners " were 
operated by rich men on the Board of Trade. He not 
only admitted it but gave examples of its vicious and 
gambling character. I submit my case on the testi- 
mony of Sympathizer's witness. The details of his 
testimony reveal commercial business in its most 
heartless form, where the measure of one man's gain 
is the measure of another man's loss. In reply to 
the apology that " their influence is so brief, they sel- 
dom affect the price of the product to the actual con- 
sumer," I offer the fact that the great " corner " of 
three months ago did actually raise the price of bread 
in the city of Chicago. The coal barons of New York 
who levied a tax on all consumers of coal, are well re- 
membered still. Answer that, explain it, or excuse it 
if you can. 

Sympathiser's witness tells us that "corners " are 
merety " episodes." He says: "They are like raids in 
the rear of an army or piratical excursions over ordi- 
narj' peaceful seas." What further testimony is nec- 
essary to their amiable and benevolent character ? 
Fancy Captain Kidd on trial for scuttling ships. Sym- 
pathiser's friend is called in as a witness to character. 
He testifies that he is well acquainted with the defend- 
ant, and that he is merely an inoffensive pirate; that 
he did not scuttle all the ships on the ocean " as he 
sailed, as he sailed," but only a few of them; and that 
his "influence was so brief as to not affect the price of 
the product to the actual consumer." 

Suppose a gang of pirates should raid Lake Mich- 
igan for'a few days, plunder ships, and destroy them, 
swoop down upon Chicago and carry off rich booty, 
would Symnathiser comfort the victims of the raid by 
the assurance that the influence of the pirates " is 
next to nil" ? 

Sympathizer says that I have no right to claim an 
interest in the increase of my country's wealth, nor, I 
suppose, in the expansion of its glory. He says that 
as a wheeler of earth I can do no niore " in that line " 
than my predecessor did a thousand j'ears ago. That 
is true, and I only ask wages in proportion to the rank 
of my wheelbarrow in the scale of productive activities. 

The wealth of a country is the product of all its 
industrial forces working together. Let us suppose 
that of this product the wheelbarrow contributes one 
part, the jackplane two parts, the trowel three, the 
plough four, the yardstick five, and so on up to the 



THE OPEN COURT. 



1573 



banker's ready reckoner, which we represent as ten. 
In twenty years the product of them all has doubled ; 
shall the banker's share be twenty, the merchant's ten, 
the farmer's eight, the trowel's six, the jackplane's 
four, and the wheelbarrow's only one. I insist that in 
proportion to my rank in the scale of production I am 
entitled to my share of the increase. I am a stock- 
holder in the Bank of Industry, and I am entitled to 
my dividends in proportion to the stock I hold. If I 
did not wheel earth somebody else would have to do 
it, perhaps the bricklayer, or the clerk, or the mer- 
chant, or the banker, for wheeling of earth must be 
done. When in the great lottery of life the duty of 
doing it, fell to me, I bore upon my shoulders men of 
greater skill to work at higher trades than mine. 
Without me to stand on, they must have worked upon 
a lower plane. I am willing that the man who con- 
tributes five talents to the capital stock shall receive 
another five over and above. I envy not the hundred 
per cent, reward to him who has contributed four, or 
three, or two talents, but I insist that my one talent, if 
I bury it not in the ground, but throw it into the com- 
mon fund, shall be doubled in honor like the rest. 

While other men grow up with the country must 
I stand still ? As I cannot release myself from duty 
to my country, neither can any other man justly de- 
prive me of my share in its greatness and its growth. 
You can no more justly deprive me of my share in the 
increase of national riches than of my share in the 
increase of national freedom, for which I fought in 
many battles. Have I no inheritance in the legacy of 
the past ? Did the great inventors and discoverers 
leave me nothing when they died ? As well tell me 
that Shakespere, Goethe, Plato, Newton, Bacon, left 
me nothing. I am heir of all the men whose genius 
has multiplied the moral and material riches of the 
world. Every other man is co-heir with me in the 
great inheritance, and every woman too. 

Sympathizer kindly advises that if my Wheelbar- 
row wages is too low, I turn my attention to the Bar, 
the Pulpit, or the Press. This is like the physician 
who advertised advice gratis to the poor, and when 
they came for it, recommended them to try the climate 
and the waters of Baden-Baden. Does Sympathizer 
know of any wealthy congregation in want of a 
preacher of my peculiar faith? 

Let it not be thought that my censures were aimed 
at the Board of Trade as a corporation, or at its mem- 
bers as a class. They were aimed at certain methods 
practiced by certain men within the privileges and op- 
portunities of the Board, methods which are confessed 
and condemned by S3'mpathizer and his witnesses. 
Many of the most honorable, generous, and useful men 
in this community are members of the Board of Trade; 
men whose friendship any man may be proud to enjoy. 



When I demand cheap bread, I do not wish to de- 
prive the farmer, the miller, or the Board of Trade 
man, or anybody who contributes to its production 
and distribution, of his deserved reward. Everybody 
who does work for the benefit of society is employed 
in his own way to make bread cheap. Bread, it is 
true, under special conditions, with a given amount of 
labor and its machinery, cannot be cheaper than the 
legitimate wages of its producers. But its price is 
often increased by additional taxes levied upon it by 
industrial " pirates " that intervene between the legit- 
imate distributors. Theirs is that making bread dear 
of which I spoke. 

Let us unite against the common enemies of so- 
ciety. Every honest calling is productive of some 
good. It makes life easier and better. The honest 
business of the Board of Trade, as Sympathizer ex- 
plains, is to equalize the price of wheat and facilitate 
its journey from the farm to the laborer in the city. 
That appears to me to be a useful work and I can see 
how it may tend toward "making bread cheap. From 
what I had heard of Sympathizer's article, I expected 
a complete refutation, but I think he strengthens my 
position. I see clearer than ever that " making bread 
dear" is a crime. 



THE HISTORY OF THE VEDIC EPOCH. 

BY PROF. H. OLDENEERG. 

Concerning the Vedic poems, the question arises, 
what do we know of the history of India in the 
age which produced them? Where does the pos- 
sibility here begin of fixing events chronologicallj' ? 
In that part of the province of history in which this 
precision is lacking, can any determinate lines of an- 
other sort be drawn ? 

Of a history of ancient India in the sense in which 
we speak of the history of Rome, or in the manner in 
which the history of the Israelitic nation is recounted 
in the Old Testament, the Vedas afford us no testi- 
mony. A succession of events clearly united with one 
another, the presence of energetic personalities, whose 
aspirations and achievements we can understand, mo- 
mentous struggles for the institution and security of 
civil government — these are things of which nothing 
is told to us. We may add that there are things which 
seem to have existed in Ancient India less than in any 
other civilized nation. The more we know of the his- 
tory of this people the more it appears like an incohe- 
rent mass of chance occurrences. These occurrences 
are wanting in that firm bearing and significant sense 
which the power of a willing and conscious national 
purpose imparts to its doings. Only in the history of 
thought, and especially of religious thought, do we 
tread, in India, upon solid ground. Of a history in any 
other sense we can here scarcely speak. And a peo- 



1574 



THE; OPKN COURT, 



pie who has no history, has of course no written his- 
torical works. 

In those eras in which, among soundly organized 
nations, interest in the past and its connection 
with the struggles and sufferings of the present 
awakes, when the Herodotuses and Fabiuses, the nar- 
rators of that which has happened, are wont to arise, 
the literary activity of India was absorbed in theolog- 
ical and philosophical speculation. In all occurrences 
was seen but one aspect, namely, that they were tran- 
sitory; and everything transitory was recognized, we 
may not say as a simile, yet as something absolutely 
worthless, an unfortunate nothing, from which the 
sage was bound to divert his thoughts. 

We can thus easily see how fully we must renounce 
our hopes of an exact result, when the question is 
raised as to the time to which the little we know of the 
outer vicissitudes of the ancient Hindu tribes must 
be assigned, and, especially, as to the time in which the 
great literary remains of the Veda and the changes 
which it wrought in the Hindu world of thought be- 
long. The basis that might serve toward definitely 
answering these questions of chronology — lists of 
kings with statements of the duration of each reign — 
is wholly wanting for the Vedic period. Of early 
times at least no such lists have been handed down to 
us; there are no traces indeed that such ever existed. 
The later catalogues, however, which have been fab- 
ricated in the shops of the Indian compilers, can to- 
day no more be taken into consideration as the basis 
of earnest research, than the statements of the Roman 
chroniclers as to how many years King Romulus and 
King Numa reigned. How unusual it was in the Ve- 
dic times for the Hindus to ask the "when" of events, 
is shown very clearly by the fact, that no expression was 
in current use by which any year but the present was 
distinguishable from any other year. 

The result of this for us, and likewise, of course, 
for the science of Ancient India, is that those long 
centuries were and are practically synonymous with 
immeasurable time. The standard by which we are 
accustomed to compute the distance of historical ante- 
cedence in our thoughts or imaginations, fail us in this 
richly developed civilization as completely as in the 
prehistoric domains of the stone age, or in the first 
feeble glimmerings of human existence. In fact, as 
prehistoric research tries to compute the duration of 
the past ages which have given to the earth's surface 
its form, so as to determine approximately the age of 
the human remains embedded in the strata of the 
earth; so, in a similar way, the investigation of the 
Hindu poetry, in its attempts to compute the age of 
the Veda, has sought refuge in the gradual changes 
that have imperceptibly taken place in the course of 



centuries, in that great time-measurer, the starry 
heavens. 

There was found in a work, classed as one of the 
Vedas, an astronomical statement which has served as 
a basis for such computations. The result attained 
was that this particular poem dated from the year 1181 
B. C. (according to another reckoning 1391 B. C). 
Unfortunately, the belief that in this way certain data 
are to be acquired had to vanish quickly enough. It 
was soon found out that the Vedic statement is not 
sufficient to afford any tenable basis for astronomical 
computations. Thus it remains that for the times of 
the Vedas there is no fixed chronological date. And to 
an}' one who knows of what things the Hindu au- 
thors were wont to speak, and of what not, it will be 
tolerably certain, that even the richest and most unex- 
pected discoveries of new texts, though they may 
vastly extend our knowledge in other respects, will in 
this respect make no changes whatever. 

There are two great events in the history of India 
with which this darkness begins to be dispelled — the 
one approximately, and the other accurately, referable 
to an ascertainable point of time. These are the ad- 
vent of Buddha and the contact of the Hindus with 
the Greeks under Alexander the Great and his succes- 
sors. 

That it was the old Buddhistic communities in In- 
dia that first began the work of gathering up the con- 
nected traditions within historical memory, seems 
certain. At least this corresponds with the apparent 
and accepted course of events. To Vedic and Brah- 
manical philosophy all earthly fortunes were abso- 
lutely worthless — a vanity of vanities; and over 
against them stood the significant stillness of the Eter- 
nal, undisturbed by any change. But for the follow- 
ers of Buddha, there was a point at which this Eternal 
entered the world of temporal things, and thus there 
was for them a piece of history which maintained its 
place beside or rather directly within their religious 
teachings. This was the history of the advent of 
Buddha and the life of the communities founded by 
him. 

There is a firm recollection of the assemblies in 
which the most honored and learned leaders of the 
communities, and great bands of monks coming to- 
gether from far and wide, determined weighty points 
of doctrine and ritual. The kings under i^hom 
these councils were held are named, and the prede- 
cessors of these kings are mentioned even as far 
back as the pious King Bimbisara, the contemporary 
and zealous projiector of Buddha. Of the series of 
kings which in this way have been fixed by the chron- 
icles of the Buddhistic order, two figures are espe- 
cially prominent — Tschandragupta {i. e., the one pro- 



THE OPEN COURT. 



1575 



tected by the Moon) and his grandson Asoka (the 
Painless). Tsc/iaiidragt/pta is a personaht}' well known 
to Greek and Roman historians. They call him Sa?i- 
drokyptos, and relate that after the death of Alexander 
the Great (in the year 323 B. C), he successfullj' op- 
posed the power of the Greeks on their invasion into 
India, and lifted himself from a humble position to 
that of ruler of a wide kingdom. Asoka, on the other 
hand, is not mentioned by the Greeks ; but in one of 
his inscriptions — by him were made the oldest inscrip- 
tions discovered in India, and these have been found 
on walls and pillars in the most distant parts of the 
peninsula — he himself speaks of Antijoka, king of the 
lona (lonians, i. e., Greeks), Antikina, Alikasandara, 
and other Greek monarchs.* 

Here at last a place 'is reached where the his- 
torical investigator of India reaches firm ground. 
Events whose 3'ears and centuries — as though they 
occurred on another planet — are not commensurable 
with those of the earth, meet at this point with spheres 
of events which we know and are able to measure. If 
we reckon back from the fixed dates of Tschandra- 
gupta and Asoka to Buddha — and we have no grounds 
for regarding the statements of time which we find re- 
specting Buddhistic chronology as not at least ap- 
proximately correct — we find the year of the great 
teacher's death to be about 480 B. C. His work there- 
fore falls in the time at which the Greeks fought their 
battles for freedom from Persian rule, and the funda- 
mental lines of a republican constitution were drawn 
in Rome. 

Buddha's life, however, marks the extreme limit at 
which we maj' find even approximate dates. Beyond 
this, through the long centuries which must have 
elapsed from the beginning of the Rig Veda epoch to 
that of Buddha, the question still remains: What was 
the succession of events — the few events of which we 
may speak ? What the order in which the great strata 
of literary remains were formed ? We observe the re- 
lation which one text bears to the others which appear 
to have previously existed; we follow the gradual 
changes which the language has suffered, the blotting 
out of old words and forms and the appearance of new 
ones; we count the long and short syllables of the 
verses so as to learn the imperceptible but strictlj' reg- 
ular course by which their rhythms have been freed 
from old laws of construction and subjected to new 
forms; moving in a parallel direction with these lin- 
guistic and metrical changes we note the changes of 
religious ideas, and of the contents as well as the ex- 
ternal forms of intellectual and spiritual life. Thus we 

* Antijoka is Antiochas Theos; Antikina, Antigonos Gonatos; Alikasandara, 
o£ course, not Alexander the Great, but Alexander of Epirus, son of Pyr- 
rhus, the enemy of the Romans. All these princes reigned about the middle 
of the third century B. C. Of Alexander the Great in India no traces have 
been found, with the exception of a coin which bears his picture and his name. 



learn in the chaos of this literature ever more surely to 
distinguish the old from the new, and understand the 
course of development which has run through both. 

Many a path, it is true, in which research hoped 
to press forward, has been shown to be delusive 
and worthless ; problems have had to be given up, 
changed, and presented in different forms. But in its 
last results the work has not been in vain. For, in 
respect to the Veda in particular, and the antiquities 
of India in general, we have learned to recognize the 
principal directions in which the tendencies of histor- 
ical growth are to be traced. 

From the second century of Hindu research we can 
scarcely expect discoveries similar to those which the 
first has brought: such a sudden uprising of unusual, 
broad, fruitful fields of historical knowledge. But 
we may still hope that the future of our science will 
bring results of another sort no less rich — the expla- 
nation of hitherto inexplicable phenomena, the trans- 
formation of that which is half known into that which 
is fully known. 

NO CREED BUT FAITH. 

Bv creed we understand a summary of the articles 
of religious belief, and by faith a trustful confidence in 
something or some one that we are convinced is good 
and true. Creed is dogmatic ; faith is moral. The 
creeds of the world are contained in the many Credos, 
in the doctrines of the different religions ; faith is en- 
shrined in human hearts. Creeds are dead letters ; 
faith is the quickening spirit. 

The religious problem of to-day will find its simple 
solution in the sentence : No creed, but faith. Let us 
have faith in the moral order of the world, the faith of 
a grain of mustard seed, and without swerving live 
and grow accordingly. Let us have faith in our ideals 
of Truth and Beauty and Goodness. If we have no 
faith, how can our ideals be realized? How can the 
tree grow if the seed be dead ? 

Faith in Hebrew is amiinah, which means firmness. 
No credulity is wanted, but steadiness of character. 
Faith in Greek is Tr/'trr/f, which is etymologically the 
same word as the Latin fides and the English faith. 
The verb -w-thuv does not signify to believe, but to trust. 
So long and in so far as Christianit}' was a living faith, 
it was truly human and progressive. But as soon as 
priestcraft prevailed and identified creed with faith, the 
religious spirit lost its life ; it became a reactionary 
power, for it was fossilized into the letter that killeth ; 
and instead of faith credulity was enthroned as the 
basic virtue of a religious life. Not truth ascertain- 
able and verifiable by scientific investigation was ac- 
cepted as the basis of religion, but certain unveri- 
fied and even absurd doctrines, which were established 
as self-evident axioms. Science was pooh-poohed like 



1576 



THK OPEN COURT. 



Cinderella as worldly and ungodly, whereas by rights 
it should hold the torch to faith lest it walk in the 
path of superstition or other errors. 

Three days after the crusaders had taken Antioch 
(June 3, 1098), Kerbogha, the Emir of Mosul, arrived 
with an army which was in almost every respect, and 
especially in numbers, superior to the Christians. He 
invested the city and cut off all supplies. Famine 
and sickness caused great havoc, and many goodly 
knights, among them even prominent leaders, such as 
Count Stephen of Blois, deserted in great despair. 
The whole army seemed to be doomed to die by the 
sword of the Moslem or to be starved. In this plight 
Peter Bartholomew, a Provencal of low birth, came to 
Count Raymond and declared that St. Andrew had 
shown him the holy lance that had pierced the side 
of Christ, and that it lay buried in St. Peter's Church 
of Antioch. The search began at once ; twelve men 
dug a whole da}', and in the evening a lance was really 
found not far from the altar. The lance being found, 
the crusaders began to have confidence again. Under 
the command of the circumspect and Brave Boemund, 
they went out to do battle. Although worn out by 
fatigue and famine, they were confident that the holy 
lance would lead them to victory, and full of enthu- 
siasm they beat the Emir so that his great army was 
soon scattered to the winds. 

The story of the holy lance, it was soon discovered 
by the more sober Normans, was an imposture, but 
among the sanguine-minded Provencals the belief in 
it had worked wonders of prowess and made the ap- 
parently impossible an actual fact. 

There may be a living faith concealed in a foolish 
superstition. It is not the error, not the superstition 
that works wonders, but the faith that lives in it. No 
victory, no virtue, no strength, without at least a grain 
of faith, be it ever so much mixed with false notions. 
False notions are a disastrous ingredient in faith, and 
unless in time discarded, they will and must lead into 
danger. For weak souls, an alloy of truth and error 
may serve as a substitute for pure truth ; but it is 
truth alone that can make us strong and free. 

Creed rarely can stand criticism, but faith can not 
only endure and survive criticism, it should even in- 
vite it. Criticism may destroy all creeds, but it will 
never destroy faith, and if it could, it would take out of 
life that which alone gives value to it. It would take 
away our ideals, our hopes, our aspirations, and the 
purpose of life. Life would be empty and meaning- 
less. 

Christ said : 

"Verily I say unto you: If you have faith as a grain cf mustard 
seed, you shall say unto this mountain, Remove hence to yonder 
place and it shall remove ; and nothing shall be impossible unto 
you." 



The instance of the crusaders' victory over Ker 
bogha is an example of how powerful faith can be, even 
though closely interwoven with superstition. It was 
not the superstition, however, that gave strength to 
the crusaders, but the moral faculty of confidence 
closely connected in this case with superstition. Great 
minds can exercise the same self-control and perform 
the same deeds, even greater deeds, without the 
assistance of superstition. It can be said of weak 
minds onl}', that superstition serves as a support to 
faith. It is true, that if well directed, it can give to a 
child the self-cortfident strength of a man. But woe 
unto us if we mistake superstition as genuine faith. 

Our faith must not be blind, but rational ; it must 
be based on exact knowledge, and it is our duty to 
purify it by critique and to harmonize it with science. 

The reconciliation of moral ideals to knowledge, of 
religious faith to science is not of to-day nor of yester- 
day. Ever since humanity has aspired to progress 
and to increase in wisdom as well as in power, there 
has been a constant readjustment of the relation of 
these two factors. The prophet Hosea says : 

' ' Hear the v?ord of the Lord, ye children of Israel : * * * 
My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge. Because thou 
hast rejected knowledge, I will also reject thee." 

It is lack of knowledge, or as we would now say, of 
science, that threatens to be destructive. If our clergy 
do not cease to preach creed, if they oppose science 
because it is in conflict with their creed, they will no 
longer remain priests of the Almighty, /. c, of the moral 
power that leads humanity onward on the path of pro- 
gress. They will deteriorate into a caste of time-servers 
and hypocrites, for they are lacking in the faith of the 
grain of mustard seed, which is the power of growth 
and progress. 

Superstitions have under exceptional conditions, in 
the days of man's childhood, served as substitutes for 
faith; but we should learn that they are not the living 
faith itself nor do they add to the strength of faith. 
They rather detract from its vigor, its purity, and its 
nobility. Superstitions and the lack of knowledge will 
ultimately lead to perdition. On the other hand we 
sho.uld learn that our faith, our confidence in the truth 
of moral ideals, is bj' no means subverted if the super- 
stitions incidentally connected therewith are recog- 
nized as illusions. Science of late has done away with 
many errors which had grown dear to us, but it has 
not and never will do away with our ideals of Truth, 
Beauty, and Goodness. It has rather taught us the 
laws according to which they can more and more be re- 
alized. Ideals evolve and change and, upon the whole, 
they progress and are improved. 

If the grain rots in the earth we no longer fear that 
it is lost. We now know that the transformation is no 
sign of decay but of growth and as the husks of our 



THE ORKN COURT. 



577 



superstitious notions are breaking, a new faith bursts 
forth which will be wider and broader, purer and 
greater than all the old creeds with their narrow sec- 
tarian convictions. Dogmas will be forgotten, but Re- 
ligion will remain. All the creeds will die away, but 
Faith will live forever. p. c. 



Now joyous nature holds the vernal rite 

And worships thee beneath the cloudless sky, 
O Sun, from whom is life and all delight : 

Yet one that loves thy bounty breathes a sigh : — 
Ah, wherefore whisper, seeing all so bright, 
O Truth, that e'en by this the Sun shall die ? 



THE FRIAR. 



A friar, still in youth. 
Enters the abbot's cell ; 
He modestly begins 
His misery to tell, 
In hope confession may 
The pain o£ heart dispel : 
' ' In spite of all my prayer 
With me no peace doth dwell." 

The old man kindly looks 

In his repentant face. 

And says, " Thou must believe 

In God and in His grace !" 

" O father, that I could 

These doubts of mine efface, 

And simple as a child 

The hope of Christ embrace. 

My conscience never can 
Find from my sin release. 
The more I ponder them. 
The more my doubts increase. 
Oh, to believe in God ! 
Oh, that this pain would cease. 
I fear, there is no truth. 
There is in life no peace !" 

Old volumes in that cell 

On shelves were placed around. 

The authors of them had 

In past times tried to sound 

The very depth of truth, 

And found it too profound. 

Now, through the books, methinks. 

Compassion did resound. 

The abbot wistfully 

Gazed at him in his pain. 

A silence long and sad 

Did all his heart explain ; 

But in his thoughtful eyes 

Was writ this doleful strain : 

' ' Thou look'st for peace and truth 

In this, our world, in vain." 

SONNET. 

BY LOUIS BELROSE, JR. 

Sad is the flower, O Sun, that decks the way 
Too soon ; while yet the wind of winter blows, 
And blissful are the blossoms that unclose 

Their tender petals to the warmth of May. 

Sad is the soul, O Truth, that sees thy ray 

Too soon ; and blest, ah, doubly blest are those 
Who linger dreaming till their sweet repose 

Is broken by the warmer beam of day. 



TO JOHN BRIGHT. 

BY LOUIS BELROSE, Jk. 

Well named, for all his valiant life was bright 
With noble deeds. He rent the cloud that hung 
Heavy on England. Words upon his tongue 

Took wings of fire that made the darkness light. 

His love was large. In days that worship might 
He stood for justice, and with justice wrung 
The prey from might itself. He died too young 

To lose the faith that leans upon the right. 

When England laughed to see the blood we let. 

And hoped our nation dead, he held alone 
For union. Brothers all, must we forget ? 

Though waning senates groveled at the throne 
Of vile expedience, the world knew yet 

One statesman that durst call his soul his own. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

THRO'W OPEN NATURAL OPPORTUNITIES. 

To the Editor of The Open Court: — 

No doubt The Open Court has received a surfeit of letters 
defending or explaining the "Henry George doctrine, " but I de- 
sire to notice a phase of the question which has not received the 
attention it deserves, viz., "That poverty is the result of man's 
inherent vices." 

" In man's obedience to moral laws (?) he finds the only magic 
wherewith to change the face of society." 

This Calvinistic doctrine clashes with my sense of justice. As 
I apprehend Wheelbarrow's "morality," it is a compound of fore- 
sight, economy, thrift, and industry. 

If prosperity is the result of superior moral qualities, then the 
morality of Jay Gould must be far greater than that of Wheelbar- 
row, and before Wheelbarrow presumes to teach morality, he 
must prove — by showing his vast possessions — that he himself is 
moral. Jay Gould, not Wheelbarrow, ought to teach morality; 
for is not his wealth the result of foresight, economy, thrift, and 
industry ? Does this then not prove that he possesses in large de- 
gree, morality ? To answer in the negative at once overthrows 
Wheelbarrow's philosophy, for then it is readily .perceived that 
prosperity, and its attendant possibilities, is not necessarily the 
result of moral virtue. 

" Ah, but we should be contented with our conditions, simply 
striving to do right." 

No sir, contentment is ignorance ; is conservatism ; a pro- 
gress-blighting philosophy. Who dares preach contentment to the 
father of a starving child ? Tell poverty to be shrewd, to gamble 
upon what the iiiorro20 will bring forth ? Advise it to be econom- 
ical when its pressing necessities demand consumption ? To be 
thrifty when it is bending every energy to relieve the hunger of 
yesterday ? To be industrious when work at any price is looked 
upon as a boon ? 

We cannot teach morality, and I mean morality, to dead men; 
as a first condition they must be alive, and the less energy there is 
devoted to the struggle for mere existence, the more can be ex- 
pended in developing moral character. 

The spirit -of the Henry George doctrine is expressed in the 



'578 



THE OPEN COURT. 



•following excerpt from The Open Court, page 1479 ; "So far as 
our knowledge reaches, thus far do we intellectually own nature, 
;aud can hope to rule its course in the interest of humanity by 
accommodating oitrsehes and natural events to nature's unalterable 
laws." 

We aim at this, that is all, and as a primary and yet vital step 
in that direction, we seek to open up natural opportunities, confi- 
dent that if we start right we are sure to follow up the advantage. 
Will not Wheelbarrow drop his pre-conceived ideas or theories 
long enough to study what it is we aim at, and then join us in this 
great struggle for the rights of man ? 

Fraternally yours, 

New York Cit\\ Benj. Doblin. 

NATURAL OPPORTUNITIES AND TOM'S BOOT.* 

To the Editor of The Open Court; — 

"I THINK there be si.\ Richraonds in the field." I have an- 
swered five, and now comes Mr. Doblin with new arguments. He 
■charges at an effigy of me made out of his own head, as the school- 
boy made the ship. I merely call upon him to direct his lance at 
tne, and not at my " Counterfeit presentment." Mr. Doblin makes 
phrases, puts them into quotation marks, and then refutes their 
argument. This in itself is innocent enough, but people who do 
not understand it may infer from the quotation marks that the 
phrases and their sentiments are mine. 

I never said " morality is a compound of foresight, economy, 
thrift, and industry." These are useful ingredients of character, 
but they are chieflj' duties to ourselves. They are in the moral 
code indeed, but its more important parts prescribe the duties 
which we owe to others, the higher obligations of " morality." 

Mr. Doblin cuts, clips, shortens, plaits, and takes in fold 
after fold of the spiritual garment called " morality " until it is di- 
minished to the stature of a man whom he calls Jay Gould. Then 
he insinuates that "Wheelbarrow" did the tailoring, and that 
the diminished robe exactly fits my pattern of morality. I may 
exclaim with Cassius in the play, ' ' You wrong me every way, you 
wrong me Brutus ; " you charge to me a superstructure which I 
never built, for contrasts and comparisons I never thought of. 

Is it not presumptuous to sit in judgment on our fellow men, 
and tell the world that we are holier than they? Is it not self- 
righteous to contrast the vices of his ' Jay Gould ' with the shining 
virtues of ourselves ? Our moralizers would become insolvent if that 
' ' awful warning " should be called to his reward. He serves the 
purpose of a dummy block whereon reformers may display their 
neighbor's fault for public reprobation. When they have it fitted 
on the image to the worst advantage they advertise it and exclaim, 
" Here is a choice article of social wickedness ; see how it fits this 
dummy." Not one of them will try it on himself and say, " Behold, 
how closely it fits me." So handy is that Wall Street curiosity to 
" point a moral, and- adorn a tale, " that I sometimes think the 
odium cast upon him springs from envy at his vices and his luck. 
I fear to weigh my own righteousness against the sins of any man, 
lest when I gaze into my looking glass I see reflected there the 
features of that man. 

The ironical sentiment about contentment is put within quo- 
tation marks as if it came from me. I am innocent of it; but it fur- 
nishes a text for high grade moral reprobation, which I heartily 
approve. All I ask is that the indignant " No Sir ! " be addressed 
to the guilty person, and not to me. I am on record against con- 
tentment, if by that is meant the end of aspiration for myself, or 
the end of work for others. Neither have I ever told poverty to 
gamble upon what the morrow will bring forth. The odds against 
poverty are too great. 

If I ever advised poverty to be thrifty in order to " relieve the 

* When I wrote this I had not yet seen the letter of Rev. Hugh O. Pente- 
cost in No. 85 of The Open Coirt. 



hunger of yesterday," I did a foolish thing. I think I am inno- 
cent of that also, although I plead guilty of advising thrift against 
the hunger of to-morrow. I never grieved over the ' ' hunger of 
yesterday " but once, and that was when I was a little boy. I was 
asked If I would have a bit of meat pie ; I said "No," when I 
meant "Yes," and was taken at my word. Next day I was tor- 
tured by the vision of that lost meat pie. Towards night it oc- 
curred to me that it was useless to weep over the hunger of yes- 
terday and I have pever done so since. It is the hunger of to-day 
that worries me. 

I fully agree with Mr. Doblin that we cannot teach morality 
to dead men. I think with him that as a " first condition " of suc- 
cess in teaching, the pupils " must be alive." 

As to the " spirit of the Henry George doctrine" I have no 
quarrel with it ; "the letter killeth." It is not Mr. George's mo- 
tives, but his measures that I question. I am as anxious as he is 
to "open up the natural opportunities," although I think the 
phrase is vague, uncertain, and misleading. We differ as to the 
mea'ns by which to " open up." Tom Kennedy and I were shov- 
elers in the same gang. We were working on a bit of railroad not 
far from Charably in Canada, and lodged in the house of a little 
Frenchman there. Tom was an Irishman, who reached conclusions 
by the most illogical means. One night he woke up complaining 
of the closeness of the room. "We must have some fresh air," 
he said, " I'll open up the windy." Instead of doing so in a Chris- 
tian manner, he picked up one of my boots and flung it through 
the glass into the street, where I found it in the morning. Tom's 
conclusions were all right, but his way of reaching them was de- 
fective. Fresh air was a " natural opportunity " to which he was 
entitled, but he had no right to obtain it by throwing another man's 
boot through a third man's window. Neither has Mr. George nor 
Mr. Doblin. 

If I should ask Mr. Doblin to " drop his pre-conceived ideas " 
in favor of Mr. George's theory, long enough to study ray objections 
to it, he would rightly consider my demand unreasonable. It is 
not necessary to the candid study of any subject that a nian should 
drop his pre-conceived ideas concerning it ; yet Mr. Doblin, with 
complacent self esteem, demands that I drop my pre-conceived 
ideas of his particular faith before I study it. This is a concession 
which no disputant has a right to ask of his antagonist. A man 
who denied the efficacy of prayer was requested by the preacher 
to give the matter "prayerful consideration." 

My pre-conceived ideas of taxation leaned very much toward 
the scheme of Henry George. I am dropping some of them be- 
cause the study of the question leads me to doubt their wisdom and 
their justice. For instance in the case of Thomas Clark, the far- 
mer whom I spoke of lately. I think that society has no right to 
confiscate his farm because some other man holds land for specu- 
lative purposes. To tax it away from him by Mr. George's plan is 
to confiscate it. 

" The Rights of Man." What man ? What are the rights of 
Thomas Clark to the farm which he has literally planted in the 
wilderness ? To tax the value of that farm to its full amount, the 
whole of which value has been made by the hard labor of Clark, 
would be a wrong for which the only e.xcuse would be a plea of 
political insanity. 

NOTES. 

We have received an interesting lecture by W. Lymington 
Brown, M. D., upon Benjamin Franklin. It is an instructive 
sketch of the life of our great countryman, full of many salutary 
lessons. 

Charles Eliot Norton, of Harvard, will contribute to Scrihner's 
for May, a paper upon "The Lack of Old Homes in America," 
and the associations and sentiments of which we are thereby de- 
prived. 



THE OPEN COURT 



1579 



We read with great pleasure and satisfaction the articles by 
Pericles, in The Independent Pulpit. 

We have received a number of Tracts for Christians from Mr. 
R. Randolph, of Philadelphia, the author of " Aspects of Human- 
ity." Among them also a little brochure entitled "Stages of 
Faith, or Traces of Divine Mediation in Human Intelligence." 

Miss Mary Morgan (Gowan Lea) will contribute to The Open 
Court a series of translations from Goethe, Rinkert, Chamisso, 
Platen, Eichendorf, Ernst Schultze, Hoffmann von Hattersleben 
and Paul Fleming, under the title " Gems from the German." 

A new magazine for teachers, outside of the usual line of 
school journals, will be commencod May i, i88g It will endeavor 
to interest teachers and older pupils in the work of the scientific 
and literary world, and present an ' ' outlook " upon current events, 
etc. It will be called the Teacher's Outlook, and published by the 
Teachers' Publishing Co., Des Moines, Iowa. 

In a pamphlet styled Unitarians as Congregatioua lists , Mr. J. 
H. Crooker, of Madison, Wis., after sketching the rise and exten- 
sion of Unitarian doctrines, refers to "the issue in the West." 
"The only way out of our so-called Western difficulties, " says 

Mr. Crooker, "is in loyalty to Congregational Polity 

Western Unitarianism must be left free to grow and to define itself 
by the work of its several churches." 



THE LOST MANUSCRIPT * 

BY GUSTAV FREYTAG. 

CHAPTER JTA'A'/F.— Continued. 

The Professor went away ; the ladies talked con- 
■fidentiall}' over the family at home, during which Mrs. 
RoUmaus could not entirely give up her scientific inves- 
tigations ; for, in the middle of the conversation, she put 
her fingers on Use's temples, and begged permission 
to feel the crown of her head ; whereupon she said, 
with much delight, " There is much sincerit}' there, as 
I should have supposed." She then looked signifi- 
cantly at Use. She was loquacious and flippant, but 
she showed a degree of restraint which Use attributed 
to the strangeness of the place. 

After Mrs. Rollmaus had admired the dwelling, 
criticized the pictures, and felt the texture of the fur- 
niture coverings. Use pointed to the sun, which was 
breaking through the clouds, and proposed that they 
should walk out into the park. Mrs. Rollmaus as- 
sented with pleasure, and Use had much to do to an- 
swer the questions of the excitable lady. Then they 
came to a part of the grounds which served as a 
promenade at this hour for the ladies and people of 
the city. "What a surprise," exclaimed Mrs. Roll- 
maus, suddenly seizing Use's arm, " the princely liv- 
erj'." At a turn in the path, the hat of a lackey be- 
came visible ; the Princess, accompanied by Lady 
Gottlinde and Pri-nce Victor, came directly towards 
them. Amidst the respectful greetings of the prom- 
enaders, the princely party approached. Use stepped 
aside, and curtsied. The Princess stopped. "We were 
on the point of calling on 3'ou," she began, kindly ; 

• Translation copyrighted. 



" my brother was obliged to leave suddenly ; he will 
have told your father how sorry he was that he could 
not take any messages from you to your family." She 
gave a passing look at Mrs. Rollmaus, who was sup- 
porting herself with both her hands on her umbrella, 
bending her head forward, not to lose a syllable that 
fell from the lips of the princely ladj'. Use mentioned 
her name. 

" A kind friend from the neighborhood of Rossau, 
who is spending a few days near here." 

Mrs. Rollmaus ducked down very low, and, almost 
unconscious from terror, said : "It is only three miles 
from here, in Toadville ; although, if I may, by your 
Highness's permission, be graciously allowed to say so, 
there are no more toads there than in any other re- 
spectable place." 

" You are taking a walk," said the Princess, to 
Use, " will you accompany me a little way?" She 
beckoned Use to her side, placing herself between her 
and the lady in waiting. Prince Victor remained be- 
hind with Mrs Rollmaus. 

" So toads are not pastured on your estate?" began 
the Prince. 

" No, my gracious ," replied Mrs. Rollmaus, 

embarrassed, supporting herself on her umbrella. " I 
do not really know what is the right title to address 
you with." 

" Prince Victor," replied the 3'oung gentleman, 
carelessl}'. 

" I beg your pardon ; but this honorable name does 
not satisfy me. May I beg to know the other title, 
similar to what, in the case of pastors, would be ex- 
pressed by Very Reverend ? For to offend princelj' 
persons would not be pleasant, and I am not convers- 
ant with these forms of address." 

" High and honorable lady, j'ou may call me High- 
ness ; thus we shall both have our rights." 

" It shall be as you command," exclaimed Mrs. 
Rollmaus, delighted. 

" You have long known the Professor's wife ?" 

" From her childhood," explained Mrs. Rollmaus ; 
" I was a friend "of her deceased mother, and I can 
truly say that I have shared both happiness and sor- 
row with our dear Use. Prince Victor, it is impossible 
for 3^our Highness to know her true heart as well as 
we do. Latterly, through her learned acquaintances, 
she has come into another atmosphere ; but long 
before her betrothal it was clear to me that it would 
be a match." 

" Good," said the Prince. " How long do you re- 
main in. the neighborhood?" 

" Only until the end of the week ; for Rollmaus 
prefers the country to the city, which is not to be won- 
dered at ; he has not the inclination for intellectual 
pursuits by which I am inspired. For this there is 



1 5 Ho 



THE ORKN COURT. 



more opportunity in the city, although one, even in 
the country, can make one's observations on heads 
and other natural objects." 

" The weather is changeable ; is your carriage 
closed?" interrupted the Prince. 

" It is a britscka, with a leather top to it," replied 
Mrs. Rollmaus. " I must honestly avow to you that 
it has been quite an unexpected pleasure to me that 
this visit has afforded the opportunity of seeing your 
Highness, for I have heard very much of you." 

" I should be very grateful to you," replied the 
Prince, "if you would kindly tell me what you have 
heard. I have hitherto believed that my reputation 
was not b)' any means so bad as it might be." 

" No one, however noble he may be, can escape 
calumny." exclaimed Mrs. Rollmaus, eagerly ; " they 
talk of tricks. I fear your Highness will take it amiss 
if I mention this gossip." 

" Tell me something of it," replied the Prince, 
"whatever it may be." 

"They maintain that your Highness is convivial 
and lives quite boisterously, and other things which it 
would be unpleasant for me to repeat." 

" Go on," said the Prince, cheerfully. 

"That your Highness makes fools of other people." 

" That is grievous," replied the Prince. " Is your 
coachman a courageous man?" 

" He is somewhat surly even with Rollmaus, who 
indulges him much." 

"Believe me Mrs. Rollmaus," continued the Prince, 
" it is a sorrowful business to be a prince. Disquiet 
from morning to evening. Every one will have some- 
thing, and no one brings anything except bills. Thus all 
gaiety is sacrificed, one becomes sad, and slinks about 
through the bushes. My favorite recreation is a little 
quiet conversation in the evening with my old nurse 
and instructress, the widowed Cliquot, and to play a 
little 'patience.' Then one counts the good works that 
one has done during the day, sig-hs that they are so 
few, and looks for one's boot-jack. We are the vic- 
tims of our position. If there is anything I envy the 
Professor's wife, it is her servant Gabriel, a trust- 
worthy man, whom I recommend to your favorable 
attention." 

" I know him," replied Mrs. Rollmaus ; " I must 
acknowledge that the autobiography which you have 
given me agrees with all that I have discovered from 
the structure of your Highness's head, so far as your 
hat does not deprive one of the sight of it, which 
indeed is very much the case." 

" I would be thankful to my cranium," muttered the 
-Prince, " if it would lead everyone to believe my words 
as easily as you do." 

" As long as I live, it will be a pleasure as well as a 
souvenir to me," continued Mrs. Rollmaus, with an 



ambulatory curtsy, " to have been brought by accident 
to this intimate intercourse with your Highness, the re- 
membrance of which I will, if I may be allowed to say 
so, recall to myself by your Highness's picture, which 
I hope may be had in the shops. I shall place myself 
before it when I am in the singular number, as now 
my son Karl does with his grammar, and think of past 
hours." 

Prince Victor gave Mrs. Rollmaus a look of friendly 
benevolence. 

" I will never allow you to buy my portrait. I beg 
permission to send you a copy as a remembrance. It 
is, unfortunately, not so true as I could wish. The 
painter has made me too large, and I am not quite 
content with the costume : it looks like a clerg}'man's 
gown. Meanwhile I beg you kindly to imagine it 
without this superfluity. Has the Chief Inspector 
Rollmaus good horses? Does he raise them himself? 

" Always, your Highness, he is famed for it among 
the neighbors." 

The Prince turned with fresh interest towards the 
little lady. 

" Perhaps one could transact some business with 
him. I am looking out for some strong saddle-horses. 
What kind of a man is he to deal with?" he asked, 
frankly. 

"He is a very sharp tradesman," replied Mrs. 
Rollmaus, hesitatingly, and looking at the Prince with 
secret pity. " He is considered by his acquaintances 
as an expert in horses, and — and, if I may say so — is 
rather knowing." 

The Prince pursed up his lips, bringing out a sound 
almost like a suppressed whistle. 

"Then he is very unlike the highly honored lady,, 
and I shall hardly be able to do business with him. 
Would it not give the Professor's wife pleasure tO' 
visit you for a few days in the village of toads? " 

"It would be the greatest pleasure to us," ex- 
claimed Mrs. Rollmaus, "but the house is empty, and 
is not furnished, and we must manage as best we can, 
and the victuals, too, as a rule, are cold." 

"Only in case of extreme necessity, I mean." 

Meanwhile Use was walking by the side of the 
Princess through the groups of citizens making their 
obeisances, but her heart was not so light as that of 
Mrs. Rollmaus. The Princess spoke kindly to her, but 
upon indifferent subjects, and she turned frequently to 
the other side to her lady. It was clearly not her wish 
to enter into more conversation with Use than was ab- 
solutely necessary. Use saw clearly that it was a show 
of favor before the world; she felt the intention of it, 
and asked herself secretly why it was necessary, and 
her pride revolted at this graciousness, which did not 
come from the heart. The Princess kept Use for some 
time in the most crowded part of the promenade. 



THE OPEN COURT. 



1581 



"I leave the palace to-day," said the Princess, 
■" and go for a few days or weeks into the coimtr}-. 
Perhaps I shall have the pleasure of seeing j-ou 
there." 

At parting Prince Victor took off his hat politely, 
but only said : " The air is becoming sultrj^" 

Use brooded over this little incident as she returned 
with her companion to the Pavillion. She answered 
the animated questions of Mrs. Rollmaus absent-mind- 
edly, and only gave a half-look at the promenaders, 
many of whom now took off their hats to her. 

Gabriel had prepared some coffee in honor of 
Mrs. Rollmaus, and had set the table in front of the 
door. There the ladies sat down. Mrs. Rollmaus 
looked enchanted at the blooming azaleas, praised the 
cake of the palace, and still more the princely person- 
ages, and chatted away in her best humor, whilst 
Use looked seriously down. 

"I have seen some of the princelj' personages, and 
I should now like to see the fortune-teller. It is re- 
markable, dear Use, that my valuable connection with 
the Professor always brings in question the power of 
soothsaying. It is really not from inconsiderate cu- 
riosity that I wish to question this person. It is no 
object to me to learn about my future. I know suffi- 
ciently how this will all be. For to a certain extent we 
live under natural conditions ; first the children come, 
then they grow up, one becomes older, and if one does 
not die too young, one lives a little longer. That has 
never been inscrutable to me, and I do not know what a 
person could now discover for me. It would, therefore, 
be some misfortune that would come to pass, and I do 
not wish to have that prophesied. I wish it only for 
the sake of instruction, to find out whether such a per- 
son knows more than we others. For in our days 
there are doubts about the powers of soothsaying, and 
I myself have never had a presentiment, except once, 
when I had the toothache, and dreamt that I smoked 
a pipe, which took place and had a nauseous effect ; 
but this cannot be called wonderful." 

" Perhaps the fortune-teller knows more than oth- 
ers," replied Use, absently, "because shehas somehow 
made herself acquainted with their history." 

" I have thought of something," cried Mrs. Roll- 
maus ; "I would ask her about the silver soup-ladle, 
which, in an inexplicable way, disappeared from our 
kitchen." 

"What will the lady give me if I tell her?" asked 
a hollow voice. 

Mrs. Rollmaus started. At the corner of the house 
stood a large woman behind the flower-pots ; from her 
shoulders hung a ragged cloak, her head was covered 
with a dark handkerchief, from under which two flash- 
ing ej'es were fixed upon the ladies. Mrs. Rollmaus 



seized Use's arm, and cried out, terrified: "There is 
the fortune- teller herself, dear Use. I beg your ad- 
vice; shall I ask her? " 

The woman stepped cautiouslj- from behind the 
plants, placed herself in front of Use, and raised her 
handkerchief. Use rose and looked annoyed on the 
sharp features of the withered face. 

" The gipsy ! " she exclaimed, stepping back. 

" A tinkering woman ! " exclaimed Mrs. Rollmaus, 
displeased; "the secret knowledge of such as she is, 
is connected with poultry-stealing, and worse things. 
First they steal and conceal, and then tell where the 
stolen propert)' is." 

The stranger paid no attention to the attack of Mrs. 
Rollmaus. 

" You have hunted my people like the foxes in the 
wood; the frost has killed them; your watchmen have 
imprisoned them, and those that still live lie within 
walls, clinking their chains; I rove alone through the 
country. Do not think of what was done by the men 
that night, think only of what I predicted. Has it 
not come to pass ? You look on the stone house op- 
posite, and you see how slowly he comes along the 
gravel-path, to the room in which the naked boy 
hangs on the ceiling." 

Use's countenance changed. 

" I do not understand what you mean. Only one 
thing I see, that you are no stranger here." 

" Many years have my feet ghded through the 
snow," continued the gipsy, " since I passed through 
the doors of these black creatures." 

She pointed to the angels holding tulip wreaths. 

" Now disease has come upon me." 

She_ stretched out her hand: 

" Give to ihe sick woman of the high road, who 
once went on the same path that you are now tread- 
ing." 

The color rose in Use's cheeks; she gazed fixedl}' 
on the beggar wgman, and shook her head. 

" It is not money that I want from you," continued 
the gipsy. " Entreat the spirit of this house for me, 
if he should appear to you. I am weary, and seek 
rest for my head. Tell him that the strange woman 
on whom he hung this token," she pointed to her neck, 
"begs for his help." 

Use stood motionless; her cheeks glowed and her 
eyes flashed angrily on the woman. 

"What will you give to find your silver again ? " 
asked the beggar, in an altered tone, turning to Mrs. 
Rollmaus. 

"So you are the fortune-teller ? " said Mrs. Roll- 
maus, angrily, " and not a penny will I give you. 
Any one who examined your head would find a fine 
organism there. I have often heard such gibberish. 
Awa3' with you before the police come. One of your 



^82 



THE OPEN COURT. 



people prophesied to my head-maid that she would 
marry a landed proprietor, and I was obliged to dis- 
miss her, though she had been very useful. She 
began to attack even Rollmaus himself, although he 
only laughed at her. Go, we will have nothing to do 
with you." 

" Think of my request," cried the stranger to Use. 
" I shall return." 

The gipsy turned away and disappeared behind the 
house. 

" They are scamps," said Mrs. Rollmaus, deeply 
irritated. '• Believe nothing of what they say to you. 
This one talks worse nonsense than the others. I 
really believe, dear Use, you take to heart what this 
beggar woman has said." 

" She knows this house, she knew well what she 
says," said Use, faintly. 

" Naturally," exclaimed Mrs. Rollmaus; " they rove 
about and peep through all the crevices, they have a 
good memory for other people's business, but do not 
remember their own thievish tricks. I have a great 
suspicion of her as regards my soup-ladle. If this is 
the famous fortune-teller I am so disgusted as not to 
care to make any further inquiries. Ah! and you also, 
I see." 

'■'I know the woman," replied Use; " she belongs 
to the band who stole our children, and wounded the 
arm of my Felix. Now her uncanny figure comes be- 
fore me like a spirit, and her dark words excite horror 
in me. She threatens to return, and terror seizes me 
lest this woman should once more come upon me una- 
wares. I must away from here." 

Use hastened into the house, Mrs. Rollmaus fol- 
lowed her, and said, kindly: 

" If she comes again, she shall be sent away. The 
best way of dealing with these prognosticators is to 
imprison them with bread and water." 

Use stood in the sitting-room looking timidly 
about her. 

" He who hung the cross upon her was the master 
of this castle; and when she spoke those wild words 
to me at the gate of the farm yard, she did not mean 
my Felix." 

" She meant eight shillings, and nothing more," 
said Mrs. Rollmaus, consolingly. 

" How dare she compare my life with hers? How 
does she know whether the lord of this house attends 
to my words ?" 

Mrs. Rollmaus endeavored in vain to tranquilize 
her, by sensible observations upon the worthlessness 
of these female vagabonds. Use looked down, with 
her hands folded, and the consolatory speeches of her 
worthy friend were spoken in vain. 

Strange voices were heard in the house; Gabriel 
opened the door, and announced the Intendant. The 



old man entered the room officiously and begged to be 
excused for the interruption. 

" My most gracious master has commanded me to 
inquire whether a strolling woman has been begging 
here. She has slipped into the castle, obtained access 
to the Princess, and frightened her, just when her 
Highness was departing for the country. His High- 
ness wishes to warn you against the stranger — she is 
a dangerous person." 

"She was here," replied Use, "and talked wildly; 
she showed that she knew the house." 

The Intendant looked disturbed, as he continued: 

" A long time ago, her Highness, the deceased 
Princess, took compassion on a gipsy girl whose 
mother had died on the high road. She had the crea- 
ture instructed, and, as she was amusing, and seemed 
to promise well, she was at last taken into the castle 
and employed in^small services; but she has badly re- 
paid this generous treatment. At a time of heavy afflic- 
tion in the castle, this person fell back into the habits of 
her childhood; she took to stealing, and disappeared. 
To-day, one of the servants recognized the maiden in 
this strange woman. His Highness, the gracious 
Prince, who is ailing, was informed of this by his valet 
and was much excited by it. Search is being made 
through all the streets and roads for the stranger." 

The old man took leave. He looked gloomily after 
him; but she said with more composure to Mrs. Roll- 
maus: 

"This accounts for the language of the stroller, 
which sounded different to that of begging people in 
general, and it accounts for her wish to receive the 
pardon of the Prince." 

But now Mrs. Rollmaus in her turn became de- 
pressed and sad. 

"Ah, dear Use ! if the witch has really lived here 
among these distinguished people, she may know many 
things that have happened in this house; for people 
do not speak well of it,' and they say that in former 
times princely mistresses lived here. The house is not 
to blame, nor are we; it is only because the Heredit- 
ary Prince has gone to your father, and you knew him 
at the University, that people shake their heads at 
it ; it is idle gossip." 

"What gossip?" exclaimed Use, in a hoarse voice, 
seizing the hand of Mrs. Rollmaus. 

" They say that you are the cause of the Hereditary 
Prince coming into our country. We should all re- 
joice if you were to visit your father before you jour- 
ney, as was intended ; but I really believe, as long 
as the Prince is there, it would be better for you to 
remain here, or anywhere else. It is only for the sake 
of prudence," she continued, soothingly, "and you 
must not take it to heart." 

( To be continued.') 



THK OPEN COURT. 



Ill- 



BOOK REVIEWS. 
Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences. 

Vol. IV, (1882-84), Vol. V, part I (1884-89). Davenport, Iowa. 
Published by the Academy. 

Before coming to Davenport a few weeks ago we were una- 
ware of the value of its Mu^um. Having been asked by an ac- 
quaintance to visit the place we were fortunate enough to find in 
the venerable curator, Mr. W. H. Pratt, a friendly and enthusi- 
astic guide, who is ever willing to show and explain the collections 
under his care to interested visitors. In some departments the 
Davenport Museum of Natural Sciences is undoubtedly the richest 
west of Chicago; as to the number of mound builder's pipes, — 
among them the much disputed elephant pipes, — it takes first rank, 
having not less than sixty, while the next largest collection extant 
contains but forty. We cannot repeat here the interesting remarks 
of our Mentor concerning this collection and the noteworthy tab- 
lets but would refer students to the extensive and apparently 
thorough vindication of the same, prepared by the late Mr. C. E. 
Putnam, in the latter part of Vol. IV, of the proceedings. 

The collection of skulls, taken from mounds and from more 
recent burial places, is a study in itself. The entomological de- 
partment, the herbarium, and the great mass of archaeological 
relics would be attractive to any specialist, not to speak of other 
treasures hoarded together in that snug little building. There is a 
sort of scientific air about it, which makes itself especially felt in 
the library room ; it is just the place for lectures on scientific sub- 
jects to a select circle; and the student who may have leisure to go 
there in the morning or afternoon, will find the much needed quiet 
as well as the material for profitable study. The Academy ex- 
changes periodicals with many scientific institutions all over the 
world, and we find reports and proceedings in fourteen different 
languages, the contents of which will be easily accessible when the 
well advanced card-catalogue is finished. 

From what we have seen we conclude that geology, archaeol- 
ogy, and ornithology are favorite branches of study among the 
members of the Davenport Academy ; and a glance at thfi above 
named volumes of proceedings shows the two most extensive ar- 
ticles to be one on ancient pottery (illustrated) by Wm. H. Holmes 
in Vol. IV, and one on the birds of Iowa by Chas. R. Keyes 
and H. S. Williams in Vol. V. It is almost unnecessary to add 
that it will pay any scientist who happens to come to Davenport, 
to inspect the ' ' Academy of Sciences " on Brady street. 
The Limitations of Toleration. A Discussion between Col. 

Robert G. Ingersoll, Hon Frederic R. Coudert, Ex-Gov. 

Stewart L. Woodford. New York : The Truth Seeker Co. 

This discussion was held before the Nineteenth Century Club 
of New York, at the Metropolitan Opera House. It is now printed 
in pamphlet form from a stenographical report, and comprises 
forty-four pages. The remarks of the late Mr. Courtlandt Palmer, 
who presided at the meeting, are likewise included. The debate 
between these three gentlemen, for such it was, is well worth 
reading, and although from the colloquial form in which it is cast, 
it has not the literary charm that marks the written compositions 
of either of the eminent speakers, its dash and general inpromptu 
character afford a pleasing substitute. 

The Root of the Temperanee Problem — a lecture by J. H. 
Crocker, Madison, Wis. — is now circulated in pamphlet form. 
Mr. Crocker's remarks embrace a brief survey of the temperance 
problem. The writer advocates that there can be no genuine tem- 
perance reform apart from the general advance of society. " Sub- 
stantial progress must come, can only come, from that regenera- 
tion of man's nature which consists in that spiritual emancipation 
where reason and conscience prevail over appetite and which will 
be brought about by all those educational influences which add to 
Inner Life." 



Unh'ersalisin, U'hat it is and ll'hnt it is good for, is a prize essay 
by Rev. O. Cone, D. D., president of Buchtel College. It is an 
exposition of "the Christian doctrine known as universalism," 
which is now preached in " one thousand parishes," and taught in 
"four colleges" and "three Theological Seminaries." (Phila- 
delphia: Universalist Convention.) 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE ETHICAL MOVEMENT. 



PROF. ADLER. 

Anti Jewish Agitation in Germany 

Longfellow Memorial Address 

Creed and Deed, bound 

The Ethical Movement 

Sketches of Religion, based on Ethics, three lectures. 

Need of a New Moral Movement in Religion 

Extension of the Ethical Movement 

Atheism 



Conscience 

Four Types of Suffering 

Parents and Children 

Poem— City of the Light 

Reformed Judaism .... 

The Freedom of Public Worship 

When are we Justified in Leaving our Religit 

Henry Ward Beecher 

Punishment of Children 

Reforms Needed in the Pulpit 



WM. M. SALTER. 

The Ideal Element in Morality 05 

Success and Failure of Protestantism 10- 

The Social Ideal lo 

The Basis of the Ethical Movement 10 

The Future of the Family lo 

Why Unitarianism Does Not Satisfy Us 10 

The Problem of Poverty 10 

Objections to the Ethical Movement Considered .10 

Personal Morality, two lectures 10 

The Eight-Hour Movement 05 

Church Disestablishment in England and America 05 

Progressive Orthodoxy and Progressive Un 

The Duty of Liberals to their Children 

The Ethical Movement— Salter— Sheldon— Weston, three le 

Religion Der Moral 1. 10 

Moral Means of Solving the Labor Question 10 

Good Friday from an Ethical Standpoint 05 

Cure for .\narchy lo 

What Shall be Done with the Anarchists? 10 

Ethics for Young People 10 

Channing as a Social Reformer 10 

Christmas from an Ethical Standpoint 10 

S. B. WESTON. 

ETHICAL CULTURE, four lectures: 

1. The Need of an Ethical Religion 20- 

2. Why Christianity Does Not Satisfy Us 20 

3. The Success and Failure of Liberalism 20 

4. The Meaning of a Society for Ethical Culture 20 

Leisure Hours of Working People at the Neighborhood Guilds 03 

W. L. SHELDON. 

Ethics in the Sunday School 10 

Opening Addresses at St. Louis 10 

The Religious Education of Children 10 

Is Ethics Without Religion? 10 

What is an Ethical Society ? 05 

DR. STANTON COIT. 

Intellectual Honesty in the Pulpit 10 

Ethical Culture a Religion for the People 15 



Justice for the Friendless and the Poor— By JOSEPH W. ERRANT, beforo the 
Ethical Society. 



For above Publications address 

C. J. ERRANT, 

Publication Committee. 24 Beethoven Place, Chicago, III.. 



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CONTENTS 



THE UNIVERSAL FAITH. A Monistic, Positive, Hu- 
man, Constructive Religion. T. B. Wakeman 1583 

PERSONALITY, INDIVIDUALITY, AND CONSCIOUS- 
NESS. Th. Ribot. Translated from the French, by 



}'' 



1586 



AGNOSTICISM AND AUGUSTE COMTE'S POSITIV- 
ISM. Editor 1589 

PROF. HUXLEY'S CHURCH 1590 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

Extracts from our Correspondence Concerning the Sin- 
gle Tax Question 1590 

FICTION. 

The Lost Manuscript. (Continued.) Gustav Freytag. 1592 
POETRY. 

A Centennial Prayer. Louis Belrose, Jr. 

The Motto on our Coins. Louis Belrose, Jr. 



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Review of Recent Work of THE OPEN COURT. 

PSYCHOLOGY AND PHILOSOPHY. 

Sensation and The Outer World. ..A. Binet. . . .No. 83. 

Idealism and Realism. Editor No. 84. 

Dreams, Sleep and Consciousness. 

M. Binet, after having animadverted upon the impropriety of 
excluding metaphysical questions from the domain of science, pro- 
ceeds in the above-mentioned essay to discuss the interesting ques- 
tion of the relation between human sensation and its normal 
excitant, the external world. No resemblance is predicable, main- 
tains M. Binet, between the perceptions of consciousness and the 
bodies that exist beyond us. Doctrines enunciating such resem- 
blance, the author declares fallacious, and terms them " crude and 
naive realisms." This fallacy, however, is widely prevalent in 
science. Physicists and philosophers still hold that the definitive 
explanation of natural phenomena is a mechanical explanation, 
wherein the concepts of mass and force are the ultimate and fun- 
damental data. They fail to recognize, in this, the purely subjec- 
tive character of sensations. They translate, merely, sensations 
of one kind into sensations of another kind, which seem to us 
more precise ; thus, they explain the phenonenon of sound by the 
phenomenon of a vibration ; merely substituting, thereby, a visual 
sensation for an auditory sensation. This leads the author to 
discuss the supreme importance of the visual sense in the investi- 
gation of phenomena ; the possibility of a purely auricular science 
is held forth ; the author shows that the ear, by noting the qualities 
of sound, can solve miinerical problems. Thus, the progression of 
human knowledge is accompanied by a progresion of human capa- 
bilities. The future will transform our sciences ; it may transform 
our senses. 

Sensation and the phenomena of the external world, it is 
granted, are different. But does it follow that knowledge of ex- 
ternal objects is therefore impossible ? The electrical phenomenon 
traversing the wire of a telephone bears no resemblance to the 
spoken words thrown against the mouth-piece in the shape of air- 
waves ; no more so than does sensation the external object. Yet 
is communication by means of a telephone impossible ? At'e not 
the spoken words reproduced at the other end of the line in sub- 
stantially the form in which they were received ? Preservation of 
form is all that is necessary ; and this is possible even where there 
is no superficial resemblance. It is a contradiction to demand 
that knowledge should be other than it is. Cognition does not, 
and need woi, go beyond sensation. 

In Numbers 82 and 83 two interesting letters appear, discuss- 
ing questions raised by the articles of Dr. G. M. Gould upon 
Dreams, Sleep, and Consciousness — practical studies upon the 
psychology of consciousness. 



ETHICS AND SCIENCE. 

Ethical Evolution. Prof. E. D. Cope No. 82. 

The utilitarian theory of morals, says the distinguished author 
has found in the law of evolution a permanent substantiation. Yet 
does that doctrine embrace the whole truth, does it embody exclu- 
sively the law of human ethical progress ? Ethical conduct, it is 
true, is an outgrowth of natural mental constitution ; it differs 
among individuals, among families, among races ; physical neces- 
sities, and conditions of environment direct it. But the knowledge 
of right is an intellectual faculty. Ethical life expresses, further, 
the highest development of humanity. Accordingly, moral con- 
duct has various phrases of evolution ; the rational as well as the 
natural, the individual as well as the social ; to which correspond- 
ing motives of utility, egoism, and altruism belong. We find these 
motives interacting, each predominant in their respective spheres. 
The rational element has found its expression in generalization, in 
the formation by far seeing men of ethical codes ; the affectional 
element, the element of Love, has found its expression in beneficent 
altruism, wherein the filial relation to God forms an abiding motive 
to action. The faculty of reason and the sentiment of love ensure 
ethical perfection. 

Passions AND Manias. Felix L. Oswald, M.D. Nos. 81, 84. 
Interesting essays in moral physiology, abounding in citations 
from history and science in support of the positions taken. 



News About the Planets and the Moon. . . 



..No. 80. 



This constitutes a survey of the latest astronomical observa- 
tions. It includes a brief account of the canals on the surface of 
Mars, with their various attendant phenomena ; the rotation of 
Jupiter ; the temperature of the moon ; and the strange light-phe- 
nomena recently observed in the neighborhood of Saturn. 

SOCIOLOGY AND ECONOMICS. 

Henry George and Land Taxation. Wheel- 
barrow No. 73 

Corbespondence Upon the Doctrine of Henry 
George Nos. 79, 80, 82, 84. 

The criticisms by Wheelbarrow, touching the doctrines of 
Henry George, have evoked much comment and discussion. The 
main bulk of the correspondence relative to this question, remains 
still unpublished ; showing the wide-spread interest taken in the 
subject, and the undoubted popularity of Mr. George's theories. 
The main endeavor of our correspondents seems directed towards 
demonstrating Wheelbarrows ignorance and misunderstanding of 
the great economist's position. This Wheelbarrow seeks to refute 
in a letter in No. 82. 

HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL. 

The Dilemma of Double Allegiance. Gen. M. M. 

Trumbull No. 81. 

The article by Gen. Trumbull is opportune. Its tone and 
position is commendable. Amid the chauvinistic fanfaronade of 
demagogic statesmen and bellicose newspapers, evoked by petty 
irritations over Samoa coal-stations and bait for cod-fish, the 
thoughtful citizen of foreign birth must often feel the appalling 
meaning that the problem of double allegiance embodies. " What 
is the ethics of patriotism that must guide us in case of actual 
war ?" " The duty of men embarassed by the ties of double alle- 
giance," says Gen. Trumbull, " is to stand bravely by the republic 
whatever comes, but they ought to unite their moral and political 
influence to promote the settlement of all international disputes by 
peaceful arbitration." The question has excited much comment, 
from the press throughout the country. 



The Open Court 

A WEEKLY JOURNAL 

Devoted to the Work of Conciliating Religion AA^ith Science. 



No. 87. (Vol. 



CHICAGO, APRIL 25, 1889. 



( Two Dollars per Yeai 
'* Single Copies, iq cts. 



THE UNIVERSAL FAITH. 



A MONISTIC, POSITIVE, HUMAN, CONSTRUCTIVE RELIGION. 
BY T. B. WAKEMAN. 

In the remarkable discussion* between Frederick 
Harrison, the English Headcentre of the Comtists, 
and Prof. Thomas H. Huxley, the distinguished sci- 
entist, and the originator of the happy term " Agnos- 
tic," the most noteworthy passage is the following 
which we may call Prof. Huxley's Profession of Faith. 

" That a man should determine to devote himself to the ser- 
vice of humanity — including intellectual and moral self- culture 
under that name ; that this should be, in the proper sense of the 
word, his religion — is not only an intelligible, but, I think, a laud- 
able resolution. And I am greatly disposed to believe that it is 
the only religion which will prove itself to be unassailably accep- 
table as long as the human race endures." — Prof. Huxley. 

This frank and noble statement by the great Sci- 
entific Agnostic is indeed a jewel ; a prize, to be care- 
fully treasured up out of a discussion otherwise to be 
regretted, because tending to dissever and dissipate 
influences and efforts which might cooperate to realize 
that self-same religion. 

That this statement is true, and that it is the sub- 
stance of The Universal Faith which ought to influence 
intelligent people, has been for years the solid con- 
viction of a number of those who adhere to the Amer- 
ican Secular Union, who have been largely influenced 
by the works of Auguste Comte, and who are known 
as "Republican or American Positivists," but who 
have no connection with, and are in no wise recognized 
(except in their anathema) by the Comtist Papacy of 
which Pierre Lafitte (Peter the First) is grand Pontiff 
at Paris, and of which Dr. Richard Congreve and Mr. 
Frederick Harrison are the most distinguished Eng- 
lish Hierophants. 

One of the best known of this Republican School 
of Positive Religionists was Mr. Courtlandt Palmer, 
of New York, whose recent decease has been regarded 
not only b}' them, but by the liberal elements of our 
country generally, as an irreparable loss. The Open 
Court gave a friendly and appreciative recognition of 
the religious views of Mr. Palmer on the occasion of 
publishing (No. 71, Jan. 31, i88g) my address on 
that subject at the Memorial Meeting held in his honor 

* Reprinted in The Truth Scckt-r, and The Popular Science Mottthly, New- 
York City. 



by the Nineteenth Century Club, of New York, of 
which he was the founder and president. The State- 
ment of the Universal, Monistic, Republican Religion 
in that address excited an interest which has called 
for further exposition, and no text could be more 
timely than the precious words above quoted from the 
Father of the Agnostics ; a text, which we wish to re- 
peat, and to emphasize by a fair explication of some 
of its implications. 

The religion it describes as " devoted to the ser- 
^ vice of humanity," and " including" as its means " in- 
tellectual and moral self-culture," is the religion upon 
which, as it seems, all sensible people ought to agree 
as really true and good. Such general agreement 
added to its general complete and verifiable nature 
make'fe it at once synonymous with the general and 
universal faith or religion to be taught and practiced 
by man — in a word with the Positive and Monistic 
Religion of Science. 

Next, it is evident, and is admitted, that this relig- 
ion in order to include " intellectual self-culture," must 
rest Lipon that which is true, that is, upon Science, in- 
stead of notions which are unverifiable or unknowable 
to the intellect. In a word, this religion must, at its 
first step, satisfy the head hy its truth. 

Again, this religion, in order to " include moral 
self-culture," must rest upon morals and duty as dis- 
tinguished from police or forceful laws : that is, moral 
conduct sanctioned by the intentions, motives, and 
emotions. This religion must also, therefore, by its 
culture of the intentions and emotions satisfy, educate, 
and enoble the heart. 

Lastly, this religion is to determine its believers to 
devote themselves "to the service of humanit}'." We 
may spell the last word with a little h, when we con- 
sider the dark side of human nature, as the Professor 
does in the words about " apes " etc., which follow 
our text ; or we may spell it with a capital H, when 
we consider the good in Humanity as a basis of his- 
torical and social evolution, as Comte showed us how 
to do, as Mr. Harrison has done in his " Meaning of 
History," and as Herbert Spencer (our philosophic 
Balaam) has proved it the right thing to do, in his 
Sociology. 

What is the result? Why, we have " a religion " on 
■ hand again, with the same problems and very similar 



584 



THE OPEN COURT. 



solutions, that the terrible, " asphyxiating " Comte gave 
us when we began to study Positivism 30 years ago : 
The three H's and the three F's still confront us, viz.: 

The Head must have a true Philosophy. 

The Heart must have a satisfying Poesy. 

The Hand must have a beneficent Polity. 

All these Hs are to be reasonably devoted by " self- 
culture " to the service of humanity as the evolutional, 
social, and moral source, centre, test, aim, object, and 
joy of all. The clear head ; the loving heart ; and the 
helping hand : — Such seems to be the substance of the 
new religion by whomsoever stated, and under what- 
ever name. How, for instance, does this programme 
differ from that of the Agnostic Professor? Why may 
not all Scientists, Agnostics, Positivists, Secularists, 
Socialists, and Reformers and well-wishers of their 
kind agree in his statement of the new religion ? To 
so agree in- a frank, practical, and honest, instead of a 
personal and disputatious spirit would certainly be the 
first step of a great advance towards its realization. 

The next step would be to settle the three P's, so 
far at least, as to have a working base and method ; 
and in so doing, we would have that inquiry under an 
intellectual and moral guide, (inz., the service, that is, 
the good and glory of humanity,) the effect of which 
would almost of itself ensure, as to the result, a mighty 
power of agreement. For, under this scientific human 
test, the questions to be asked and answered are only 
two: I. Is it true? 2. Is it good? That is, does our 
subjective agree with the objective order ; our thoughts 
with things and their facts, laws, and processes. If so, 
do these, our ideas, notions, and feelings, care for and 
tend towards the good of the individual and the race? 

I. If we apply these tests to the first question : 
Which is the true Philosophy? ought the Scientific, and 
therefore the intelligent world, to differ much about 
the substantial answer? The scientific method of veri- 
fication stands firm. There is the Copernican Astron- 
omy with its improvements from Bruno and Galileo 
to the Lick telescope : there are the immensities of 
space and time, and within them the "phenomenal" 
changes which we sense and call "matter": these 
changes are found .to be correlates of each other, and 
the law of "the equivalence of forces" results. Each 
change is the centre of changes correlative in its envi- 
ronment and which extend by similar correlations in 
ever widening circles as we trace them, until they are 
lost in the infinite. Thus science leaves us only a 
Monistic world. 

These things being so, everj' other philosophy, ex- 
cept the correlative or scientific, is ousted. There is 
no crack or cranny left between the correlates (which 
are the " causes " of each other) in which a god, spook, 
or entity, or miracle of any kind can be found or in- 
serted. But the world, or universe, is conceivable only 



as infinite. There is, then, no place or room for cau- 
sative or creative beings, within, before, or outside of 
the world. " Miracles do not happen." It follows that 
all theological and metaphysical philosophies are ex- 
cluded by the simplest and most general facts and 
laws of science, and that a scientific classification of 
scientific knowledge is the only correlative', that is 
the only scientific, monistic, and positive philosophy 
possible. To achieve this philosoph)', which is the 
knowable explanation of our world, is the greatest 
triumph of our race. 

It is no answer to this conclusion to say, as Pro- 
fessor Huxley seems to do, that Comte tried to elabor- 
ate this philosophy, and that he did not know enough 
to do it well. To the great scientists who make this 
reproach the answer falls with crushing force : " It is 
your duty to supply, as speedily as possible, the de- 
fects of his time and his personal limitations, instead 
of tr}'ing to discredit the philosophy itself and the 
good work he may have done towards it." Even Mr. 
Spencer thought it well to borrow from Comte the 
fundamental words " sociology " and " altruism," and 
it does not appear that " synthetic " or " cosmic," is 
better than "positive" or "correlative" or " monistic" 
as a trade mark of the new unitary and scientific phi- 
losophy. The trouble with the Spencerian and Fiskian 
philosophy is that it is essentiallj' dualistic and meta- 
ph}'sical. Comte, insufficient, verbose, and crude as 
he may be, avoided their capital error : he no inhere 
breaks the back of the world. His ultimate is one, un- 
itary, correlative universe, of which the highest cor- 
relate, flower, and outcome, is ht/?nan love, the co- 
operative unitary power of the human race. Upon 
this one infinite world, in its two aspects: i. As ob- 
jective or the "Not I " to man ; and 2. As subjective 
or related to the " I," /. e., subservient to man, he 
founds the future of the human race. All science since 
his daj' has confirmed this position. As long as the ex- 
tent, unity, and grandeur of the mighty foundation he 
laid for the future activity of Humanity remains unrec- 
ognized, blaming his style and magnifying the defects 
of his ignorance and of his personality, can justly excite 
little more than contempt. Just as Kant, and all the 
thinkers between Hume and Comte, are to be under- 
stood, if at all, in relation to that great "sceptic," so 
Spencer and all of the scientists since Comte must 
have him and his work as their background to make 
any solid philosophical and moral sense of their works. 
For without some unity, some correlative outline, 
sustaining the true and good, they are only disjointed 
and incoherent chunks of intellectual and moral anarchy 
ending in " Administrative Nihilism," as Prof. Huxley 
has admirably proved in his essay under that title. 
Since the old divine and spook philosophies went out 
under the light of correlation, Spencer and the special 



1 HE OPEN COURT. 



•585 



scientists have done invaluable work, but its philosophic 
value seems to be that they have been (often uncon- 
sciously) useful commentators upon, and amenders of 
the unitar}' positive philosophy which Comte founded, 
and which still stands as . the base of the scientific 
philosophy upon which any religion satisfactory to the 
intellectual and moral nature of man must rest. This 
is so, because it first gave philosophic meaning to the 
four fundamental corner stones or conceptions of such 
a philosophy and its consequent religion, z'iz.: 

a) The relativity of human knowledge, and its con- 
sequent limitation to the correlative and phenomenal 
as the knowable. 

b) The classification of the sciences, reaching from 
the distant homogeneous nebulae through the domains 
of astronomy, physics, chemistrj^, biolog}', sociology, 
and ethics to individual psychology and morals. 

c) The evolution of human history and civilization, 
revealing a progressive order through fetichism, sa- 
beanism (astrolatry), polytheism, monotheism, panthe- 
ism, to positive monism, with consequent humanism, 
social and moral. 

d) The conception of humanity as a great social or- 
ganic being, acting in continuity (as above stated, in 
history) and in solidarity under international law and 
politics, and so ideally and practically becoming a 
criterion and test of political and moral action to man- 
kind. 

e) The superstructure upon these corner stones can 
be none other than the new religion, the Monistic 
Universal Faith ; the Religion of Science, and Hu- 
manity. 

After years of consideration of the attacks of " Spen- 
cer and Co." upon these corner stones the verdict must 
be in the words of Mill and Bain in regard to their at- 
tacks upon his Classification of the Sciences, that they 
"have made out no case." Since Comte's day the 
great laws of correlation and evolution have made 
these corner stones immovable. Is it not time for the 
second thought of this generation to' end all envious 
or idle criticisms, and to begin the practical work of 
constructing, teaching, and living the new religion? 

2. If so, we are called to pass from the Philosophy 
to the Poesy or Art of the new Faith, that is, its satis- 
faction of the emotional nature of man. Under the 
test questions, 'What is true. What is good,' in this 
domain, the answers agree generally, that the objects 
of art are the culture, enjoyment, and education of 
our heart or emotional nature. All agree further as 
to the prime importance of this culture, for "out of 
the heart are the issues of life": the ideal is the per- 
manent, the temporal and transitory only the symbol, 
as Goethe tells us in closing Fatcst, and in so many 
other beautiful ways and places. "The imagination, 
says he, "is indeed a grand faculty, but I like it not 



when it plays with facts." That is, the scientific, ob- 
jective truth must be inviolable. The true in art is 
the ideally true. The imagination " bodies forth things 
all compact" and makes hy iis poesy (n-o;eu) an ideal 
world for the culture, enoblement, and pleasure of 
man. By music he flies to a higher life ! Here we 
have the method by which falsehood, and theosophic 
and metaphysical fog are ousted out of art, and the 
whole range of its creative powers is enobled by the 
resultant good and joy and glory of man. 

Thus, for instance, the grand expansion of our 
cosmic emotions in natural poetry, in landscape-paint- 
ing and gardening, by which the feelings lead the in- 
tellect in annexing the Cosmos to Man, is but the 
heart's reading and prophesy of the new monistic and 
natural philosophy on its aesthetic side. 

A similar expansion of art in. the human and his- 
torical world attends the extension of the theory of 
the evolution of civilization as we have it scientized in 
Kant, Herder, Condorcet, Comte, Guizot, and Spencer. 

This new cosmic and human feeling, which is the 
predecessor of the new religion, is so manifestly' tri- 
umphing in architecture, sculpture, poetry, painting 
and music, that the new life, the free human life it 
creates, is demanding a newer and a better polity by 
ever renewing political agitations, if not revolutions. 

3. We are thus brought to the third, the practical 
and social domain which the new religion will grad- 
ually transform. What will be the Polity of the fu- 
ture? is the question. Unless we are to stumble on 
blindly, we are to take such answer as historical and 
social evolution indicates. The Germanic, Anglo-Saxon, 
American peoples, and their advanced philosophers 
and leaders, believe that the future indicated is the 
Federative Commonwealth, resting upon cooperative 
democracies enjoying "home rule," of which the Swiss 
and American Republics are, so far, our best proto- 
types, but far enough from perfect. 

Comte, on the contrary, following the traditions of 
the Latin races and his own catholic and loyal descent, 
and influenced largely by De Maistre's powerful book 
on ' The Pope,' took it for granted at the beginning of 
his elaboration that its outcome must be a grand re- 
vival of the Papacy with science as its creed, a Pope 
of the civilized world at Paris, and a temporal power 
divided into countries so small that they could never, 
like the Princes of the Middle Ages, make any practi- 
cal resistance to the Pontiff, the Lord of the hearts 
and minds of his race, and therefore of their lot and 
fate. 

We have pointed out that the laws of correlation and 
evolution have in substance confirmed the philosophy 
and poesy that Comte founded ; would that the truth 
could be admitted with equal frankness that those laws 
have vetoed for ever the/(';7« of the Positive Polity that 



•586 



THE OPEN COURT 



Comte proposed. In a word this papal business in all 
its letter, spirit, and purpose is wholly wrong : that is, 
it is wrung or twisted out of the true course of human 
evolution. It is an anachronism, a fossil made to or- 
der. Very like the attempt of the Mormons to re-es- 
tablish the patriarchal polity in Utah is this attempt 
to recall and reform the Hierarchal Papacy of the Mid- 
dle Ages. This Mormon illustration of Prof. Huxley, 
original with him, is an old one with us, but none the 
less true and instructive. We cannot go over the case 
at length. Had Comte been of German, English, or 
American parentage and education his papal polit}? 
would never have been dreamt of. As Mill has pointed 
out in his review of Comte, this polity is reached by 
defying evolution. It ignores the political meaning of 
Protestantism and the consequent revival of the tem- 
poral powers, with attendant mental, emotional, and 
religious liberty, — clearly indicating, as theology and 
metaphysics decline more and more, the rise of the 
"Federation of Mankind and the Parliament of the 
World." Comte's ■polity w&s p;'e/iisto?-ically defeated 
by the victory of Hermann over the Romans, of Luther 
over the Pope, of Elizabeth over the Armada, and of 
Wolfe over Montcalm, at Quebec. The sceptre has 
forever passed from the Latin races and their imperial 
and papal politics, to the peoples themselves, who are 
organizing as cooperative, social, democratic, repre- 
sentative republics the world over. The best thing 
the Latin nations of Europe can do is to fall into the 
republican line, as their Latin descendants in Central 
and South America have done, and as France is trying 
to do. That all clearly indicates that the separation 
of the temporal and spiritual powers of which Comte 
writes so approvingly will evolve as a fact — a fact not 
at all possible under any form of Papacy, which is, and 
must from its nature ever be, an incubus upon all 
minds and hearts. The law and the aspirations of 
mankind are towards universal, mental, and emotional 
liberty. This can only result from the limiting of gov- 
ernment to "home rule" in temporal affairs, admin- 
istered by democracies, and yet federated so as to 
form an invincible republic. 

The early Christians by their " kingdom not of this 
world," did for a time sever the two powers and free 
the heart and soul of man from the Roman temporal 
empire, but soon Constantine gave them over to the 
papal empire which, still worse, crushed the very 
brains and hearts of men. The law of evolution points 
not back to either of these oppressors, but forward to 
the " Federated Republic " of the civilized peoples, 
■whose glory it will be to secure the greatest possible 
freedom of mind and heart and body, and at the same 
time the most extended and useful administration of 
human affairs. 

All this neither Comte nor his disciples have ever 



been able to see. He awarded to the United States a 
position in history, merely " colonial," and had no 
evolutionar}^ conception of what the modern world 
had been about in politics since the Middle Ages. His 
influence has, therefore, been ;/// or retrograde. Hope 
there has been that Frederick Harrison would turn the 
Comtist faces to the future, and not permit evolution 
to force them into the ideal heaven unwillingly and 
with their backs to the light ; but the conversion (turn- 
about) has, it seems, yet to be made. The first duty 
they owe to their great master is to reverse his great 
evolutional error. It is that error with its spirit and 
concomitants, which defeats their good objects, and 
makes their whole movement disgusting not only to 
Mr. Spencer and Prof. Huxley but to thousands, who 
would otherwise gladly aid them the world over. 
When the Republic takes the place of their Papacy 
in their programme, they will be the great benefactors 
of humanity. Until then they can only play, under evo- 
lution, the part of Charles Lamb's antiquated friend 
who never could " keep abreast with his age, but was 
nevertheless dragged along in the procession." 

In the meantime, as James Parton, our biographer 
of Voltaire, told the Ninteenth Century Club, in his 
lecture on The Coming Man's Religion, "the proper 
and practical religion of a citizen of the United States 
is, in the first instance, The United States of America." 
For us the new religion takes hold right there. Through 
their republics the people will regulate, administer, and 
protect, but without an organization of the new religion, 
how can they acquire the motive, " the intellectual and 
moral self -culture," to perform those functions wisely? 

That question we leave to The Open Court, as an 
exponent of the New Faith, to answer, if it can or will. 



PERSONALITY— INDIVIDUALITY— CONSCIOUSNESS. 

BY TH. RIBOT. 
Translated from the French by yvXv* 

It is above all necessary to explain what in psy- 
chological language is understood by the term " per- 
son." Person, is the individual clearly conscious of 
itself, and acting accordingly ; it is the highest form of 
individualit}'. Metaphysical psychology exclusively re- 
serves this characteristic for man ; but while attempt- 
ing to explain the same, it merely supposes an ego 
that is a complete unity, simple and identical. This, 
however, is the mere semblance of a definite solu- 
tion of the problem. Unless we attribute to this ego 
a supernatural origin, it will be necessary to explain, 
how it is born, and from what lower form it proceeds. 

Experimental psychology does not propose the 
problem in the same manner, or treat it according to 
the same methods. Experimental psychology learns 
from natural scientists that in many instances it is 

* Les Maladies de la personnaliti. Paris, FtSlis Aican. 



< 



THE OPEN COURT. 



1587 



difficult to determine the characteristics of individual- 
ity, even of those creatures that are by far less com- 
plex than those of persons. Hence it mistrusts any 
purely simple solution, and, far from regarding the 
question as settled, as it were, at the first onset, at the 
close of its researches, views the very problem itself 
as rather the result of long and laborious investiga- 
tions. Therefore, it is but natural that the representa- 
tives of the old school, after once having lost their true 
bearings, should groundlessly accuse the adepts of the 
new school of actually purloining their ego. But on 
either side both language and methods have now be- 
come so different , that all mutual understanding 
henceforth will be impossible. 

It will be necessary, even at the risk of increasing 
the already extant confusion, to investigate what 
teratical, morbid, or simply rare cases can teach us 
concerning the formation and disorganization of per- 
sonalitj-, yet without assuming to treat the subject in 
its totalit}'. 

Personality, being the highest form of psychic in- 
dividuality, there spontaneously arises another pre- 
liminary question : what is individual? 

In answer to this much debated question it is here 
sufficient to observe, that careful physiological investi- 
gations prove that the psj'chic individual is the expres- 
sion of an organism ; in conformity with the latter, it is 
either low, simple, incoherent, or complex and unified. 
Descending the whole series of animated beings, we see 
how the psychic individual is always formed through 
the more or less complete fusion of more simple indi- 
viduals. "A colonial consciousness" is created through 
the cooperation of local consciousnesses. The dis- 
coveries of modern naturalists, in this respect are of 
the utmost importance to psychology, because they 
completely transform the problem of personality. The 
latter henceforth must be studied from below — from 
the lowest step of the ladder. 

Thus we are prompted to ask, whether the human 
person itself is not also, tin tout de coalition — a whole 
by coalition, the extreme complexity of which veils 
from us its origin, and whose origin would remain im- 
penetrable, if the existence of elementary forms did not 
throw a certain light upon the mechanism of this fus- 
ion. In fact, the human personality is an aggregated 
whole, a complex. In order to know it, we must analize 
it ; but the analysis here is fatally artificial, because 
it disjoins groups of phenomena, which do not merely 
stand in juxtaposition, but are really coordinate, their 
relation being not of simple simultaneousness, but of 
reciprocal dependance. And yet, this work of analysis 
is altogether indispensable and we must severally un- 
dertake to investigate the organic, emotional, and intel- 
lectual conditions of personality, at the same time lay- 
ing due stress on occurring anomalies and disorders. 



Before entering upon the exposition and inter- 
pretation of facts, we must clearly understand the 
nature of consciousness. We are here confronted by 
two hypotheses, to wit : the old hypothesis, which re- 
gards consciousness as the basic property of soul, as 
the essence of spirit ; and the modern hypothesis, that 
regards consciousness as a phenomenon, superadded 
to the cerebral activity ; as an event, having its own 
conditions of existence, appearing or disappearing, 
and at the mercy of circumstances. The old hy- 
pothesis, at all times, was radically unable to explain 
the unconscious life of spirit. For a long while it even 
entirely overlooked the problem, yet later was com- 
pelled to admit so-called " unconscious states," al- 
though they were but an ambiguous, half-contradictory 
expedient. 

The modern hypothesis is simpler, clearer, more 
consistent. It expresses the unconscious in physiolog- 
ical terms, as states of the nervous system, and not in 
ps}'chological terms, as latent ideas, or non-felt sensa- 
tions. Yet this is only one side of the hypothesis at 
issue. 

Like all general terms, consciousness must be 
resolved into concrete data. There does not exist will 
in general, but volitions, and in a like manner there is 
no consciousness in general, but only states of con- 
sciousness. The latter are the reality. 

It would be idle to define consciousness as : "the 
fact of being conscious," for this is merely a. datum of 
observation, a final fact. Physiology teaches that its 
production is always associated with some activity of the 
nervous system, particularly of the brain. The reverse, 
however, does not take place. All psychic activity cer- 
tainly implies nervous activity, still, all nervous activity 
does by no means imply psychic activity — nervous 
activity being far more extended than ps5'chic ac- 
tivity. Consciousness, accordingly, is something su- 
peradded. 

In other terms, we have to bear in mind, that every 
state of consciousness is a Qomplex event, conditioned 
by a particular state of the nervous system. This ner- 
vous process is not an accessory but an essential part 
of the event, and, moreover, is its basis and funda- 
mental condition. As soon as produced, the event 
exists /;/ itself; as soon as consciousness is added to it, 
the event exists by itself. Consciousness completes and 
perfects the event, but does not constitute the same. 

This hypothesis easily explains how all manifesta- 
tions of psychic life, sensations, desires, feelings, vo- 
litions, memories, reasonings, inventions, etc., may al- 
ternately be conscious and unconscious. There is noth- 
ing mysterious in these alternations, since in all cases 
the essential conditions, /. e., the physiological condi- 
tions, ever remain the same, and consciousness is but a 
perfectionment. 



XHE OPEN COURT. 



Yet, why is this perfectionment sometimes super- 
added, and at other times lacking? 

If in the physiological phenomenon itself there was 
not something more when consciousness is present 
than when it is absent, we should indirectly adjudge 
victory to the adverse hypothesis. Could it be proved 
that every time certain physiological conditions exist, 
consciousness will appear; that whenever they disap- 
pear, the former disappears ; and whenever they vary, 
also consciousness varies — this would no longer be an 
hypothesis, but actually a scientific truth. We are 
still very far from this point. 

At all events, we may be sure that consciousness 
itself will not furnish these revelations. As Maudsley 
justly observes, consciousness at the same moment 
cannot be effect and cause, — cannot be itself and its 
molecular antecedents. It lives but for a moment, and 
cannot through a direct intuition return backward as 
far as its own immediate physiological antecedents; 
and moreover, to go back to its material antecedents, 
would be to lay hold of, not itself, but its own cause. 

At the present moment it would be chimerical to 
attempt even a broad determination of the necessary 
and Sufficient conditions of the apparition of con- 
sciousness. We know, indeed, that the cerebral cir- 
culation, in the double relation of the quantity and 
quality of the blood, is a matter of great importance. 
A striking proof of this is furnished by experiments, 
performed upon the heads of recently beheaded ani- 
mals. Psychometric researches demonstrate every day 
that the state of consciousness the more it is complex, 
requires proportionately a greater length of time, and 
on the contrary, that automatic acts — whether prim- 
itive or acquired and the rapidity of which is ex- 
treme — do not enter into consciousness. We may, 
moreover, admit that the apparition of consciousness 
is attached to the period of disassimilation of the ner- 
vous tissue, as Herzen distinctly has shown.* All 
these results, however, are only partial conquests ; but, 
the scientific knowledge of the genesis of a phenom- 
enon supposes the determination of all its essential 
conditions. 

The imminent future, perhaps, will furnish these. 
In the meantime, in order to corroborate our hypoth- 
esis, it will be more profitable to prove, that it alone 
explains, not purely a condition, but the principal char- 
acter of consciousness, — its ititermission. In order 
from the outset to avoid all equivocation, I may ob- 
serve that here it is not the question of the discontin- 
uity of the states of consciousness among themselves. 
Each state of consciousness has its limits which, while 
allowing it to associate with the others, at the same 
time will protect their respective individualities. Here 



vuc FItilosophiquc, Vol. VII, p. 35; 
Rome, 1879. 



nd La Cot:dizioi,c /is. 



it is not the question of this, but simply of the well- 
known fact that consciousness has its interruptions, 
or as is said in, popular parlance : " Man does not al- 
ways think." It is true that this assertion has been 
contradicted by the majority of metaphysicians. As 
a matter of fact they never have furnished any proof 
for the support of their thesis, and as all appearances 
are against it, the onus probandi would legitimately 
seem to be incumbent on the former. Their whole 
argumentation reduces itself to maintaining that since 
soul is essentially thinking, it is impossible that con- 
sciousness should not exist on any degree whatever, 
even when there remains no trace of it in the memory. 
But this is simply begging the question, since the hy- 
pothesis maintained by us contests precisely their ma- 
jor premise. Their alleged proof is definitively but a 
deduction drawn from a contested hypothesis. Leaving 
aside all « /r/i^r/ solutions let us examine the question 
in itself. Let us leave aside the cases of syncope, pro- 
voke.d anaesthesia, epileptic vertigo, coma, etc., and 
abide by what is more common, more frequent, to wit : 
the psychic state during sleep. 

One has maintained that there is no sleep without 
dreams ; but this is a purely theoretic assertion, and a 
consequence of the above-mentioned principle, that 
the soul always thinks. The sole argument of fact that 
they can plead, is to the effect, that sometimes the 
sleeper, addressed or questioned, may answer in a suf- 
ficiently pertinent manner, and at his waking will have 
no recollection of the matter. Still, this fact alone 
does not justify any general conclusion and to the 
theory of the metaphysicians physiology opposes an- 
other. Physiology lays stress on the fact that the life 
of every organ comprises two periods : the one of rel- 
ative rest or assimilation, the other of activity or dis- 
assimilation ; that the brain makes no exception to 
this law and that experience shows, how the duration 
of sleep at different times and in the different circum- 
stances of life stands in direct ratio to the craving of 
assimilation. The cause is the necessity of repairing 
the losses sustained ; of making nutritive circulation 
follow upon functional circulation. During the state 
of being awake the brain consumes more of materials 
than the blood furnishes, so that oxidation soon di- 
minishes and along with it the excitability of the ner- 
vous tissue. The experiments of Preyer prove that 
sleep then will overtake the subject, when through 
prolongated activity the substance of the brain, like 
that of a fatigued muscle, is encumbered with a quan- 
tity of acid waste material {detritus). Even the pres- 
ence of these products at a given moment will stop the 
cerebral activity, and the latter does not reappear be- 
fore rest has allowed the complete elimination of these 
waste products. It must be admitted, that complete, 
absolute sleep, without dreams, is the exception ; but 



THE OPEN COURT. 



1589 



that it actually occurs, and not unfrequently, suffices to 
establish the intermittent character of consciousness. 

The last point to be examined is the theory that 
regards consciousness as a phenomenon. The theory 
is the offspring of the following basic principle in phy- 
siology : " Reflex-action is a t3'pe of nervous and the ba- 
sisof allps^'chic activity." Those who regard conscious- 
ness as a phenomenon, have sometimes defended their 
theory in a form that has caused them to be called the 
theorists of pure automatism. They love to compare 
their " conscious phenomenon " to the flying sparks 
from a steam-engine, lighting it up for an instant, but 
having no effect upon its speed. This may sound well 
enough purely as a metaphor, but would be an exag- 
gerated and inexact view of the real efficacy of con- 
sciousness. 

Even from the exclusive point of view of the 
survival of the fittest, the apparition of conscious- 
ness upon earth constitutes a fact of the greatest magni- 
tude. Through consciousness experience which is an 
adaptation of a higher order, became possible. But we 
have not now to investigate its origin. Very inge- 
nuous and clever hypotheses have been advanced on 
this subject, which all belong to the domain of meta- 
physics, and which experimental psychology refrains 
from discussing, while simply accepting consciousness 
as a datum. 

It is highly' probable that consciousness has been 
produced, like every other vital manifestation, at first 
only in a rudimentary form and apparently without 
great efficiency. But as soon as it left behind a ves- 
tige, to constitute in the animal a memory for the psy- 
chic sense, to store up its past for the profit of its 
future, from that moment, undoubtedly, a new chance 
of survival was effected. 

To the unconscious adaptation, blind, incidental, 
dependent on circumstances, there was superadded a 
conscious adaptation, dependent upon the animal it- 
self, more certain and more rapid than the former ; and 
in reality this conscious adaptation has shortened the 
work of selection. Such has been the part played 
by consciousness in the development of the psychic life. 



AGNOSTICISM AND AUGUSTE COMTE'S POSITIVISM. 

The positive philosophy of Auguste Comte has 
been most severel}' attacked in England by those who 
should have hailed the French thinker as their best 
ally and co-worker, by Mr. J. S. Mill, Mr. Herbert 
Spencer and Professor Huxley. And yet all three are 
inspired, like Mr. Comte, with an arduous and holy 
zeal to free the human mind from traditional dogma- 
tism ; all three have devoted their lives to establish a 
new philosophy of radical free thought. But what is 
stranger still, all three, especially Mr. Spencer and 
Prof. Huxley, are entangled in the very same error as 



their great French predecessor. They all together be- 
lieve in the unknowability of absolute existence, of 
the unconditioned, of that which lies beyond phenom- 
ena, and thus failed in their aspirations to present a 
philosophy of positive science. They did not succeed 
in liberating us from mysticism. They all are Ag- 
nostics. 

M. Comte observes* that there are three phases of 
intellectual evolution, for the individual as well as for 
the mass : the Theological (or Supernatural), the Meta- 
physical and the Positive. 

In the theological phase the mind explains phe- 
nomena in a mythological way as the productions of 
supernatural agents. In the metaphysical phase the 
supernatural agents are set aside for abstract forces 
and entities. In the positive phase the mind, convinced 
of the futility of all enquiry into causes and essences, 
restricts itself to the observation and classification of 
phenomena, and to the discovery of the invariable re- 
lations of succession and similitude which things bear 
to each other : in a word, to the discovery of the laws 
of phenomena. "The metaphysician," M. Comte says, 
"believes he can penetrate into the causes and es- 
sences of the phenomena around him, while the posi- 
tivist recognizes his incompetency and limits his ef- 
forts to the ascertainment of the laws which regulate 
the succession of these phenomena." 

Between the second and third phase, according to 
M. Comte's definition, there is no other essential dif- 
ference than the " conviction of the futility of all en- 
quiry into causes and essences." And this conviction 
is the main doctrine of agnosticism. M. Comte ac- 
cordingly was truly an agnostic before Prof. Huxley 
invented the term, and before Mr. Spencer wrote his 
First Principles. All the difference between M. Comte 
on the one hand and agnostic thinkers on the other 
are of secondary importance. They are like sectarian 
divergencies among denominations of the same creed. 

We consider as M. August Comte's greatest merit 
— aside from his ardent enthusiasm for truth in phi- 
losophic enquiry, and for reform in our state of soci- 
ety — the invention of the term "positive" which is 
a very expressive word. But we do not understand 
by " positive," as does M. Comte, any limitation of 
the human mind. We understand by " positive " the 
monistic view of a unitary conception of the world. 

Positivism, as we should express ourselves, recog- 
nizes that the so-called phenomena are positive facts, 
that there are neither causes nor essences behind them, 
that Absolute Existence or the Unconditioned, or the 
Metaphisical (or by whatever name the Unknowable 
may be called) are chimerical nonentities, self-contra- 
dictory conceptions, and impossibilities. 

* Compare "Comte's Philosophy of the Sciences," by G. H. Lewes, pp. 



I590 



THE OPEN COURT. 



By experience only man becomes familiar with the 
facts of existence. The facts of existence are no phe- 
nomenal sham; they are real, and knowledge means 
the systematical arrangement of experiences. 

M. Comte erroneously considered Kant as the rep- 
resentative metaphysical philosopher. In truth it was 
Kant who struck the first vigorous blow at the errors 
of ontology and the belief in absolute existence, while 
M. Comte was still as deep entangled in metaphysicism 
as are his English rivals and opponents, the partisans 
of agnosticism. 

We are little helped if we are told that we can 
never know anything about the causes and essences of 
things and that the Unconditioned is an inaccessible 
province which we should not attempt to enter. This 
view which is so excellently and adequately called 
agnosticism, appears from our conception of positivism, 
as a transition from the metaphysical to a truly posi- 
tive phase. It is the last remnant of dualism. In 
the philosophical conception of agnosticism, the meta- 
physical essences have faded into vague unknowabil- 
ities and will disappear entirely as soon as the idea of 
absolute existence is recognized as untenable ground — 
as soon as philosophy is conceived as a unitary con- 
ception of the facts of reality. p. c. 



PROF. HUXLEY'S CHURCH. 

Mr. Wakeman has referred to Prof. Huxley's Pro- 
fession of Faith ; as to the kind of church appropriate 
to that faith, the Professor has left us in no doubt, as 
will be seen from the following passage from his cele- 
brated article on "Administrative Nihilism " : 

"Again, I suppose, it is universally agreed that it would be use- 
less and absurd for the State to attempt to promote friendship and 
sympathy between man and man directly. But I see no reason 
why, if it be otherwise expedient, the State may not do some- 
thing toward that end indirectly. For example, I can conceive 
the existence of an established church which should be a blessing 
to the community — a church in which, week by 'week, services 
should be devoted, not to the elevation of abstract propositions in 
theology, but to the setting before men's minds of an ideal of true, 
just and pure living ; a place in which those who are weary of the 
burden of daily cares, should find a moment's rest in the contem- 
plation of the higher life which is possible for all, though attained 
by so few ; a place in which the man of strife and of business 
should have time to think how small, after all, are the rewards he 
covets compared with peace and charity, pepend upon it, if such 
a church existed, no one would seek to disestablish it." 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

EXTRACTS FROM OUR CORRESPONDENCE CONCERN- 
ING THE SINGLE TAX QUESTION. 

J. G. Galloway, Dayton, Ohio. 

"It is not proposed nor inferred by Mr. George to take the 
whole income of a man's farm who works for his own living. But 
that part of the income which Tom Clark's children may be able 
to extort from the children of other men, as rent for the privilege 
of living on the earth." 



A. H. Sawyer, Billings, Montana. 

" I should like to ask ' Wheelbarrow ' one question and one 
question only with respect to his article in The Open Court of 
March. 21. Should a cyclone strike Tom Clark's farm and entirely 
destroy the results of Tom Clark's labor even to the turning of the 
wild sod back in the furrow, and Tom Clark's farm or rather farm 
site should still retain a value, who or what has produced that 
value ? that being the value which single tax men call land value.' " 

John Mills, New York. 

"Tom Clark will be taxed upon the value of outlying con- 
tiguous land ; and this you say is one dollar and a quarter the acre. 
This is just what Tom will be required to pay taxes on ; no matter 
how many barns, houses, fences, and the like he may put up. If, 
however, a saw-mill is started near by, and this is followed by a 
wood working factory, and soon a branch railroad comes swooping 
down upon him erecting a depot, followed by schoolhouses and a 
town hall, additional manufactories and enterprises leading up to 
an extensive population until outlying contiguous land is worth 
one thousand dollars per acre or more, then Tom will be required 
to pay taxes upon this increased valuation. If this be too great a 
tax for profitable farming Mr. Clark can sell his property for a 
sum that will abundantly remunerate him for all his outlay of 
labor and capital. Cleared from superfluous verbosity this is all 
there is to land value taxation." 

John S. Watters, New Orleans, La. 

" Land is that great necessity without which men cannot exist. 
The land trust is the unspoken, unwritten, perhaps unconscious, 
but nevertheless effective combination among the owners of land, 
to demand from users the last cent they possess for the privilege 
of using it. Private, exclusive, individual possession of land is es- 
sential. So is private possession of a portion of the atmosphere 
essential. In winter men heat a portion of the atmosphere in their 
houses. Possession must be guaranteed ; but who would think it 
possible for a man to own air ? " 

W. E. Brokaw, Bristol, Dakota. 

" Let me give him a little maxim as a touch-stone, which he 
can easily verify, but which he cannot refute, viz. : Land values 
rise or fall in proportion to the increase or decrease of population. 
Where land is monopolized the value rises or falls in proportion to 
the expectation of increase or decrease of population. This latter 
is mere speculative value. If ' those who have invested their cap- 
ital in land, ' are ' entitled to be protected in their possession ' be- 
cause of such investment, then the purchaser of a stolen horse is 
entitled to a similar protection. If not, why not ? " 

J. G. Malcolm. 

"On the George principle of taxation a manlike Mr. Clark 
living on a farm having no value except the improvements upon 
it would have no ta.\es to pay. At present such men have to pay 
local taxes, and tariff taxes, and are burdened with taxes every 
time they turn around. Under George's plan, if his land had not 
increased in value, only to the extent of the improvements upon it, 
he would not be taxed more than on the purchase price, S200. 
This at five per cent, would only be $10 a year. Mr. Clark 
probably pays ten times that now every year in tariff taxes alone." 

T. W. WiTTLER, Chicago. 

"Now we single taxers desire to encourage such improve- 
ments, and therefore when we apply Mr. George's doctrine of 
taxation to Tom Clark's farm, we exempt those $300 (this being 
the value of the improvements) from all taxation. Therefore all 
the taxes Tom Clark would pay if the single tax were in force 
would be on the $200 which represent the value of the farm be- 
fore any improvements had been put upon it. His portion of taxes 
under the single tax system would be (basing my figures on the 



THE OPEN COURT. 



1591 



present rate of interest) SS a year. But what would Tom Clark 
gain by the change ? Let us see ; remember all taxes outside of 
the single tax would be abolished." 
W. H. Van Ornum. 

' ' The value of the land must still be determined by what it would 
be worth were it swept clear of all improvements. In other words, 
the improvements being made by Thomas Clark belong to him and 
are not considered in determining the value of the land, that equal 
right of all is satisfied by allowing Thomas Clark to retain his pos- 
session and use, on payment into the public treasury of as much 
as any one of the people would give for such use. But if Thomas 
Clark cannot afford to pay as much as some one else — cannot put 
it to as good a use, he simply sells his improvements to the new 
occupant and goes elsewhere. The rights of Thomas Clark are 
protected and respected, and the rights of the community are sat- 
isfied." 
Wm. C. Wood, M. D., Gloversville, N. Y, 

"Does not location, /. t?. , nearness to schoolhouse, factory, 
mill, railroad station, market, post office, and church make a dif- 
ference in the value of a farm ? Does the erection of buildings 
and fences, the planting of orchards and the digging of wells as 
well as other improvements add to the value of that farm ? It both 
questions are answered as they must be in the afifirmative I have 
jet another. Is not the first value described, a value that arises 
external to and separate from the owner of the farm as an indi- 
vidual, and which he helps create only as a single item of the sum 
total which makes up the community ? Is not the second value, 
however, an individual creation, the result of the application of 
his labor, skill, and intelligence to the land ? The first value, the 
single tax would levy upon, the second it would not touch." 
Michael Corcoran, Lincoln, Neb. 

' ' ' Wheelbarrow ' is right. Henry George has clearly prom- 
ised the millennium to his disciples. It was only the other day 
that a few young men were discussing the ' Panacea' in a very 
animated manner. One fine young fellow, a friend of mine, seemed 
wounded to the heart because I said that Henry George made such 
ridiculous claims for his pet tax. In point of fact I compared 
Henry George's claims to a column and a half of all the ills that 

flesh is heir to, with ' Pills' above and 'Cures 'em all. Sure,' 

below. A somewhat less sweeping measure, and a somewhat 
smaller claim for such measure would have more appearance of 
common sense, than a book full of poetry and intenseness ; in fact, 
a book which is simply one long peroration, with the introduction 
and the argument promised for some future occasion." 
Theodore P. Perkins, Lynn, Mass. 

" Land value in city and country alike is made by the landed 
and the landless alike in proportions impossible to determine. 
That is why ' land owners,' so-called, have no right to take money 
for it from other men. That is why all the money, men are willing 
to pay for the use of land, apart from improvements, should go 
into the public treasury to pay public expenses. As to the aboli- 
tion of poverty, that is a side-issue. The land reform rests on 
simple justice, like the other anti-slavery movement. We claim, 
however, that the chief cause of poverty is legalized robbery, and 
that the legalized robbery which results from private ownership of 
land is the most disastrous. We claim that the free conditions 
resulting from the abolition of our iniquitous taxes and the col- 
lection of land-rent by the community will have a very strong ten- 
dency to make poverty needless and disgraceful." 
C. J. BuELL, Minneapolis, Minn. 

"How would it have been with Tom under the single tax ? 
He would have been at liberty to take up any piece of government 
land he chose, regardless of the amount, without paying anything 
per acre. He moved on and went to work, no taxes to pay what- 
ever. The first year he broke up sixty-five acres, for he had sev- 



enty-five dollars more to pay for breaking, as he didn't have to 
pay that for his land. He raised a bigger crop and made a larger 
profit. Then he built a better house and barn and put up better 
fences for he had more means to do it with. The next year he had 
his entire tract under cultivation, and raised a good crop which 
found a ready sale at a good price. In exchange he obtained much 
valuable machinery, furniture, food, clothing, and other things 
that he and his family needed. He has not yet been visited by the 
tax assessor and may not be for some years to come. Why not ? 
For the simple reason that he has nothing which the assessor un- 
der the single tax has any right to levy a tax upon." 

"P." Chicago, III. 

"In fact, while looking so intently at the little quarter section 
of land owned by Clark, Wheelbarrow utterly failed to notice the 
hundreds of unimproved quarter sections owned by speculators 
and lying, some of them quite near to Clark. Now, I suppose that 
adjoining Clark's quarter section there was or still is an entire sec- 
tion of land that is held by a resident of some eastern city simply 
as a speculation. Meanwhile farmers continue to move westward. 
Why ? Is it because there is not enough good land at home ? Oh, 
no ! There are in Tom Clark's own county a few thousand untilled 
acres of as fine soil as ever yielded to the plow. Why is it not 
cultivated ? Because it is controlled by speculators who expect to 
become wealthy without bestowing honest toil upon it. If Wheel- 
barrow objects to a tax on farm labor, let him consider the tax 
that is daily and hourly levied on the farm laborer in the shape of 
an exorbitant price on farm lands. Wheelbarrow is a good prac- 
tical joker, but a poor thinker on economic subjects. He should 
confine himself strictly to handling his one wheeled vehicle." 

From a Farmer, (Charles M ) Mill Green, Md. 

"Although, as C. A. Green rightly says, land in the east can 
be bought for about what it cost to clear it, yet I will admit that 
all land is originally worth something. But it is true, even if single 
tax men cannot see it, that there are improvements that become so 
incorporated with the original value of land that it cannot be sepa- 
rated. Attention ! This is the keystone to my objection. Most 
other objections are small, being only natural conservatism. I will 
try to make my meaning plain to my city friends by an illustra- 
tion. A man buys a sloping and rocky town lot. He removes rocks 
and transports dirt, making a first-class building-site worth double 
its original value. Years pass, the single tax becomes a law. This 
man is taxed full rental value because it is then simply impossible 
to estimate its original value. AH this is simplicity itself com- 
pared with what goes on at the farm. We have stumps, stones, 
and, worst of all, rocks in abundance which also cost in 'abun- 
dance' to be removed. If your correspondents express the 
'George Theory,' it is a great deal worse than I thought. 
Friends of the single tax had better stop explaining. Mr. McGill 
puts the matter very smoothly, sympathizing with farmers, and he 
says, ' Working farmers like Tom Clark would be benefited.' Beg 
pardon, but I cannot see it. Farmers would have to pay nearly all 
the tax, for it cannot be truly denied that farmers own most all the 
best land, and considering its original value, one acre of it is worth, 
on the average, nearly as much as one acre of city land ; for man's 
gregarious habits made the city land worth so much, and Mr. Mc- 
Gill strongly protests against taxing this. Then remove the pro- 
tective tariff, making more direct taxation. Verily, would not 
farming be driven to the wall ? Statistics say that farmers wages 
average eighty-two cents a day ; do you want to lower them ? If 
you show no mercy, none shall be shown you. This is natural 
law. Yet, if given time, this state of things would right itself, but 
single tax men would, if they could, force it on us all at once : for 
witness read back numbers of the 'Twentieth Century.' Ift the 
light of these remarks, is it not significant that nearly all single 
tax men are from the large cities ? " 



1592 



THE OPEN COURT. 



THE LOST MANUSCRIPT.* 

BY GUSTAV FREYTAG. 

CHAPTER jrXA'/F.— Continued. 
Use stood silent and motionless; Mrs. Rollmaus 
continuing her comforting words, but Use scarcely 
seemed conscious of them. 

It is not safe, Use, to teach young princes to use 
agricultural machines, and to fight duels ; the tuition 
fee will be paid you doubly, and in new coin, as is the 
custom of the courts. 

There was a long and uneasy silence in the room. 
Use looked wildly about ; then she took a cane chair, 
and placed herself opposite to Mrs. Rollmaus, and her 
fingers flew over her work. " Do not let us talk any 
more of such calumnies," she said. "What is your 
son Karl doing? are you satisfied with his progress? 
and how does he get on with the pianoforte? It would 
be a good thing for him to understand something about 
music." 

Mrs. Rollmaus recovered her spirits talking over 
the dances that her son Karl played ; she chattered on, 
and Use listened silently, counting over the stitches 
in her colored wool-work. 

The Professor returned, and shortly after the car- 
riage drove up. Mrs. Rollmaus disappeared into the 
next room to pack up her cap in the band-box, and 
then took an eloquent leave of her dear friend, the 
Professor. Her last words to Use were : 

" It may be long before we meet again ; preserve 
your friendship for me even though I am far from you." 
" What is the meaning of these solemn words of 
parting our neighbor has spoken ?" asked the Pro- 
fessor, astonished. 

"They mean that we are in a house, to be within 
the walls of which fills an honest woman with horror 
and dread," answered Use, with flashing eyes; " and 
they mean that I wish to go away from here, and that 
it is time for you to take away your wife from unwhole- 
some surroundings." 

She told him breathlessly what Mrs. Rollmaus had 
related, and what the beggar-woman had suggested. 

" I am ensnared, Felix," she exclaimed, " by my 
own fault, I am sorry to say. God knows that in my 
conduct towards the young Prince I had no thought 
of bringing your wife into disrepute, but I have been 
imprudent, and I am suffering for it horribly, horribly ! 
Now I understand the forebodings which have tor- 
mented me for weeks past. If you love me take me 
away quickly from here, the ground burns beneath my 
feet." 

A sharp pang seized the Professor as he saw his 
wife struggling with agony, bitter enough to stun the 
strongest soul of woman, and to crush the noblest 
powers for years. 

* Translation copyrighted. 



"It is as repugnant and humiliating to me as to 
you to look openly upon wickedness. I am ready to 
do all that I can to deliver you from this trouble. Let 
us calmly consider how this can be done. You can- 
not, in such a state of passionate feeling, decide what 
would be good for you, for your judgment is not un- 
biased enough to choose your own course. To what 
old house that a tenant rents or a landlord opens, do 
not painful recollections attach? Even he who lives 
a simple life in a strange neighborhood, cannot escape 
the attacks of idle gossip. Turn away your thoughts 
from that common woman. It would not become 
either you or me to depart like fugatives on her ac- 
count. What have we done, Use, to lose our self-re- 
spect ? There is only one wise method of dealing 
with the evil work of foolish and perverse accidents, 
to go forward firmly and to care little for it. Then 
the dissonance will pass away and perish of itself in 
the noise of daily life. Those who allow themselves 
to be disturbed by it, increase it by their own sorrow. 
Suppose that we were suddenly to leave this house, 
you would carry away with you the feeling of having 
left like one who had been conquered, and you would 
be incessantly pursued by the consciousness of a dis- 
cordant murmur behind us which would not be si- 
lenced." 

" You speak coldly and wisely," exclaimed Use, 
deeply incensed ; " in spite of what you say, though, 
you little feel the injury your wife suffers." 

" If you now had the self-possession for which I 
always admired you, you would not allow such unjust 
complaints to pass your lips," replied her husband, 
gloomily. " You must know that if I saw you in dan- 
ger, I would this very hour take you away. Must I 
now waste words with you to tell you that. But even 
against the gossip of the weak, this residence is the 
best defense, for the Prince is away and you remain 
behind with your husband." 

" I know the cause of this indifference," murmured 
Use. 

" You know what binds me here," exclaimed the 
Professor, " and if you were to me what you ought to 
be, the sharer of my hopes, and if you had the same 
feeling for the value of the treasure which I seek, you 
would, like me, feel that I should not needlessly turn 
away. Bear with this residence, dear Use, however 
irksome it may appear to you," he continued encour- 
agingly, " the longest period is past. I am invited to 
pursue my quest in the country-chateau of the Prin- 
cess ; there I anticipate that I shall find what will set 
us free." 

" Do not go," exclaimed Use, approaching him ; 
" do not leave me in this dreadful insecurity, in a ter- 
ror that makes me shudder at myself and every strange 
sound that I hear in these rooms." 



XHE OPEN COURT. 



159: 



"Terror," exclaimed the Professor, displeased, 
" terror of spirits. Rarely is life among strangers so 
easy and comfortable as this residence is to us ; there 
may be discord everywhere, and it is our own fault if 
we allow it to master us." 

" Do not go," cried Use again. "Yes, there are 
spirits that pursue me, they hang day and night above 
my head. Do not go, Felix," she exclaimed, raising 
her hand ; "it is not the manuscript alone that allures 
you, but the woman who awaits you there. This I have 
known ever since the first day we came to this town. 
I see how the magic of her superficial soul ensnares 
you. I have, until to-day struggled against this fear, 
from the confidence I had in my loved husband. If 
you go now, Felix, when I would like to cling to j'ou, 
when I seek every moment for comfort from your 
voice, I shall begin to doubt you and to have the fear- 
ful thought that my trouble is indifferent to you, be- 
cause you have become cold to me." 

" What are j'ou thinking of. Use ?" cried the scholar, 
horrified ; "is it my wife that speaks thus ? when have 
I ever concealed my feelings from you ? and can you 
not read in my soul as in an open book ? Then, was 
it this that lay so heavy on your mind? Just what I 
should not have considered possible," he said, frankly 
and sorrowfully. 

" No, no," cried Use, beside herself; "I am unjust, 
I know it ; do not attend to my words. I trust you ; I 
cling to you. Oh ! Felix, I should be driven to de- 
spair if this support breaks under me." 

She threw her arms around his neck, and sobbed. 
Her husband embraced her, and tears came into his 
eyes at the grief of his wife. 

" Remain with me, my Felix," continued Use, 
weeping. " Do not leave me alone just now. I have 
still a childish, simple heart. Have patience with me. 
I have been ill at ease here ; I do not know why. I 
cling to 3-ou, and I tremble lest you should be alienated 
from me. I know that you are mine, and I struggle 
with the fearful foreboding that I shall lose you here. 
When you go out of the house, it seems to me as if I 
must take an eternal farewell, and when you return, I 
look doubtfully at you, as if you had changed towards 
me in a few hours. I am unhappy, Felix, and unhap- 
piness makes one distrustful. I have become weak 
and faint-hearted, and I am afraid of telling you, be- 
cause I fear that you will on that account have less 
respect for me. Remain here, my beloved ; do not go 
to the Princess — at least, not to-morrow." 

" If not to-morrow," he said, cheerfully, " then the 
next day, or some other day. I cannot forego this 
short journey. To give it up would be a wrong that 
we must not take upon ourselves. The longer I delay. 
Use, the longer you will be kept within these walls. 



Even from your point of view, is it not prudent to do 
quickly what would make us free?" 

Use released herself from his embrace. 

" You speak sensibly at a moment when I had 
hoped for a far different tone from your heart," she 
said quietly. " I know, Felix, that you do not wish to 
give me pain, and I hope that you are true in what 
you now say, and conceal nothing from me. But I 
feel in the depths of my heart a long-accustomed pang 
that has often come over me in sorrowful days since I 
have known you. You think differently from what I 
do, and you feel differently in many things. The in- 
dividual and his sufferings signify little to you in com- 
parison to the great thoughts that you carry about 
with you. You stand on a height, in a clear atmo- 
sphere, and have no sympathy with the anguish and 
trouble in the valley at your feet.- Clear is the air, but 
cold, and a chill seizes me, when I see it." 

" It is the nature of a man," said the Professor, 
more deeply moved by the restrained grief of his wife 
than by her loud complaints. 

" No," answered Use, gazing fixedly before her, 
" it is only the nature of a scholar." 

In the night, when the scholar' had been long 
sleeping, his wife rose by his side and gazed, in the 
subdued light, on the countenance of her loved hus- 
band. She got up, and held the night-lamp so that 
the yellow light fell on his peaceful countenance, and 
large tears dropped from her e}'es on his head. Then 
she placed herself before him, wringing her hands, and 
striving to restrain the weeping and convulsions which 
shook her body. 

CHAPTER XXXV. . 

IN THE princess's TOWER. 

When the Princess, at the urgent desire of her 
father, had returned to her home, the illustrious fam- 
ily whose name she now bore made it a condition, not 
only that she should pass some months of the year at 
the residence of her deceased husband, but that she 
should have a special establishment arranged for her 
in her father's capital. A compact to this effect was 
concluded, the object of which was undoubtedly to 
secure to the young Princess a certain degree of in- 
dependence. In order to fulfil the agreement in ap- 
pearance, a princely castle in the country was assigned 
to the Princess for a dwelling, as there was no suitable 
building in the capital. The castle was half a day's 
journey from the cit}', at the foot of a wood}' hill, sur- 
rounded by fields and villages — a pleasant summer 
residence. The Princess had already spent some of 
the months of her mourning there. 

It was a warm day on which the Professor set off 
to go to the castle. The air had not yet become cool 
after the storm of the night. There were fleeting 



1594 



XHK OPEN COURT. 



shadows and bright sunshine on the sky and earth ; 
the thick clouds sometimes cast a grey covering over 
the straight road along which the learned man passed ; 
but then again it lay before him like a golden path, 
leading to the longed-for goal. 

Thus did dazzling light and dark shadows flit 
through the soul of our .scholar. " The manuscript 
will be found ; it is concealed from us," he said to 
himself, and his brow became clouded. " If it should 
not be found, many will read with astonishment how 
deceptive appearances were, how near the possibility. 
Many will with regret resign the hope which the words 
of the monk had inspired, yet none will feel this regret 
so much as I shall. A thought which has for years 
occupied my fancy, and directed my eyes to one ob- 
ject, has gained the mastery over me. The free mind 
of man plays with the thousand impressions of ancient 
and modern times : he restrains their power by the 
balance of his reason and strength of his will. But 
with me a small image of the faded characters of an 
old book has penetrated so deeply into my soul that 
the hope of obtaining it makes the blood course through 
my veins, and the f6ar of losing it paralyzes my ener- 
gies. I know that my eagerness is too great ; it has 
hardened me against the childish anguish of my wife, 
and I myself have not become stronger since I have 
trodden the uncertain path of the poacher. Every 
one should be on his guard lest his dreams should di- 
minish the sovereignty of his mind. Even the dreams 
of the best hours, when a soul innocently devotes it- 
self to a great feeling, may turn a man away from the 
straight path of duty, that lies nearest to him." 

A golden light broke over his countenance. " But 
if it is found ! It is only a small portion of our knowl- 
edge of ancient times that lies concealed in it. And 
yet it is just this discovery that would pour a flood of 
light upon a landscape hovering in twilight, and sev- 
eral decades of ancient life would become visible to 
our eyes with as distinct an outline as if they lay in a 
nearer past. The discovery would solve a hundred 
doubts, and excite a thousand new ones. Every later 
generation would rejoice in the great gain, and would 
seek, with revived energy, for new disclosures. Even 
for her, who at the castle shares so warm-heartedly in 
my anxieties, I wish the pleasure of this discovery. 
To her also it would be forever a great remembrance, 
that she had taken a kindly interest in the first labors 
of the searcher." 

Higher rose the mountains and more brilliant be- 
came the coloring of their masses. The line of hills in 
the foreground stood forth from the misty distance ; 
blue glimpses of the valley were visible through the 
openings of the dark wood. The carriage rolled 
through a well-preserved forest ; a thick growth of 
firs and pines shut out the prospect for a time ; when 



the road led again into the open country, through 
grassy meadows and groups of trees, the castle lay 
straight before the eyes of the scholar. A massive, 
old-fashioned tower crowned with pinnacles rose out 
of a low wood ; the afternoon sun shone above, its 
rays forming long streaks in the vaporous atmosphere. 
The brown walls stood out in the lonely landscape, 
like the last pillar of a gigantic ruined castle ; only by 
the fresh-looking stone muUions of the well-fitted 
windows did one perceive that it was a habitable 
abode. Adjoining the tower rose the small chateau, 
with steeply-sloped roof and pointed windows ; in its 
moderate dimensions it formed a strange, contrast to 
its massive companion ; but in spite of the dispropor- 
tion of the parts the whole formed a stately relic of 
the middle ages. One could well see that its walls 
had afforded shelter and defense to many genera- 
tions. 

The tendrils of the wild vine twined up to the roof 
of the house and round the windows of the tower, 
which rose in seven stories, supported by strong but- 
tresses. Thyme and grass grew above in the crevices 
of the crumbling stone, but the grass which a few 
days ago had covered the ground had been pulled up 
and the court and doors festively adorned for the new 
occupants. Banks of flowers and plants in pots were 
placed around in profusion. There was only one cor- 
ner in which the hasty work had not been finished, 
and the remains of mossy green on the ground, and a 
swarm of blackbirds that fluttered round the tower, 
showed that the building had stood uninhabited in a 
lonely country. 

The Professor sprang from the carriage, the Mar- 
shal greeted him from the balustrade, and led him into 
the unpretentious guest-chamber. Shortly after he 
conducted him through a vaulted passage of the cas- 
tle to the tower. The Princess, who had just returned 
from' a wall, was standing, with her summer hat in her 
hand, at the entrance of the tower 

"Welcome to my Solitude," she said ; "happy be 
the hour in which this old mansion opens its doors to 
you. Here you stand at the entrance of my realm. I 
have made myself at home in almost every part of the 
tower; it is our female fortress. When these solid oak 
doors are closed we ladies can found an Amazonian 
kingdom, and without danger fire fir-cones upon the 
whole male world, for this is the fruit that flourishes 
best here. Come, Mr. Werner, I will take you to the 
place where your thoughts linger more willingly than 
with children of the present." 

A winding stone staircase connected the stories of 
the tower, each of which contained rooms and closets ; 
the highest was a loft. The Princess pointed mys- 
teriously to the staircase. 

{ To be continued.') 



THK OPEN COURT. 



A CENTENNIAL PRAYER. 

BY LOUIS BELROSE, JR. 

O THOU, beneath whose valiant hand 
The conquest spreads from land to land, 
'Till earth's extremest ends record 
Thy victory and own thee lord ; 
Thou in whose image gods were fair, 
To thee, O man, I raise my prayer ! 

A hundred years of eager toil 
Has turned our wheels and tilled our soil 
Since, faithful to their proud decree. 
Our fathers made us one and free. 
And now we bid the world behold 
Our wealth increased a hundred fold. 

May memory of the sterner days 
When virtue took the place and praise. 
Make clear the truth that wealth, apart. 
But swells the purse to shrink the heart ; 
And leave us like our fathers, strong 
To love the right and hate the wrong. 

While science with her dawning light 
Makes dim the guiding star of night. 
And baffled by the break of day 
Bewildered millions seek the way, 
O keep us on the course begun, 
And haste the rising of the sun ! 

Build us an altar, rock on rock, 
Whose time-defying strength shall mock 
The winds and floods of doubt, 'till all 
Have spent their weary force and fall : 
An altar where the true may bring 
The true heart's wealth in offering. 

Beneath a single flag unite 

The scattered bands that waste their might 

Against the leagued hosts of vice. 

In unavailing sacrifice : 

" And, cast in some " more human " mould. 

Let the new cycle shame the old ! "* 



THE MOTTO ON OUR COINS. 

BY LOUIS BELROSE, Jr. 
\e by whose iiijlucnce the Motto, " In God we Trust," was j 
coins of the United States. 

Is there no shame that thus ye dare disgrace 
The fleeting winter of a poor old god ? 
That thus ye filch his venerable name 
To deck your idol and to cover o'er 
Your bestial rites with stale hypocrisy ? 
Or has the die, less brazen than yourselves, 
Altered your motto, and refused to stamp 
" The God we Trust " upon the yielding gold ? 

And yet are days not distant when the thought 
Of him ye now blaspheme had made you quake 
And half forget your plotting in your fear. 
But oh, how dimly burns thy smouldering hell ! 
Poor shadow of a great divinity. 
Where is the terror of the mighty hand 



^ John G. Whittii 



' Centennial Hyn 



Whose infant strength could strangle Hercules, 
And shake the lofty throne of thundering Jove ? 
Didst thou not bend before thy holy sign 
The rabble hordes and yoke their fiery lust ? 
Did not thy vicar reign upon the earth 
Above the kings ? and make them fear thy wrath 
More than the wrath of all their enemies ? 
Were not thy altars laden with the deeds 
Of fairest virtue and of foulest crime. 
While men in every act, or great, or small. 
Besought thy help, thy sanction, or thy grace ? 
Yea, and though all thy ancestors were dead. 
Did they not give thee immortality ? 

Alas ! O god, how time has mocked and marred 
And wasted thee ! that what is vile should dare 
To prostitute thy name, and what is best 
Should blush to see the years upon thy brow. 
And like a worn jade turn thee out to die 
In the lean pastures of the Incognoscible. 

How sad a thing it is that when a god 
Grows old, as all have done and ever must. 
He cannot leave the government of earth 
In younger hands, and quietly retire 
To some secluded region, far away 
From all the strife and tumult of the world. 
Thus would the many weaknesses of age 
Go unremarked, and thus his waning days 
Be peaceful, and his memory remain 
Forever cherished in the hearts of men. 
But no ; when once his prime is reached and passed. 
And each new year brings new infirmities, 
His priests begin to tremble lest the herds 
They govern in his name should lift their eyes 
And mark the dotage of their deity. 
The fear that made them valiant in his youth 
To work his will is then gone out of them, 
And they who served him, then would make his age 
The servant of their dear ascendancy. 

At first a little fard is judged enough 
To hide time's ravage from the vulgar gaze. 
But when the faltering step and sightless eye 
Foretell the dissolution that must end 
Their bloated reign, oh, then begins a farce 
To make the heart of honor bleed with shame. 
Haggard and wan, but tricked for public show 
In hues fantastic like a mountebank. 
The god is tortured, and when all his shape 
In palsied antics writhes, the priests cry out 
" Behold the wondrous power of the Lord ! " 
And many who would worship but have eyes. 
Seeing these things, forget the glorious past 
To scoff, and mock their long credulity. 
And so till all have left him but the blind 
And those who lead the blind — and then he dies. 
Versailles, 1873. 

NOTES. 

Sympathizer's rejoinder to Wheelbarrow's answer will appear 
in No. 88 of The Open Court. 

Mr. Louis Belrose, Jr., of Washington, is a follower of 
Auguste Comte in his first period. The two poems published in 
this number may be considered as a poetical expression of his 
philosophy. We beg to differ from him concerning the idea of 
God and have attempted to conceive it on the basis of positive fact=. 



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CONTENTS 



MAKING BREAD CHEAP. A Rejoinder to Wheelbarrow 

on Making Bread Dear. By Symp.^.thizer 1595 

DREAMS AND VISIONS. Felix L. Oswald, M. D 1597 

SPACE AND TIME. Editor 1600 

NOTES 1603 



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Review of Recent Work of THE OPEN COURT. 

PSYCHOLOGY AND PHILOSOPHY. 

Sensation and The Outer World. ..A. Binet. . . .No. 83. 

Idealism and Realism. Editor No. 84. 

Dreams, Sleep and Consciousness. 

M. Binet, after having animadverted upon the impropriety of 
excluding metaphysical questions from the domain of science, pro- 
ceeds in the above-mentioned essay to discuss the interesting ques- 
tion of the relation between human sensation and its normal 
excitant, the external world. No resemblance is predicable, main- 
tains M. Binet, between the perceptions of consciousness and the 
bodies that exist beyond us. Doctrines enunciating such resem- 
blance, the author declares faUacious, and terms them " crude and 
naive realisms." This fallacy, however, is widely prevalent in 
science Physicists and philosophers still hold that the definitive 
explanation of natural phenomena is a mechanical explanation, 
wherein the concepts of mass and force are the ultimate and fun- 
damental data. They fail to recognize, in this, the purely subjec- 
tive character of sensations. They translate, merely, sensations 
of one kind into sensations of another kind, which seem to us 
more precise ; thus they explain the phenonenon of sound by the 
phenomenon of a vibration ; merely substituting, thereby, a visual 
sensation for an auditory sensation. This leads the author to 
discuss the supreme importance of the visual sense in the investi- 
gation of phenomena ; the possibility of a purely auricular science 
is held forth ; the author shows that the ear, by noting the qualities 
of sound, can solve numerical problems. Thus, the progression of 
human knowledge is accompanied by a progresion of human capa- 
bilities. The future will transform our sciences ; it may transform 
our senses. 

Sensation and the phenomena of the external world, it is 
granted, are different. But does it follow that knowledge of ex- 
ternal objects is therefore impossible ? The electrical phenomenon 
traversing the wire of a telephone bears no resemblance to the 
spoken words thrown against the mouth-piece in the shape of air- 
waves ; no more so than does sensation the external object. Yet 
is communication by means of a telephone impossible ? Are not 
the spoken words reproduced at the other end of the line in sub- 
stantially the form in which they were received ? Preservation of 
form is all that is necessary ; and this is possible even where there 
is no superficial resemblance. It is a contradiction to demand 
that knowledge should be other than it is. Cognition does not, 
and tieed not, go beyond sensation. 

In Numbers 82 and 83 two interesting letters appear, discuss- 
ing questions raised by the articles of Dr. G. M. Gould upon 
Dreams, Sleep, and Consciousness — practical studies upon the 
psychology of consciousness. 



ETHICS AND SCIENCE. 

Ethical Evolution. Prof. E. D. Cope No. 82. 

The utilitarian theory of morals, says the distinguished author 
has found in the law of evolution a permanent substantiation. Yet 
does that doctrine embrace the whole truth, does it embody exclu- 
sively the law of human ethical progress ? Ethical conduct, it is 
true, is an outgrowth of natural mental constitution ; it differs 
among individuals, among families, among races ; physical neces- 
sities, and conditions of environment direct it. But the knowledge 
of right is an intellectual faculty. Ethical life expresses, further, 
the highest development of humanity. Accordingly, moral con- 
duct has various phrases of evolution : the rational as well as the 
natural, the individual as well as the social ; to which correspond- 
ing motives of utility, egoism, and altruism belong. We find these 
motives interacting, each predominant in their respective spheres. 
The rational element has found its expression in generalization, in 
the formation by far seeing men of ethical codes ; the affectional 
element, the element of Love, has found its expression in beneficent 
altruism, wherein the filial relation to God forms an abiding motive 
to action. The faculty of reason and the sentiment of love ensure 
ethical perfection. 

Passions AND Manias. Felix L. Oswald, M.D. Nos. 81, 84. 
Interesting essays in moral physiology, abounding in citations 
from history and science in support of the positions taken. 

News About the Planets and the Moon No. 80. 

This constitutes a survey of the latest astronomical observa- 
tions. It includes a brief account of the canals on the surface of 
Mars, with their various attendant phenomena ; the rotation of 
Jupiter ; the temperature of the moon ; and the strange light-phe- 
nomena recently observed in the neighborhood of Saturn. 

SOCIOLOGY AND ECONOMICS. 

Henry George and Land Taxation. Wheel- 
barrow No. 73 

Corbespondence Upon the Doctrine of Henry 
George Nos. 79, 80, 82, 84. 

The criticisms by Wheelbarrow, touching the doctrines of 
Henry George, have evoked much comment and discussion. The 
main bulk of the correspondence relative to this question, remains 
still unpublished ; showing the wide-spread interest taken in the 
subject, and the undoubted popularity of Mr. George's theories. 
The main endeavor of our correspondents seems directed towards 
demonstrating Wheelbarrows ignorance and misunderstanding of 
the great economist's position. This Wheelbarrow seeks to refute 
in a letter in No. 82. 

HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL. 

The Dilemma of Double Allegiance. Gen. M. M. 

Trumbull No. 81. 

The article by Gen. Trumbull is opportune. Its tone and 
position is commendable. Amid the chauvinistic fanfaronade of 
demagogic statesmen and bellicose newspapers, evoked by petty 
irritations over Samoa coal-stations and bait for cod-fish, the 
thoughtful citizen of foreign birth must often feel the appalling 
meaning that the problem of double allegiance embodies. " What 
is the ethics of patriotism that must guide us in case of actual 
war ?" " The duty of men embarassed by the ties of double alle- 
giance," says Gen. Trumbull, " is to stand bravely by the republic 
whatever comes, but they ought to unite their mora! and political 
influence to promote the settlement of all international disputes by 
peaceful arbitration." The question has excited much comment 
from the press throughout the country. 



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MAKING BREAD CHEAP. 



A REJOINDER TO WHEELBARROW ON MAKING BREAD DEAR. 
BV SYMPATHIZER. 

Wheelbarrow complains in his last essay about 
the small inheritance of wealth or reward which he 
receives from the increased productivity of society as 
a whole. He demands higher wages. 

Space will not permit any thorough consideration 
of Wheelbarrow's complaint, but, adopting his com- 
parisons and figures, may not the following suggestions 
go part-way towards explaining the small share which 
comes to him, as an individual ? He has supposed, 
and seems to approve as reasonable, a certain relative 
value in industries. Thus wheelbarrows as a class, he 
says, are entitled to one part in the industrial product, 
jackplanes two parts, the plough four parts, etc. Now 
he supposes that in twenty years the product of them 
all has doubled. Shall the farmer's part now be eight, 
the jackplane's four, and the wheelbarrow's still only 
one? 

Accepting his formula, may it not be true that 
wheelbarrows, as a group, taken altogether, ifi> get 
their portion doubled, as jackplanes as a whole receive 
their double portion? If this be true, then the division 
of the share coming to these groups would become 
equitably divided among the units composing them. 
If, therefore, the units composing the wheelbarrow 
group increased in a faster ratio than the units com- 
posing the jackplane group, the share to the units in 
the wheelbarrow group would be relatively less than 
would fall to the units or individuals composing the 
jackplane group. If all men were wheelers, there would 
be no productivity. Neither must the wheelbarrow 
wing of the great industrial army be too large. So- 
ciety can afford to that group, as a division, only a cer- 
tain share. 

' In fact, I believe and statistics seem to prove, that 
the comparative increase seems to favor the lowest 
class of workers. The unskilled laborer could in for- 
mer ages scarcely earn his daily bread and in rare 
cases only provide himself with a home and have a 
family. He is comparatively best paid in a highly civ- 
ilized society. Any increase of industrial productivity 
will benefit all classes, but the least skilled do com- 
paratively profit most of all. 

The individuals composing a group or division, 



if their share of the allotment be too small, must jojn 
some other division, and no motive can be more ef- 
fective than the desire to gain a larger individual share 
of the total industrial product. This is, however, only 
a suggestion. The question is a large one. It deserves 
serious and continued study. 

It is a hopeful sign that modern thought is becom- 
ing engaged with it. Let us hope- that through the in- 
telligence displayed in Wheelbarrow, and the growing 
intellectual power evident on every side among work- 
ingmen, the great questions of our social economics 
will find at last a just and final solution. 

But let us confine our attention to the main point 
of our discussion which is the "crime of making bread 
dear." 

It is somewhat anomalous that one who has never 
owned a bushel of wheat, nor more than one barrel of 
flour at any one time, should find himself defending 
speculation in bread-stuffs. But as the probability is 
that " Wheelbarrow " is in about the same case, we 
both have the advantage of looking at the subject from 
a comparatively disinterested standpoint ; and I think 
we both desire to find the truth. 

His review of my criticism is keen and searching ; 
but if I may say so, it appears to be a little disingen- 
uous. For instance, my "witness" said: "The spec- 
ulator buys hoping for a rise, or sells hoping for a de- 
cline." Wheelbarrow thereupon attacks him, and tries 
to impeach his character. He says: 

" Nothing can be more cold-hearted and selfish than such tes- 
timony ; it springs from the ethics of the pit. Just think of a man 
wasting his religion in praying for a rise in wheat. This, too, in 
a prayer sometimes three months long." 

Well, I think I ought not to have exposed mj' wit- 
ness to this stricture ; and perhaps I ought to have 
stated in specific terms that a speculator rarely prays, 
and if he does, it is as often that he prays for a decline 
as for a rise. My witness used the word "hope" it is 
true, when the word "belief" would have expressed the 
facts more clearly. Let us say, then, that the specu- 
lator buys believing that wheat will rise in price, or 
sells believing'xi will fall in price, and thus save Wheel- 
barrow from further moral pain. 

Again, mj' "witness" did not defend corners. He 
first explained them, and then candidl}- admitted that 



1596 



THE OPKN COURT. 



they bore to the regular operators of the Board of 
Trade about the relation that a piratical excursion 
bears to commerce, or that the hurried raid in the rear 
of an army bears to the regular movement of a cam- 
paign. But Wheelbarrow scolds my witness as a de- 
fender of these objectionable, though brief, influences, 
and this is not quite ingenuous. 

Where commerce covers the sea with ships minis- 
tering to the needs of man, experience shows that the 
pirate may, now and again, in ships manned by men, 
make excursions hostile to commerce ; but experience 
shows also, that these are incidents, and that their 
total effect is next to nil, and it is a comfort to know 
that it is so. It is satisfactory, also, to know that 
"corners" are in their nature brief events, incidents 
to greater movements, and that in the sweep of time 
their influence is comparatively unimportant. 

I am ready to join with Wheelbarrow (abandoning 
my witness if necessary) in denunciation of the kind 
of "cornerers" who resemble pirates. But there re- 
main the "cornerers" whose actions my witness lik- 
ened to that of a hostile raid in the rear of an army. 
This does not resemble piracy. It is often excusable. 
It is frequently patriotic and praiseworthy. Wheel- 
barrow himself says : 

"When I demand cheap bread, I do not wish to deprive the 
farmer, the miller, or the Board of Trade man, or anybody who 
contributes to its production and distribution, of his deserved re- 
ward." 

This is just and right, but if Wheelbarrow would 
study the facts, he would find that there is frequently 
at work an influence which, if left unchecked, would 
rob the farmer, if no one else, of his hard earned re- 
ward. This influence is the " short seller." Like the 
poor, he is always with us, though more audacious. 
An honest believer he may be that lower prices will 
prevail, owing to his belief in increased crops, or a di- 
minishing demand. He will sell for future delivery if 
anyone will buy. Like an auctioneer, he will offer it 
down until he finds a buyer. 

In former times governments performed the func- 
tions of the Board of Trade equalizing the price of 
grain by establishing storehouses, buying when the 
price of wheat was low and selling when it was high. 
They thereby lowered the price of bread in hard and 
raised it in good times, thus favoring now the farmer 
and now the consumer. A socialistic government 
would have to do the same as did the old paternal 
governments. Whether they would do it as well as 
the Board of Trade does it now, remains doubtful. 

Now, let us suppose a practical case — a case which 
has more than once had real existence. 

A "rich" man on the Board of Trade, performing 
the function of the benevolent government of former 
times, discovers that the course of the market has 



brought the price of wheat to a point which does not 
yield to the farmer his " deserved reward," nor such 
a price as to justify him in future effort to raise wheat 
on his farm, if the current price were to continue. In 
the belief Xh^X such a state of things cannot long con- 
tinue, this "rich" man buys. Possibly he has a warm 
sympathy with the poor farmer, whose crop is ready to 
market : at all events, he buys : he buys largely. Does 
the price advance ? No, it declines. To average his 
purchase, he doubles his first purchase at the now 
lower price. Does it then advance ? No ! it declines. 
He figures up the extent of his holding. He finds that 
he has purchased for an early delivery nearly as much 
as the total stock in our warehouses, but the price is 
still falling. 

He goes upon "change." A score of voices are 
offering to sell, by the thousands, by the hundreds of 
thousands of bushels, competing with each other at 
fractions less in price at every breath. Shall he join 
that shouting throng, surrender his judgment, sell as 
best he can, bear his losses the best he may. He will 
not do so if he begins his name with an " H." He 
discovers that a planned campaign has been inaugu- 
rated by the "bears " to break the market to the lowest 
point, and by heavy calls on him for margins, compel 
him to let go his holdings, and sell to them at their 
own price. 

To face such a situation requires nerve and courage 
of the highest order. If this buyer has it, and can con- 
trol the capital necessary, he will plan a work similar 
to that of "a raid in the rear of an enemy." He will 
buy. He will buy all that is offered. He will control 
or corner the market. Only thus can he protect him- 
self. If he is successful, he teaches reckless men, — 
men who have no regard for the farmer's "deserved 
reward," that there is retribution for their reckless dis- 
regard of equity. And I do not hesitate to say that, 
under the condition I have sketched, his action con- 
duces to the welfare of the country, and herein is pa- 
triotic and praiseworthy. 

Wheelbarrow asks — and his question possesses a 
pathetic interest : " What is it that the speculator 
buys?" And he answers with impressive emotion: 
"Wheat!" 

Will Wheelbarrow allow us to remain calm at all 
his excitement ? 

What is it that all buyers and sellers buy and sell ? 
If it is not wheat, it is meat, or fruit, or coal, or tools,, 
or books, or other necessities which men want and use. 
Every article, be it made of iron or wood, may it serve 
directly for the production of food or indirectly to the 
prolongation and amelioration or elevation of life is to 
some extent " our daily bread." Man does not live 
upon bread alone, and in a certain sense we all are 
engaged in producing bread — life -stuff for human 



THE OREN COURT. 



1597 



beings — in some form, and who will deny that everybody 
attempts to sell his part of it as dear as possible ? and 
everybody has a right to do so. Wheelbarrow agrees 
with me, that if anybody's work is more difficult, he 
may have greater rewards, and the scale of wages can 
easily be regulated by free competition. 

Wheelbarrow becomes sentimental when he ob- 
serves that some people deal in wheat, and that they 
hope for a rise of wheat. 

When Wheelbarrow delved and carried earth at a 
railway job, he undoubtedly added his mite to the 
general capital and was engaged in making bread 
cheap, for the road will soon carry farmers and their 
machines West to raise more wheat. But when Wheel- 
barrow now demands his wages doubled, his own and 
of course those of all wheelers of earth too, he prays 
for making bread dear ; for higher wages must increase 
the expenses of building railroads, and if an)' impro- 
portionate increase of wages took place on a larger 
scale, it might prevent roads to be built and thus 
would necessaril}' make it impossible for many farm- 
ers to go West, and those who live West could not 
send their wheat East. It would tend to making bread 
dear. 

While upon the whole. Wheelbarrow, as it appears 
to me, means what is right and just, he has one fault, 
and that is his rhetoric. What is the use of senti- 
mentality in economical or in any other questions ? Let 
us come to business in plain and clear terms without 
any verbosity and ado, and we will the quicker under- 
stand one another. Making bread cheap in the sense 
Wheelbarrow preaches, may be well enough, but let 
us not forget, that in a certain sense, we are entitled 
to make it dear, just as much as Wheelbarrow is en- 
titled to demand higher wages, if he can get them, or 
rather — if he deserves them. 

When I undertook to oppose Wheelbarrow I chiefly 
intended to call attention to the fact that there are two 
aspects of the question of making bread dear. Labor 
agitators, as a rule, demand that " the bread we eat 
must be cheap, but for the bread we make we should 
demand the highest price," and the short-sighted, 
credulous listeners are apt to believe him who prom- 
ises most. They do not see that agitators preach "yes 
and no" in one breath, that sour and sweet at the 
same time comes out of their mouth. 

There is a modern reformer appealing with his 
arguments to the broad masses, who promises by the 
simple means of taxing land to its full rental value to 
offer bread for nothing. Henry George says in "Pro- 
gress and Poverty," that if but the landlords were 
taxed out of existence, we would realize the ideal of 
the communist. We shall have meals at public 
tables for the mere asking of it, free libraries, free 
theatres, free baths, free railroads, free street cars, 



heat and motor power furnished in our houses at pub- 
lic expense, etc., etc. 

What is that else than offering bread gratis ? and 
it is bread for body and soul, bread of any description. 
But if all that can be had for the mere asking of it, who 
will then work? "That is just the advantage of it," 
I am told, " wages will rise, they will rise as high as 
they never have been, and men will not work at all 
unless it be for the pleasure of work." 

An excellent prospect if it were possible ! Pray, 
gentlemen, how can you, for any length of time, dis- 
tribute values gratis, unless you can also create them 
gratis ? 

Mr. George promises that we shall reap where we 
did not sow and that we shall have an unlimited 
credit in the bank of public prosperity without being 
obliged to make any deposit. 

Mr. George has a great followership and whatever 
be the merit of his idea of land taxation, nobody seems 
to be aware of the Utopian scheme of what constitutes 
Georgeism proper. He promises that the bread we 
eat shall be cheap, so cheap that it is given for the 
mere asking of it, and the bread we make shall be dear, 
so dear that nobody shall be able to buy it, unless he 
pays the full price we demand. 

Let us cease to be overawed by oratory. There is 
an untruth in every exaggeration and every untruth 
contains poison. 

Let us work to produce bread, every one in his 
way ; useful work will lead to make bread cheap. But 
at the same tirrte let us bear in mind that bread means 
human labor, it means human lives. Any artificial com- 
binations to make bread dear for the benefit of a few 
conspirators — pirates as I called them — is to be con- 
demned. In that I fully agree with Wheelbarrow. 
But let us not demand that bread be too cheap, for 
that would necessarily degrade a certain number of 
human lives into abject poverty, and deprive them of 
their due reward for having contributed to make 
bread. 

DREAMS AND VISIONS.* 

BY FELIX L. OSWALD, M. D. 

It has often been remarked that an explanation of 
the soul-phenomena known as dreams, would furnish 
a key to the enigma of the soul itself, and the problem 
of slumber-visions has, indeed, been a subject of cu- 
rious speculation since the earliest dawn of philosophy. 
Aristotle (JDe Somno et vigilid) makes the physiology 
of sleeping and waking the topic of a special treatise, 
and like Dr. Abercrombie, seems to assume a distinct 
organ, if not a sixth sense, for the perception of facts 
unknowable to the ordinary (waking) mode of cogni- 



* Copyrighted!: 
Part XXIV. 



' Body and Mind ; or, The Data of M"oral Physiology,' 



1598 



THE OPEN COURT 



zance. Plutarch and Herodotus quote numerous an- 
ecdotes of prophetic night-visions. Pliny, too, ex- 
amines the subject from a physiological point of view, 
and the Oneirocriticon of Artemidoros is a " dream- 
book," quite In the modern mystic sense of that term, 
and abounds with fanciful rules for the interpretation 
of dreams, of which he distinguishes two kinds : the 
ordinary allegoric and the directly prophetic ("theo- 
rematic," as he calls them) which warn the sleeper by 
an actual prevision of "coming events. 

The writings of the mediseval schoolmen teem 
with similar speculations, and Kieser, Brierre, and Aber- 
crombie treat the problem from a highly metaphys- 
ical point of view; but the most satisfactory explana- 
tions of dream-life have after all been derived from 
the study of physical analogies. Sleep is a process of 
restoration and readjustment, and physicians well know 
that the healing powers of nature assert themselves 
most effectually during the entire suppression of vo- 
litional control characterizing a deep slumber. In 
dreams, too, the absence of direct sense-impressions 
and volitional interference seem to favor an automatic 
function of the brain which, in that respect, might be 
defined as a method of mental digestion. And just as 
the process of physical digestion and assimilation 
eliminates the superfluous elements of food, retaining 
only those needed for the special purposes of the or- 
ganism, the brain, during sleep, appears to deal spe- 
cially with topics of direct concern for the personal 
interests of the sleeper and to assort and adjust the 
store of empiric impression (the mentel ingesta, as it 
were) after eliminating all unessential and unconse- 
quential elements. Withal, the suspense of conscious 
cerebration by no means implies an eclipse of the in- 
tellectual faculties. Dreams are not limited to plays 
of fancy ; the brain in slumber may deal with philo- 
sophical and abstrusely scientific speculations, or re- 
solve moral doubts which perhaps have puzzled the 
mind for days, and it is a common experience that the 
distressing problems of practical life adjust them- 
selves, as it were, in sleep, by a more or less conscious 
process of the cerebral laboratory. 

In short, there is no doubt that the instinct guard- 
ing the welfare of the individual presides over dreams 
as it presides over the automatic functions of the phys- 
ical organism. The very suspension of the will power, 
with its passions and prejudices, seems, indeed, to 
enable an inner monitor to decide vexing doubts in ac- 
cordance with the best permanent interests of the 
sleeper. It has often been observed that the drama- 
turgy of slumber represents all actors in a role reveal- 
ing their true character with remarkable correctness, 
and often with a suggestiveness that has tempted mys- 
tics to ascribe that sort of clairvoyance to direct in- 
spiration. 



Yet here, too, physical analogies might suggest a 
simpler explanation. The saving crisis of dangerous 
diseases which often supervenes in deep slumber may 
be explained by the circumstance that the complete 
repose of the volitional faculties enable the organism 
to concentrate all its energies upon a needed work of 
repair, and for similar reasons the non-interference of 
waking prejudices may give the instinct of self-pre- 
servation a long desired chance for removing a baneful 
delusion as to our best interest in a proposed mode of 
action, or as to the true character of designing fellow- 
men. Something or other in the looks or the actions 
of a marked rascal may have suggested a suspicion of 
his secret motives, though at the time collateral cir- 
cumstances observed that misgiving, leaving only a 
vague, unexplained uneasiness as the direct result of 
such experiences. But in sleep that impression re- 
asserts itself with a force freed from the interference of 
prejudice, and for a moment removes the mask of 
false appearances ; the sleeper receives a " warning." 
Similar warnings often correct the impressions of false 
hope. Impending perils may cast a shadow persist- 
ently ignored in a waking state, while the mind is 
by the influence of a self-deluding optimism — the wish 
that is father to the belief in the insignificance of the 
threatening danger. But in sleep the voice of the 
monitor cannot be silenced by such illusions, and 
warning forebodings often take the form of distinct 
visions, repeated with a vividness and frequency which 
at last cannot fail to influence the actions of the indi- 
vidual, in spite of all waking sophisms. I remember 
the instance of an American family that had settled in " 
the northern uplands of Cameron County, Texas, but 
before the end of a year removed to the vicinity of a 
larger settlement, and sold their half completed home 
for reasons that remained a mystery to their upland 
neighbors. "We had selected that building-site after 
a good deal of prospecting," the first proprietor of 
that house told me a few years later, "and at first it 
seemed a puzzle to me that nobody had pre-empted 
it long ago. It was a broad hill with a fine prospect 
east and south; we had an abundance of timber, fine 
range, two good springs, and a ledge of soft limestone 
within a thousand yards of the house, where you could 
shape out building- stone with a common saw. I never 
could hope to find better neighbors ; they actually got 
up a picnic to celebrate our arrival, so glad they were 
tohave English-speaking folks within visiting distance. 
We had every prospect of getting an improved road 
and a post office, and three months after our first en- 
try I would not have sold that homestead for ten times 
my direct expenses. But about half a year after, that 
ranch seemed a haunted place and I didn't feel at 
rest day or night though people that know me are not 
likely to call me superstitious. I never was a fraid of 



THE OPEN COURT. 



'599 



darkness even when I was a bo}' and a swarm of 
ghosts would not scare me worth a cent. But one 
night, about a week after I had got home from a trip 
to Brownsville Landing, I dreamt our house was 
tackled by a gang of Greaser bushwhackars (Mexican 
bandits) and that they shot me down and killed my 
little boy with a club, and then loaded their horses 
with everything they could move. Two nights after 
I had exactly that same dream over again, and I could 
see every stick and stone in our yard, when I tried to 
make a break for our next neighbor and was shot 
down just as I rushed through the gate. I noticed the 
very horses and saddles of that gang and could have 
recognized every one of them if I had met them in 
daylight, and I now do believe that I did see them 
somehow or other on that trip to the Landing. The 
idea began to haunt me when that dream had come 
back for the third time, though I never said a word ; but 
one morning my wife seemed uneasy till all our farm- 
hands had started to work, and then asked me to come 
out in the garden for a minute. "Do you think there 
kre any robbers in this neighborhood?" she asked me 
when we were quite alone. "Why, did you see or 
hear anything suspicious ?" I asked her back. "No, 
but I had such a strange dream last night," said she, 
with a sort of a shudder, " I dreamt a gang of Mexicans 
came to our house and made me run for my life, and 
just before I got through the door I saw them knock 
down little Tommy with a club." " Didn't I help you?" 
I laughed. "I don't know," she said, "I saw you col- 
lar one of them, and I kept calling for you in English 
to save yourself, but just as you dashed through the 
gate I heard the crack of a shotgun and then I fainted." 
I made no reply, but that minute I felt that we 
couldn't stay no longer, and two weeks after I made 
up my mind to move to Indianola. There were no 
Mexicans in our immediate neighborhood at that hill- 
farm, and no serious robbery had happened anywhere 
nearer than Casa Blanca, but I felt that I had to look 
for a new home if I expected to get an hour's peace, 
and it often seemed to me that I was doing a sin if I 
let my little boy out of sight for ten minutes. So we 
made up an excuse about schools and post offices and 
managed to sell our pretty place for a few hundred. 
The neighbors thought I must be half crazy, but I 
couldn't help it; and just ten weeks after we were 
gone we got the news of that Pancho Parras massacre. 
The whole neighborhood had been sacked and out- 
raged, and as I know my boy, I am now morally cer- 
tain that he would have stood his ground and got him- 
self killed, if he had seen any brute lay hands on his 
mother." 

The very homeliness of that account impressed me 
with a conviction of its absolute truth, and on the 
whole I consider it the most characteristic instance of 



what Artemidoros would have called " theorematic 
dreams." Moorish chronicles, though, relate that in 
726, or nearly five years before the date of the fatal 
expedition, the Chalif Abderahman had an interview 
with a hermit who gave him a detailed description of 
the battle-field of Tours and all the particulars of the 
disastrous defeat which had been revealed to him in a 
prophetic dream. The Earl of Stafford, too, is said to 
have been warned by the dream of his Scotch gar- 
dener, who was subject to that sort of second sight, 
and once told his master that he had seen him in his 
sleep, addressing a large assembly from the top of a 
raised platform. " There were three other chief's 
standing up alongside of my lord," said the gardener, 
" one of them looked like a priest but I could not 
make out the two others." Hibbert's "sketches of the 
philosophy of apparitions" give a circumstantial ac- 
count of a vision in which a lady — at that time in the 
enjoyment of tolerable health — had the day and the 
very hour of her death revealed by a dream, which she 
communicated to a few of her intimate friends ; and 
even Goethe in his autobiography {Dichtiiiig uiui 
Wahrheii, Vol. XI) relates a vision which eight years 
after was verified on that very spot, and under cir- 
cumstances which at once recalled the details of that 
second sight apparition. 

Such details are no doubt often suggested by sen- 
sory impressions received in a waking state, out of 
which the mind, pre-occupied by other thoughts, had 
at the time failed to take special cognizance. Miss 
Cobbe, in a contribution to MacMillan's Magazine, 
relates a verj' suggestive instance of that kind from 
the experience of a British office, engaged in the pur- 
suit of a gang of Hindoostan bandits. His wife, who 
accompanied him on that expedition, one morning 
urgently entreated him to leave his camp in a certain 
jungle, where she had been " haunted by the sight of 
dead men." The very next day the officer's skirmishers 
discovered the traces of a new-made grave, and after 
removing a shallow stratum of leaves and sand, dis- 
interred not less than fourteen corpses. " It is very 
conceivable," remarks Miss Cobbe, "that the horrible 
vision was suggested by the foul odor of death. Had 
the lady been in a state of mesmeric trance, the same 
occurrence would, no doubt, be quoted as a splendid 
instance of supernatural revelation." 

An even clearer proof of the sensory source of 
certain dream-visions is related in Dr. Carpenter's 
anecdote of a traveling magistrate who, "having been 
retained, before his elevation to the bench, in a case 
which was to be tried in the North of England, he 
slept at the house of one of the parties in it, and dreamt 
through the night that lizards were crawling over him. 
He could not imagine what had suggested such an 
idea to his mind, until, on going into the apartment in 



i6oo 



THE OREN COURT. 



which he had passed the evening, he noticed a mantel- 
piece clock, on the base of which were figures of 
crawling lizards. This he must have seen without 
noticing it, and the sight must have left a ' trace ' in 
his brain, though it left nc record in his conscious 
memory." 

In the tableaux vivatits of the sleeping brain, such 
scenes are often interwoven with those " allegoric vis- 
ions " which form the large plurality of prophetic 
dreams, and the main topic of modern and mediaeval 
commentaries, though the most curious instance on 
record is a tradition of classic antiquit}'.' When the 
island-king Polycrates was invited to visit the Persian 
satrap of Sardis, his daughter, as a biographer of the 
accomplished despot informs us, had a dream in which 
she saw her father annointed by Apollo and washed 
by the hands of Jupiter. The horrible significance of 
that dream was revealed at Sardis when the treacher- 
ous satrap had the king crucified in an open field, 
where the burning sun covered him with sw^at, and a 
thunderstorm with rain. 

The daimon of Socrates predicted only evil but 
never happy events ; yet monitory dreams, prompted 
by the ever-active instinct of self-preservation, are by 
no means limited to "warnings." They occasionally 
assume the form of attractive visions, and I remember 
the comments of a consumptive, who had contracted 
his fatal disease by an excess of indoor work, and de- 
scribed the tantalizing dreams which for years tor- 
mented him with visions of highland scenes and wav- 
ing forest-trees. " On awakening in the morning," he 
said, " I often found my pillow drenched with tears, 
and there were days 'when I felt that I could have 
cheerfully renounced my city comforts and started for 
the Sierras to share the pot-luck of a hunter's cabin, 
if the dread of my father's temper had not prevented 
me. After my lungs had been ruined," he added, with 
a sigh, " those visions never came back. I fear they 
had failed to serve their purpose and gave me up for 
lost." 

The popular belief that appealing dreams limit 
their mission to the prediction of perils, may be ex- 
plained by the circumstance that the significance of 
inviting visions is less apt to be strikingly revealed 
by eventual experience. Warning dreams are forcibly 
recalled b}' the supervention of the threatening event, 
whether or no the warning should have prompted the 
adoption of timely precautions. Attractive intuitions 
of dream-life, on the other hand, are apt to be mistaken 
for prefigurative,- rather than monitory visions, and 
even if they should fail to be heeded, their real pur- 
pose may never be suspected, or reveal itself only in 
the vague longings which transiently haunt our wak- 
ing hours, like the echo of a distant voice. 



SPACE AND TIME. 
In his Critique of Pure Reason (Part I, Section I), 
Kant proposes the question : " What then are time 
and space ? Are they real existences ?" And he an- 
swers in the'negative. He says : 

"If we ascribe objective reality to these forms of representa- 
tion, it becomes impossible to avoid changing every thing into 
mere appearance. For if we regard space and time as properties, 
which must be found in objects as things in themselves, as sine 
quibus non of the possibility of their existence, and reflect on the 
absurdities in which we then find ourselves involved, inasmuch as 
we are compelled to admit the existence of two infinite things, 
which are nevertheless not substances, nor any thing really inher- 
ing in substances, nay, to admit that they are the necessary con- 
ditions of the existence of all things, and moreover, that they must 
continue to exist, although all existing things were annihilated, — 
we cannot blame the good Berkeley for degrading bodies to mere 
illusory appearances. Nay, even our own existence, which would 
in this case depend upon the self-existent reality of such a mere 
nonentity as time, would necessarily be changed with it into mere 
appearance — an absurdity which no one has as yet been guilty of." 

Space and time, Kant declares, are nothing else 
than forms, the one of our external the other of our 
internal sense. They are not real, they are ideal. 

We agree with Kant that space and time are ideal, 
not real in so far as they are no things, no objects,, but 
abstract conceptions. Space of itself apart from ex- 
tended, extending or moving things, and time of itself 
apart from changes do as little exist as matter of itself 
or force of itself. Space does not extend, but things 
extend and move; and their extension is space. Time 
does not change but things are changing ; their change, 
or rather the measure of their change, is time. With- 
out extended things no space, and without motion or 
change no time. We disagree from Kant in so far as 
he says that space and time are the forms of the think- 
ing subject only. He denies that they are properties 
inhering in the objects, because, he maintains, they 
cannot have been abstracted from reality. If they 
were abstracted from reality, he argues, mathematics 
would be an experimental, yet no transcendental, /. e. 
formal, science, and we could never attribute to math- 
ematics absolute validity (rigid necessity and univer- 
salit}'). Kant explains his .position as follows : 

" Those who maintain the absolute reality of time and space, 
whether as essentially subsisting, or only inhering, as modifications, 
in things, must find themselves at utter variance with the princi- 
ples of experience itself. For, if they decide for the first view, 
and make space and time into substances, this being the side taken 
by matliematical natural philosophers, they must admit two self- 
subsisting nonentities, infinite and eternal, which exist (yet without 
there being any thing real) for the purpose of containing in them- 
selves every thing that is real. 

"If they adopt the second view of inherence, which is pre- 
ferred by some metaphysical natural philosophers, and regard 
space and time as relations (contiguity in space or succession in 
time), abstracted from experience, though represented confusedly 
in this state of separation, they find themselves in that case neces- 
sitated to deny the validity of mathematical doctrines a priori in 



THK OPEN COURT 



1601 



reference to real things (for example, in space), — at all events their 
apodeictic certainty. For such certainty cannot be found in an 
<! posteriori proposition ; and the conceptions a priori of space and 
time are, according to this opinion, mere creations o£ the imagi- 
nation, having their source really in experience." 

From this standpoint Kant concludes : 

"I maintain that the properties of space and time, in con- 
formity to which I set both, as the condition of their existence, 
abide in my mode of intuition, and not in the objects in them- 
selves." 

Taking this position that space and time are forms 
of our cognition merely, not of things, Kant accepts 
the inevitable consequence that 

" The question, 'What are objects considered as things in 
themselves ?,' remains unanswerable even after the most thorough 
examination of the phenomenal world " 

If Kant were right in his solution of the problem, 
the question " How does the constitution of thinking 
subjects universally, (so far as we can judge), happen 
to have such forms of space and time as they are," 
would be unanswerable. Could we not, or at least 
some of us — of living beings — just as well have a con- 
stitution of four-dimensional space ? And if so, how 
would in that case our conception of four dimensional 
space tally with actual space ? 

If space inhered, as Kant maintains, in the thinking 
subject only, special relations and laws would appear 
different to four-dimensional beings. Kepler's third 
law for instance, that "the squares of the times of 
revolution of the planets are always proportional to 
the cubes of their mean distances from the sun," 
would to them most probably appear as " the cubes of 
their times of revolution being proportional to their 
mean distances taken to the fourth power." To us a 
right-angled solid that measures two inches in each of 
its dimensions, {viz., a cube) contains eight cubic inches. 
A four-dimensional being would be sure that a right- 
angled solid that measures in all its dimensions two 
inches must necessarily contain sixteen four- dimen- 
sional inches. Anybody who denies that such radical 
changes would take place in the objects of the phe- 
nomenal world, must inevitably admit that tridimen- 
sionality is not merely our "mode of intuition," but an 
inherent qualit)' of matter. 

If the form of matter is tridimensional it is natural 
that beings whose bodies are built up of tridimen- 
sional matter will be able to ascertain the tridimen- 
sionality of their world by experiments of mere inner 
experience. Taking up space themselves, they can 
b)' mere reflexion determine how many dimensions 
actually exist. Kant does not distinguish such in- 
ternal experimenting from reasoning a priori. Rea- 
soning a priori should be strictly limited to pure 
formal thought, while experiments are and remain a 
matter of experience whether they are executed on 
phenomena of the outer world or whether the subject 



experiments on or within his own body, which after 
all, like the rest of things, is an object in the phe- 
nomenal world. 

If Kant had investigated the problem of the a 
priori (of formal thought), he would have found that 
the forms of our cognition naturally grow with expe- 
rience, and that we acquire them indeed by abstraction. 
Consequentl)', absolute apriority which Kant attributes 
to space can not be granted it. Our mathematical 
laws possess absolute rigidity and universality for tri- 
dimensional space and as a system of third degree 
they are a priori, i. c, pure formal thought, but the 
fact that space is tridimentional is exclusively a matter 
of experience. 

How much of experience enters into our concep- 
tion of space can be seen from the following logical 
sj'llogism : 
Premissa m.\jor : 

The formal laws of a system of third degree apply to 
any system of third degree with rigidity and univer- 
sality, 
as we know a priori (/. e., from pure reason, or formal 
thought, from inner reflection upon the laws of pure 
form). 
Premissa minor : 

Actual space being tridimensional is a system of 
third degree, 
as we know by experience and can prove b}' experi- 
ment. 
Ergo : 

The formal laws of third degree apply to space with 
rigidity and universality. 

* 

Kant, in his argument, identifies ' ideal ' and ' sub- 
jective.' The conception of space being an abstract 
idea and its being to some extent formal thought, does 
not at all compel us to deny that actual space is 
a real (although by no means a material) property in 
objects. 

Kant sa3's; 

"The proposition, "All objects are beside each other in 
space," is valid only under the limitation that these things are 
taken as objects of our sensuous intuition. But if I join the condi- 
tion to the conception, and say, ' all things, as external p/ienomena, 
are beside each other in space,' then the rule is valid universally, 
and without any limitation. 

" Our expositions, consequently, teach the reality (i. e. the ob- 
jective validity) of space in regard of all phenomena which can be 
presented to us externally as objects, and at the same time also the 
ideality of space in regard to objects when they are considered by 
means of reason as things in themselves, that is, without reference 
to the constitution of our sensibility. We maintain, therefore, the 
empirical ideality of space in regard to all possible external expe- 
rience although we must admit its transcendental ideality, in other 
words, that it is nothing, so soon as we withdraw the condition 
upon which the possibility of all experience depends, and look 
upon space as something that belongs to things in themselves." 



6o2 



THE OPEN COURT 



Whether space and time apply to " things in them- 
selves " must be considered from the standpoint of 
monism as an idle question, since "things in them- 
selves " do not exist. 

In contradistinction to Kant's view we maintain: 
The nature of our cognition is such that space can 
not but appear tridimensional to us. Our existence is 
tridimensional, and for that very reason our cognition 
is tridimensional also. Our existence, however, is a 
part of the whole of reality and our life is a phenomenon 
among many other innumerable processes of nature. 
Consequently we look upon the forms of our existence 
as upon a specimen, so to speak, of the forms of exis- 
tence in general. 

It does not lie within the scope of our problem to 
enter into the details of the growth of space-concep- 
tion. There is but one way for a living being to 
acquire the idea of space, and that is by motion — not 
only through the observation of moving bodies, but 
also and chiefly through self-motion. If we were im- 
movably fixed to one spot, we would have no concep- 
tion of space or at least a very dim one. Only while 
moving ourselves, can we measure distances, and by 
measuring we form our ideas about space. If this is 
true, and 1 think it can be proved experimentally, the 
definition of space as " the possibility of motion in all 
directions " will be justified. That the different senses 
having a different kind of motion, will have different 
measures for space is obvious. The most primitive 
method of the different senses in judging of distances 
is the remembrance of the effort necessary to pass 
through it from one end to the other. Errors are cor- 
rected by a comparison among the results of the dif- 
ferent senses and may be altogether avoided by the 
application of a standard measure in which all dis 
tances can be expressed. p. c. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

THE SINGLE TAX AND GEORGEISM. 

To Ihe Editor of The Open Court: — 

Mr. George made a blunder by going to England and leaving 
his doctrine loose in the hands of his disciples. They have given 
it so many emendations and explanations that he will hardly know 
it when he gets home. If he could read the thirty or forty de- 
fenses of it which have appeared in The Open Court he would 
laugh at their paradoxical ingenuity. He would exclaim with that 
Maryland farmer, " Friends of the single tax had better stop ex- 
plaining." 

The most condensed explanation of the single tax doctrine is 
given by Mr. Hugh O. Pentecost in The Open Court, No. 85. I 
will first notice that. He says : 

" If Wheelbarrow cannot separate the idea of 'the value of land from the 
land,' as he confesses, he certainly ought to understand that one piece of 
land has more renting value than another, and he ought to understand so 
simple a proposition as having ground-rent and nothing else paid into the 
public treasury. That is all there is to the ' George Theory.' " 

Very good ! That simplifies the debate. Mr. Pentecost is of 
high authority as a commentator on the gospel according to 



George. If Mr. George left the key to his problem in the hands 
of any man, he left it in the hands of Mr. Pentecost. I must 
therefore consider his interpretation orthodox although it is 
hardly consistent with the original text as written by Mr. George 
himself. Mr. Pentecost gives us a very narrow definition of Mr. 
George's claim. Mr. George expands the ground-rtiit project until 
it includes the confiscation of all the value of all the land. This is 
practically the confiscation of the land ; and the communists of 
Europe and America understand it so. Mr. George himself un- 
derstands it so. In proof of this I quote his very words, as I find 
them on page 302 of " Protection or Free Trade." 

" Now it is evident that, in order to take for the use of the community the 
■whole income arising from land, just as effectually as it could be taken by for- 
mally appropriating and lettiugout t lie land, \\. is only necessary to abolish, 
one after another, all other taxes now levied, and to increase the tax on land 
values till it reaches, as near as may be, the full annu.d value of the land."* 

Can confiscation be declared in plainer words than those ? 
They are copied from Webster's dictionary, where Confiscation is 
defined as " Appropriating to the public use." Why quibble over 
words and phrases such as "single tax," " ground rent, " "land 
values," and similar labels on the bottle, when Mr. George de- 
clares that the remedy in the bottle will " take for the use of the 
community the whole income arising from land, just as effectually 
as it could be taken by fonnally appropriating and letting out the 
land?" "It is only ground-renl, " sa.ys Mr. Pentecost, after the 
manner of Leroy Carter, a comrade of mine, who was arrested for 
killing a pig. "Did you kill that pig ? " said the colonel ; "No, 
sir," said Carter, " I did not. He came smelling around the tent, 

so I just riin my bayonet through him, and he died." It is only 

ground-rent, but it appropriates the land. We do not propose to 
kill Tom Clark, we shall only just playfully run him through with 
a bayonet. 

The popularity of Mr. George's theory lies in the extravagant 
claim he makes for its beneficence. I have been criticized for say- 
ing that the millennium is included in his plan Let us examine 
his most recent utterance on the subject. A few weeks ago Mr. 
George wrote a letter to the Chicago Times, in which he said : 

" The single tax reform is the most pressing. This is the one great reform 
that by relieving industry of all burdens and preventing the monopolization 
of the one element necessary to all production and all life will enormously 
increase production, will secure an equitable distribution of wealth, will solve 
the labor question, which lies at the root of all our social and religious diffi- 
culties, will make Christianity possible, will give the masse? of men opportu- 
nity for more than a struggle to exist, and will open the way for an advance to 
a far higher and grander civilization." 

If that is not the millennium, what is it ? Does Mr. Pente- 
cost believe that such tremendous results are to be obtained by the 
application to society of the insignificant porous plaster which he 
calls ground-rent ? Does he believe that his fly-blister will draw 
the inflammation from the body-politic, allay the social fever, solve 
the labor question, and " make Christianity possible?" Is not 
Christianity possible now ? And does it not exist in many 
different forms ? If the full promise of Christianity has not yet 
been realized, will it come through the diminutive device called 
ground-rent ? The towering pretensions of Mr. Henry George 
are brought by Mr. Pentecost to an anti-climax when he declares 
that ground-rent paid into the public treasury "is all there is to 
the George Theory." All that is needed now to " make Christi- 
anity possible" is a little ground-rent. 

Mr. George ridicules the protectionists for trying to make 
people rich by taxing them, yet he attempts the same impossible 
feat in a tenfold more difficult and exaggerated form. He actually 
says that a single tax on land values amounting to the " w/w/e in- 
come" of the land and its " full annual value " would benefit the 
farmer. This contradiction is the illusive creed of multitudes, as 
appears from the letters in The Open Court. 

* The italics are mine. 



XHE OPEN COURT 



603 



Let us see how Mr. George's plan would enrich Tom Clark 
He would be taxed S8 or Sio. for his farm according to the 
Georgeian assessor. But some new comers would be willing to pay 
more for God's bounty and Mr. Clark would be evicted. Those 
who can separate the land value from the land will perhaps tell 
him how he can take his improvements along. You declare that 
Tom Clark may sell his improvements. You can even force him 
to sell ; but you can force nobody to buy them. 

I agree that land values may be taxed ; but I maintain that 
they cannot be seized and sold in satisfaction of the taxes, any 
more than a crack in the wall of a house can be taken in execution 
for the rent. All taxes upon land values are ideal in their assess- 
ment ; they are actual and real in their collection. They attach 
to the realty, the land, and if not paid, the land itself, and not the 
land value, is sold by the sheriff. Therefore all taxes upon land 
values are taxes upon land. To assert that they are friendly to 
the soil itself, is to repeat in a new form the apology for the cut- 
worm, who merely attacks the wheat, but is careful not to injure 
the land. 

The state of New York e g. must bear a very large burden of tax- 
alion, and it is not statesmanship but sentiment which proposes to 
obtain the money by a tax on land values irrespective of the im- 
provements on the land. According to the ratio of population, the 
state of New York must pay twenty-seven million dollars annually 
in taxes to the national government alone, although according to 
the ratio of wealth the share of that state would greatly exceed 
that sum. How could the money be, raised by a tax on land values 
alone, in addition to the sums necessary to defray the vast ex- 
penses of the State, County, and Township governments ? Men' 
live in dreamland who think to benefit the New York farmer by 
levying all taxes upon land values, and exempting from taxation 
all the personal property of that opulent state, all the money, 
bonds, banks, railroads, ships, factories, stocks of goods, and all 
buildings of every description whatsoever. There is not in all 
dupedom a more deceitful vision than (hat of a farmer growing 
rich by the exemption from taxation of all kinds of property except 
his own. 

I should like to continue but I must stop here to day because 
it will take me a few days of hard study to answer your Dakota 
correspondent who can see no moral distinction between stealing 
horses, and investing capital in land ; and that Ohio critic who 
says that Mr. George is not after Tom Clark, but his children ; 
and that Chicago man who desires to encourage Tom Clark in 
making improvements on his farm by exempting everybody and 
everything from taxation e.xcept land owners and land values ; and 
that Massachusetts economist who tells us that the abolition of 
poverty is only a " side issue." 

Mr. Pentecost sees no difference between the proportion of 
land taxation and Georgeism. But I see a difference. 'While I con- 
sider the one feasable, I think that the latter is fantastical. 

■Wheelbarrow. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 



Passe Rose. Arthur Sterlnirm Hardy. Boston ; Houghton, Mifflin 

& Co. 

Mr. Hardy's first attempt in fiction, " But Yet a Woman," 
published a few years ago was a delight and surprise to all who 
read it, and gave rise to agreeable expectation concerning bis future 
work. Passe Rose, in its locale and general plot is a complete con- 
trast to his first work and proves him an accomplished writer of 
pure romance. A fine poetic sensibility marks all of the charac- 
terizations, while the descriptions of the semi-sivilized and pic- 
turesque life of the age of Robert G, Tans gives an ideal grace and 
charm to every page. • c. p. w. 



We have received from the SocUte Royale Malacologiqiie of 
Belgium the annual reports for 1887, constituting the twenty- 
second volume of Series I'V (Brussels; P. Weissenbuch). The 
work opens with a continuation of M. Cossmann's illustrated cata- 
logue of the fossil shells of the Eocene epoch in the environs of 
Paris ; the cuts are appended to the volume. M. Cossmann's 
immoire occupies most of the volume. M. Edgar A. Smith has 
some remarks upon the terrestrial shells of Sumatra, Java, and 
Borneo ; M. E. Perijens, upon the Bryozoa of the Tasmajdan, at 
Belgrade. The various catalogues, discussions, and remarks upon 
malacological subjects embodied in the work, will be of undoubted 
value to specialists at home. 

The Liberal Hymn Book, edited by Eliza Boardman Burnz, (24 
Clinton Place, New York) is a small paper-bound volume, ea=iily 
carried in the vest-pocket The songs contained in the little book 
are adapted to popular tunes ; they are designated for use in liberal 
meetings and liberal homes, being as the editress says, "a very 
effective means for extending the domain of free-thought." The 
collection comprises some of our most familiar popular hymns, 
and many selections from Whittier, TenUyson, Longfellow, and 
others. Apropos of the occurrence of the word God in different 
passages, the editress defines Him to be man's highest conception 
of what is noblest and best in the universe or in humanity — " the 
totality of all Good." The orthography is a slight modification of 
the system of the American Spelling Reform Association ; a being 
omitted from ea in such words as hed, helth ; e omitted after a 
short vowel, as in hav, giv ; y written for ph, as in fonograf ; ed 
changed to t, when it has the sound of /, etc. 

The Future of Morality as Affected by the Decay of Prevalent 
Religious Beliefs, is the title of a concise pamphlet of 16 pages, by 
Mr. M. S. Gilliland {London : Watts & Co.). The author first ex- 
amines the nature of morality. He finds it to be "a particular 
kind of conduct, rendered necessary by the nature of man and the 
conditions of his existence, and made pleasureable by the persist- 
ence of that necessity ; both necessity and pleasure being appre- 
ciable by human faculty, uninstructed by supernatural revelation." 
Tracing, then, the connection betsveen morality and religion, the 
latter is found to be the " reflection of the intellect and character 
of the believers." Morality, thus, is declared to be entirely "in- 
dependent of religion in its origin, basis, and sanction." We have 
no cause for anxiety, says the author, as we face the breaking up 
of creeds, nor should we fear the results of a dis-sociation of mo- 
rality from religion. Ours must be an earnest endeavor to appre- 
hend the moral order of the universe ; and fearless fidelity to the 
convictions we thus gain. 



NOTES. 

St. George Mivart, late professor of biology at University 
College, Kensington, the author of "Genesis of Species," opposes 
in the Forum for May Darwinism and the ethics derived from Dar- 
winism on moral grounds. 

The Century Magazine for May will contain richly illustrated 
essays on " Samoa : The Isles of the Navigators," by H. W. Whit- 
acker ; on "Our Relations to Samoa," by George H. Bates; on 
" The Tuscarora's Mission to Samoa," by James T. McKay. 'Ver- 
estchagin's picture of the wailing place of the Jews is published 
among the illustrations of the article " Round About Jerusalem," 
by Edward L. Wilson. 

The May number of the Magazine of American History brings 
another entertaining chapter of fresh Centennial information, 
"Washington's Historic Luncheon in Elizabeth," with very unique 
pictorial attractions. As usual, it is a specimen of typographical 
beauty — in the artistic elegance of its printing it holds the highest 
rank in the magazine field. Price, S5 a year. Published 743 
Broadway, New York City. 



<6o4 



THE OPEN COURT. 



THE LOST MANUSCRIPT.* 

BY GUSTAV FREYTAG. 

CHAPTER XXXV. — Continued. 
" Yonder at the top, below the rafters," said the 
Princess to the Professor, " the whole space is 
crammed with old household furniture. I could not 
restrain my curiosity, so yesterday I just peeped into 
the room ; the things lie heaped up in wild confusion ; 
we shall have much work." 

The Professor examined with pleasure the well- 
preserved stone-work of the arched doors and the ar- 
tistic work of the old-time lock-smith. Little had been 
done in modern times to make the walls look respect- 
able or to repair damage ; but any one who took 
interest in the chisel and carving tools of the old 
builders, might perceive everywhere with pleasure that 
the tower could easily be changed into a masterpiece 
of ancient style. 

The servant opened the door into the Princess's 
rooms. These also were simply arranged. The broken 
painted glass of the small window had been repaired 
with panes coarsely painted ; only fragments of the 
old pictures still adhered to the lead. 

" There is still much to be done here," explained 
the Princess ; " and we shall gradually have everything 
arranged within the next few years." 

The clatter of the Castellan's keys were heard in the 
anteroom, and the Professor turned towards the door. 
" One moment's patience," cried the Princess, and 
she flew into an adjoining room. She returned in a 
grey cloak with a hood, which enveloped her in its 
folds, only the delicate face, the large beaming eyes, 
and smiling mouth being visible. 

"It is only in this gnome costume that I venture to 
approach the dusty spirits of the lumber-room." 

They ascended to the highest story. While the 
Castellan was picking out the key from the bunch, the 
Professor eagerly examined the door, and remarked, 
"More beautiful mouldings by your old lock-smith." 
" I have hopes," said the Princess. 
" Everything looks that way," replied the learned 
man. 

The heavy door creaked on its hinges, and a large 
room presented itself to the eyes of the searchers. A 
bright light shone through the narrow openings in the 
wall upon the mysterious apartment; atoms of dust were 
seen whirling about in the straight shafts of air, while 
before and beyond all was confusion wrapt in semi- 
darkness.' Old furniture was piled up in hopeless con- 
fusion ; gigantic wardrobes with broken doors, heavy 
tables with balls for feet, chairs with straight backs 
and leather cushions, from which the horsehair bris- 
tled out ; together with fragments of old weapons, hal- 
berds, corroded greaves, and rusty helmets. Indis- 

* Translation copyrighted. 



tinct and vague, the forms appeared among each other: 
legs of chairs, flat pieces of wood with inlaid work, 
and heaps of old iron lying all around. It was a chaos 
of frippery, the artistic products of many centuries. 
Their hand touched the table at which a contemporary 
of Luther had sat ; their foot pushed against a chest 
which had been broken open by Croats and Swede ; or 
against the white lacquered chair, with moth-eaten 
velvet cushions, on which a court lady had once sat, in 
a hoop dress, with powdered hair. Now all lay to- 
gether in desolate heaps, the cast-off husks of former 
generations, half destroyed and quite forgotten ; empty 
chrysales, from which the butterflies had flown. All 
were covered with a grey shroud of dust — the last ashes 
of vanished life. What once had form and body, now, 
crushed into powder, whirled about in the air; clouds 
of dust opposed the entrance of those who came to 
disturb its possession ; it hung to the hair and clothes 
of the living intruders, and glided slowly through the 
open door to the rooms, where varied colors and bril- 
liant ornament surrounded the inmates, in order there 
to carry on the endless struggle of the past with the 
present — the quiet struggle that is daily renewed in 
great and small things which makes new things old, 
and finally dissolves the old in order that it may help 
to nourish the germ of youthful life. 

The Professor glanced like a hawk amidst the legs 
of tables and chairs in the dusky background. 

" Some things have lately been removed from here," 
he said ; "there has been some sweeping among the 
furniture in the front." 

"I yesterday endeavored to clean a little," said 
the Castellan, " because your Highness expressed a 
wish to enter here ; but we have not gone far." 

" Have you ever formerly examined the furniture 
in this room ? " asked the Professor. 

" No," replied the man. " I was only placed here 
last year by his Highness the Sovereign." 

" Is there any catalogue of the things ? " said the 
Professor. 

The man said there was not. 

"Do you know if there are chests or trunks here? " 

" I think I have observed something of the kind," 
replied the Castellan. 

"Fetch the workmen to move the things," ordered 
the Princess. "To-day every part or this attic shall be 
examined." 

The Castellan hastened down. The Professor en- 
deavored again to peep among the piled- up masses, 
but the glaring light from above dazzled his ej'es. 
He looked at the princely child ; she was standing in 
a costume of bright color at the door, like the fairy of 
the castle, who has ascended into the dwelling of the 
grey-bearded spirits of the house in order to accept 
their homage. 



THE OPEN COURT. 



1605 



" It will be a long work, and j'our Highness will 
not like the dragging about of the dusty furniture." 

"I will remain with you," exclaimed the Princess; 
"however contemptibly small may be my share in the 
discovery, I will not give it up." 

Both were silent. The scholar moved about im- 
patiently among the chairs. Moths fluttered in the 
clouds of dust, and a brown martin flew out from the 
nest which it had built in a corner of the window. All 
was still ; there was no sound but a slight regular 
tapping, like a pendulum striking the hour, in the des- 
olate room. 

"That is the death-watch," whispered the Princess. 

" The wood-worm is doing its work in the serv- 
ice of nature, it dissolves what is decayed, into its ele- 
ments." 

The sound ceased, but after a time began to tick 
again, then a second ; they tapped and gnawed inces- 
santly, down, down, and further down ! Over the 
heads of the searchers the jackdaws were croaking, 
and further off the song of the nightingale sounded 
softly upon the labor of those who were unearthing the 
past. 

The workmen came; they brought one article after 
another to the front of the room. Thicker rose the 
discoloring dust ; the Princess took refuge in the ante- 
room, but the Professor did not leave his post. He 
worked hard himself, raising and arranging things in 
the front row. He went back for a moment to the 
door to take breath, the Princess received him laughing. 

" You have undergone a complete transformation. 
You look as if you had been awaiting resurrection in 
this room, and I do not think I look much better." 

" I see a chest," said the Professor, and hastened 
back. Another confused medley of chairs' legs and 
backs were lifted away, and the workmen laid hold of 
a little chest which stood in the dark. " Set it down," 
ordered the Castellan, who quickly passed a large 
brush over it. It was carried to the light and appeared 
to be a trunk of pine wood with an arched top ; the oil 
color of the paint had disappeared in many places. 
There were iron clamps at the corners, and a rusty 
key that held fast the staple of the lock, but hung 
loosely in the wood. On the cover of the chest, which 
was dusty and worn, a black ' 2 ' was visible. The Pro- 
fessor had the chest put at the feet of the Princess. 
He pointed to the cipher. 

" This is probably one of the chests that the official 
of Rossau sent to the castle Solitude," he said, with as- 
sumed composure, but his voice trembled. 

The Princess knelt down and endeavored to raise 
the cover, the lock broke away from the wood, and the 
chest opened. 

Above lay a thick book, bound in parchment. 
Quickly the Professor pounced upon it, like a lion on 



his prey, but he laid it down again immediately. It 
was an old missal, written on parchment, the cover 
damaged and torn, the layers of parchment hung 
loosely in the book. He put his hand again in the 
chest, a torn hunting net filled the remaining space ; 
beside that some damaged cross-bows, a bundle of 
arrows, and small iron-work. He raised himself, his 
cheeks were pale, his eyes glowed. 

"This is No. 2, where is No. i,"he exclaimed. 
He hurried back into the room, the Princess followed. 
"Forward, men," he cried out, "fetch the other trunk." 

The men continued their work. 

" There is something here," said one of the work- 
men ; the Professor hastened to the spot, raised and 
drew it out, it was only an empty chest. 

The work went on. The Marshal also had been 
brought here by curiosity ; he eagerly viewed the old 
furniture, and caused those pieces to be placed to- 
gether, which, according to his idea, might be mended 
and used in the castle. The staircase was filled with 
household goods, and one of the servants' rooms was 
opened that the old things might be deposited in it. 
An hour had passed, the room became more empty, 
the sun was sinking, its rays reflected the image of the 
opening in the wall on the opposite side ; the other 
chest was not to be found. 

" Remove everything," said the Professor, " even 
to the last piece of wood. 

A heap of old lances, broken glasses and pottery 
were fetched out of the corner, also broken legs of 
tables, split pieces of veneered wood, and in the cor- 
ner a great pewter tankard : — the space was clear. 
On the floor lay gnawed pieces on which the death- 
watch had already done its work. 

The Professor entered the door again. 

" This room is cleared," he said, with forced com- 
posure, to the Castellan. " Open the next room." 

"I do not believe that you will find anything in it," 
replied the weary man. "You will only find old 
shelves and stoves there that formerly stood in the 
castle." 

" Let us go in," said the Professor. 

The Castellan opened the door hesitatingly ; a 
second room, still larger and less inviting, came to 
view ; sooty earthen pans, bricks, and slabs of slate, 
lay mountain-high at the entrance, and over these 
were wooden tools that probably had been used in the 
last repairs of the castle. 

" I am glad to see this," said the Marshal ; "such 
a load on the upper story is wrong. This lumber 
must be taken out of the tower." 

The Professor had ascended a hill of slate slabs, 
and was seeking in the darkness for another trunk, but 
the chaos was too great. 

" I will have it cleared out immediately," said the 



i6o6 



XHE OPEN COURT. 



Marshal, consolingly, " but it may take a long time ; 
we shall hardly get through to-day." 

The Professor looked imploringl}' at the Princess. 

" Get more people," she commanded. 

" Even with that it will soon be dark," replied the 
Marshal, prudently. " We shall see how far we can 
get. At all events the Professor may betimes to-mor- 
row find the entrance prepared." 

" Meanwhile let us shake the dust from our clothes," 
said the Princess, "and come into my library ; it lies 
just under us, you can there overlook the work of the 
people who are clearing away. The chest shall be 
conveyed into my library. I will take it with me, and 
shall expect you." 

Two men carried No. 2 into the library, and the 
Professor went unwilling to his room to dress. 

The Princess walked about the room where the old 
chest had been placed, awaiting the return of the 
scholar. With a heavy heart she looked forw'ard to 
meeting him ; she concealed in her soul a wish and a 
commission. The Sovereign had taken leave of her 
this time with more kindness than he had done for 
years ; before her departure, he had led her into a side 
room and spoken to her about Werner. 

" You know that one cannot leave too much to 
honest Bergau ; I should be glad if you will also do 
your best to keep the learned man with us. I have 
got accustomed to him in this short time and would 
unwillingly miss his enlivening societj'. But I do not 
think of myself alone. I am becoming old, and such 
a rrian would be of the greatest value to your brother 
for his whole life — a man in full vigor, who is always 
collected and calm in the midst of our distracting 
doings : I therefore wish this intimacy to be preserved 
and increased for you both : for you also, Sidonie. I 
have seen with especial satisfaction how enthusiastic- 
ally you enter into the studies of our learned men. 
Your mind will not be sufficiently interested with the 
twittering of the well-mannered birds who surround 
us ; some assistance from a talented person will open 
to you a nobler conception of the world. Endeavor to 
gain this man : every kind of burdensome duty shall 
be spared to him ; what now makes his position un- 
certain shall be removed as soon as he is installed 
with us. I do not insist upon your speaking to him, 
I only wish it ; and I wish you to believe that in this 
also I am thinking of your future." 

Without doubt this was the case. 

The Princess had listened to the words of her father 
with the quiet criticism that was customary between 
such near relations. But the words of the Sovereign 
on this occasion met with such an echo in her soul, 
that she expressed her willingness to speak to Mr. 
Werner. 

"If you undertake this," the Sovereign said, in 



conclusion, " you must not do it by halves. Employ' 
all the mild influence that 5'ou can exercise over him, 
obtain his square word and promise for whatever he is 
inclined to accede to." 

The Princess now thought over these words with 
disquietude. Ah ! she would gladly have conveyed to 
the heart of this much valued man the wishes of her 
own, but she felt annoyed and perplexed that her 
secret feelings should be made subservient to the will 
of another. 

The Professor entered the library of the Princess ; 
he gave a glance at the casts and books which were 
lying about, just unpacked and unarranged, and 
began : 

" When one's hopes have been so much raised, it 
is difficult to bear suspense. One cannot help laugh- 
ing over the mocking accident which brings us in con- 
tact with a monk whose work is of no value, and with- 
holds from us that of the other which is of immeasur- 
able importance." 

The Princess pointed with her hand to the door : 
outside were heard the steps of people carrying some- 
thing. 

" Only have a little patience ; if there is nothing 
more to-day there may be to-morrow." 

" To-morrow ! " exclaimed the Professor ; " a whole 
night lies between. Meanwhile the worm gnaws in- 
cessantly, and all the powers of destruction are at 
work. Numberless are the possibilities that separate 
us from our hope : that acquisition alone is certain 
which we have in our hands." 

He examined the chest. 

"It is much smaller than I imagined. B}' what 
accident did the missal lie in it ? It is not even cer- 
tain whence it came, and it is still very doubtful what 
may lie concealed in the other chest." 

The Princess raised the top. 

" Let us mea.nwhile pay attention to the little we 
have found." 

She took up the parchment volume, and put it in 
the hands of the learned man. Some leaves slipped 
out; the Professor caught hold of them ; his eyes con- 
tracted, he jumped up and hastened to the window. 

" These leaves do not belong to it," he said, read- 
ing them. At last he exclaimed : " A piece of the man- 
uscript is found." 

He held out the leaves to the Princess ; his hand 
trembled, and the agitation of his countenance was 
such that he was obliged to turn away. He hastened 
to the table and searched the missal, opening it leaf 
by leaf, from beginning to end. The Princess held the 
leaves in her hand in eager expectation, and ap- 
proached him. As he looked up he saw two large eyes 
fixed on him with tender sympathy. 

( To be continued.) 



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CONTENTS: 



THE PRESERVATION OF MORAL PURITY IN CHIL- 
DREN. A. H. Heinem.-\nn ■ 1607 

THE PAPER DOLLAR. Wheelbarrow 1609 

M. GUYAU'S FAITH. The Consciousness of Intense and 
Expansive Life conceived as the Common Principle of 
Art, Morality, and Religion. By Alfred Fouillee. 

Translated from the French by ;i'/i' 1611 

FORMAL THOUGHT AND ETHICS. Editor 1613 

AN INSTANCE OF HIGHER HUMANITY 1616 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

Mrs. Ella E. Gibson on Dr. Brown's Book 1616 



POETRY. 

To Longfellow, Hawthorne, and Thoreau. Isaac K. 
Friedman. 
BOOK REVIEWS. 

La Morale, L'Art, et La Religion D'apres M. Guyau. 
Alfred Fouillee. 

The Immanent God. A. W. Jackson. 

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Prolegomena to In Memoriam. Thomas Davidson. 
FICTION. 

The Lost Manuscript. (Continued.) Gustav Freytag. 1616 



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Review of Recent Work of THE OPEN COURT. 



PHILOSOPHY. 

Hedonism and Asceticism. Editor No. 81 

Philosophy has two aspects. Of these, ethics forms the prac- 
tical aspect, and, a systematic conception of the universe, the 
theoretical. Philosophy and ethics go together ; fallacy in the one 
leads to corruption in the other. Materialism will logically end in 
hedonism or utilitarianism, for it places the object of life in mate- 
rial well-being, in happiness ; Spiritualism will lead to asceticism, 
a renunciation of the pleasures of the world. Monism rejects both 
views ; it sees the purpose of existence in progress, in the constant 
aspiration after something higher and nobler. 

HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL. 

The Discovery of the Veda. — The Interpretation 

OF the Hindu Epic H. Oldeneerg. .Nos. 84 and 85 
Prof. Oldenberg is one of the most eminent Sanskrit scholars 
of the present day. He tells us in popular language the story of 
the origin, growth, and present state of Sanskrit research. The 
discovery of the Veda, which forms the subject of the paper pub- 
lished in No. 84, must be accounted the most important ac- 
quisition to science ever made through any one branch of oriental 
enquiry. The results of investigation in this department have re- 
constructed the foundations of comparative history, philology, 
philosophy, and religion. Through the untiring efiforts of great 
scholars, a new world, a new literature, a new and strange people 
have been revealed to us. 



DEFINITIONS AND EXPLANATIONS. 
The Data of experience are perceptions. 
Reality is the sum total of all that is. 
Truth is the conformity of cognition to reality, 

[Truth being a relation between subject and object appears to 
be relative in its nature. Absolute truth is a self-contradiction; it 
would imply cognition without a cognizing subject. 

At the same time it is obvious that absolute existence (in fact 
everything absolute) is impossible. Reality is properly called lllri-- 
lichkdt in German, derived from luirkeii, to take effect. Reality is 
not immovable and unchangeable absoluteness, but the effective- 
ness of things in their relations. Reality therefore implies not 
only existence, but the manifestation of existence also. Existence 
and its manifestation are not two different things; both are one. 

The idea of something absolutely Unknowable is therefore also 
untenable ; it would imply the existence of an object whose ex- 
istence is not manifested ;'. e., existence without reality; Si'iii 
ohm: IVirklkhkcil — which is a contradiction, an impossibility.] 



Science is the search for truth. 

The nature of science is the economy of thought. (Mack.) 
Economy of thought is possible through application of the 

laws of form to thought. 

Knowledge is the possession of certain truths. 

[Knowledge is, so to say, the present stock or capital with 
which Science works. Science cannot exist without knowledge. 
The object of Science is not only to increase and enlarge knowl- 
edge but also to purify the present stock of knowledge from vague- 
ness, errors, and misconceptions. 

The purpose of knowledge is that of increasing our power over 
nature,] 

Monism is that philosophy which recognizes the oneness of All- 
existence, and the Religion of Monism teaches that the individual, 
as a part of the whole, has to conform to the cosmical laws of the 
All. 

• 
Religion is man's aspiration to be in harmony with the All. 

[Religion has been defined differently in the columns of The 
Open Court, but all definitions that have been presented are in 
strict agreement. Mr. Hegeler in No. 25, defines Religion as 
"man's union with the All " (taking the definition from the Lu- 
theran Catechism " Religion ist der Bund des Menschen mit Gott 
durchGott, " and replacing the Word God by the more compre- 
hensive word The All). The editor has defined Religion as 
" man's consciousness of his relation to the All" (No. 24); as "Das 
AUgefiihl im Einzelnen," the All-feeling in the individual (see 
foot-note page 965); as "man's conception of the world that serves 
him as a guiding-star through life" (page 11 So).] 

Morals are man's conduct in so far as it is in unison with the All. 
[The basis of morality is religion. A moral educator or 
preacher may justly be asked, "On what authority dost thou jus- 
tify thy precepts?" And he will tell us that his authority is not 
personal; he speaks in the name of universal order. Accordingly 
his authority is that of religion. If it were not so, all his good 
precepts would have no foundation; they would hover in the air 
like beautiful dreams that have no reality.] 

Ethics is the Science of Morals ; it teaches man why he must, 
and how he can, regulate his conduct so as to be in unison 
with the All. 

Natural history and the history of mankind prove that here on 
earth a constant progress takes place developing ever higher forms 
of existence. ' , 

Morally good are those acts which are in harmony with the W\. 
i. e. , those which enhance progress, and morally ImJ are those 
which are not in harmony with the All, /. c, those which retard or 
prevent progress, 

[Religion (man's aspiration to be in unison with the All) has 
naturally produced many superstitious notions in the world, of its 
origin, and of its purpose. Similarly, science (man's search for 
truth) has produced many errors or false notions of reality. But 
all the superstitions of religion do not prove that religion as such 
is an illusion, and all the errors of science are no evidence that sci- 
ence as such is a sham. 

It is obvious that religion and science, as here defined, are not 
contradictory to, but complementary of, each other. If religion 
and science do not agree, it is a certain sign that our conception of 
either the one or the other is wrong. The history of the human 
mind has been one of constant conflict and reconciliation between 
religion and science. Their relation has repeatedly been disturbed 
and re-adjusted. 

The unitary conception of the world affords the only basis for 
the union of Religion and Science, and opens a new vista of prog- 
ress for both ] 



The Open Court 

A. -WEEKLY JOURNAIi 

Devoted to the Work of Conciliating Religion -with Science 



No. 89. tvoL. III.— II.) 



CHICAGO, MAY 9, li 



THE PRESERVATION OF MORAL PURITY 
IN CHILDREN. 

BY A. H. HEINEMANN. 

The aim of ethical education must be to evolve in 
man the capability, that is, the will and the power, to 
withstand temptation, to reject whatever is evil, and to 
desire and do what is pure and good. But it is not 
knowledge, but habit and use, by which alone the goal 
of ethical education can be attained. Habit is second 
nature. Train a man to the habit of thinking nothing 
but what is pure and good, and he will grow unable 
to think or to will anything impure. By means of 
habit, education must make a desire of the pure, and 
a correlative horror of the impure, a natural impulse 
equal in power and intensity to an inborn force, though 
superior to it by being conscious of itself. 

Education bj' habit does by no means belittle the 
claims of the education of the intellect. Both must 
proceed side by side, as educational science instructs 
us. The boy with a well developed ethical power 
ought also to be possessed of a clear judgment regard- 
ing the moral value of any events confronting him. 
One of these events will, naturally, be an attack of the 
genetic, or amative passion. 

But amativeness, as it affects secret organs, is also 
fond of secrecy and shy of observation and publicity. 
It will not submit to being discussed openly, but will 
prefer pondering over itself in a self-indulgent, dreamy 
sort of way. In fact, bj' preventing a boy, or girl, 
dreaming, j'ou may count almost with certainty upon 
delivering his or her passion of love of everything 
morbid there may be in it. 

Amativeness is not an active passion, else it would 
not be dream}'. It was of an active nature at the time 
of the Troubadours and Minnesingers when it stirred 
up men to deeds of valor. In those times woman oc- 
cupied the seat of honor both at tournaments and in 
men's minds. She does not do so now, or, at least, 
she does so onl}' in exceptional cases and with excep- 
tional men. With most men, woman is but a neces- 
sarj' means for the pleasurable satisfaction of desires, 
an expensive luxury which man is not able or willing 
•to deny himself. In fact, most men, and more partic- 
ularly, young men, look upon the satisfaction of the 
genetic passion as the greatest pleasure of life, fre- 
quently to such an extent as to throw away their lives 



if their monomania of love happens to meet with a 
disappointment. If they were able to fight for their 
ladies as did the knights of the Middle Ages, they 
would most assuredly not be in danger of committing 
suicide for them. 

Such efforts of strength in the passion of love are 
very generally excluded in this day of ours. Love has 
become a passive passion, pent up within the mental 
recesses of the affected individual. That is the reason 
why it must now be pronounced the most violent, the 
most dominant passion of the period. Young men 
will think of their lady-love from the moment they 
rise in the morning until they fall asleep again ; walk- 
ing, working, or eating, they will, all the time, have 
the thought and image of their love in their minds. 
That constant preoccupation will, in most cases, exer- 
cise a repressive influence upon the activities of both 
mind and body. A laxity of muscle and of thought 
will frequently set in and go on increasing. At the 
same time there is generally an ever increasing desire 
of being alone and an irresistible tendenc}' to dreamy 
inactivity and fanciful revery. 

From such a dreamy condition to an attempt at 
obtaining satisfaction of the genetic passion, the tran- 
sition is eas}' and natural and almost sure to occur. In 
fact, after a boy or girl, has been allowed to abandon 
himself or herself, to that indolent condition of dreamy 
self-indulgence, escape from the defiling result is 
hardl}' possible. There is no means to prevent it except 
a removal of the causes of the evil, and the causes are 
the want of energy and of the love of exertion univer- 
sally found in the present generation. Bring up pure 
minded boys and girls and there will be no danger of 
the vice of self-indulgence. 

A boy with a taste for outdoor sports, for gymnas- 
tics, or for any active exertion in general, intellectual 
work not excluded, will, as a rule, not be inclined to 
give way to the spell of dreamy self-indulgence of the 
passion of love. When he is in love, he will pursue 
the object of his passion with the energy and activity 
of a knight-errant of the olden times. He will not 
stoop to the dozy self-indulgence of the love-sick 
weakling and will not easily become a prey to the de- 
moralizing effects of the passion. 

The means by which to prevent the excessive de- 
velopment of the genetic passion, consists, therefore, 



i6o8 



THE OPEN COURT. 



in the adequate development of the talents and the 
strength of the boy, by which a habit of incessant ac- 
tivity is induced, preventing him, under any circum- 
stances, to submit to the spell of the dreamy self-in- 
dulgence of passion. That is the main secret of the 
educational management of the case. 

There is every opportunity at present to obtain a 
knowledge of the method to be followed in this sort of 
education. You need only go to the Kindergarten 
and the manual-training schools to see how the system 
of educating youth by means of work and habit is 
practically carried out. 

From their earliest age, children must be kept 
active all the time. When still in their cradle, their 
attention when they are awake should incessantly be 
kept busy. The first gift of Frcebel, the soft ball, is 
of an inestimable value at the time. When the child 
commences to move about, it must always be engaged 
doing something. If inclined to discover something 
on its own hook, it must be watched to keep it out of 
mischief or danger, although it should be allowed to do 
as it likes as much as possible. But it- must never be 
allowed to lie, or sit, or stand, and do nothing. Neithei; 
will there ever be an inclination to be idle. In fact, 
idleness is an illness, or the result of illness. It does 
not occur in healthy children unless they are brought 
up to it by being at first forced to indulge habits of 
inactivity. 

The most dangerous time is the twilight hour of 
the evening before the gas or lamps are lit. It is fre- 
quently passed in a dreamy, lazy way of doing nothing, 
everyone indulging in apparently harmless thought- 
lessness. It should be spent in talking to children, in 
telling tales and hearing them tell theirs, in explana- 
tions and controversy ; but it should never be spent 
in dreams. The habit of dreaming is the source of a 
great looseness of thought and action inducing a love 
of ease and habitual slothfulness. I would never allow 
of such a period of twilight unless the mental activity 
of the company was unusually lively. 

When the boys are old enough to go to school and 
play about with their companions by themselves, the 
parents should see that they have either some work to 
attend to, or that they played about. They must never 
be allowed to sit still and meditate, or dream. 

It is not sufficient, however, to produce constant 
activity by supervision, that is by outward compulsion 
only. The love of activity, or exertion, must be planted 
in the child's mind, must be a natural tendency. Such 
love of exertion is not possible unless there is a real lik- 
ing for the work to be done. The work, or activity must 
be agreeable to the talents and inclinations, to the ca- 
pacities of the child. It is of paramount importance, 
therefore, to find out a child's natural talents and, 
having found them, to develop them, that is, to let 



him use or manifest them as much as possible. Such 
activity as will strengthen and improve his inna.te 
powers, every child will love to engage in. Under such 
treatment habits of industry and constant exertion can- 
not fail to become a natural tendency of the growing 
man. 

Another point as important as that of the love of 
activity, is that of purity of language and thought. 
Language is thought. Through impure language youth 
gets used to impure thought. 

"That cannot be so," say people. "A child will re- 
peat what it hears without knowing what is the mean- 
ing of the sounds repeated." 

That is so, no doubt. But by repeating sounds 
which have an impure meaning, the ear gets used to 
hearing, the mouth to speaking, words having impure 
meaning. These impressions of the senses get fixed 
in the mind like any other impressions, or sensations ; 
the mind gets used to them and will retain them. 
When, at a subsequent period, the child begins to un- 
derstand them, they have already become part and 
parcel of the stock of knowledge stored in the mind. 
Thus it was the early and unconscious hearing and re- 
peating done by the innocent baby which has filled 
the mind with impure sensations which are later trans- 
formed into impure conceptions and thoughts. It is 
of the utmost importance, therefore, to protect little 
children from hearing and repeating impure language. 

This remark, timely as it no doubt is in every civ- 
ilized country, is particularly appropriate here. For 
in no other country is impure language and, conse- 
quently, the influence of the genetic passion -percep- 
tible at so early an age as in America. Equivocal ex- 
pressions suggestive of circumstances neither com- 
prehended nor comprehensible as yet, with kissing, 
courting and touching, begins with our children com- 
monly before the)' get into their "teens." And with 
that early contact between the male and female, the 
secret working of the genetic passion commences. If 
you would ward off that impure influence, protect 3'our 
children from bad language. Accustom their minds so 
thoroughly to purity of expression and thought that 
they cannot listen to, much less repeat, vile words 
without a feeling of disgust. It is that feeling which 
will cause them to persistently reject equivocation and 
vulgarity. 

I have a little boy of thirteen who supplies me 
all the time with substantial proofs of the reality of 
the conditions just described. He will refuse listening 
to any of the vile talk of his playfellows, and never 
hesitates to tell his mother, or me, anything which 
may strike him as strange or suggestive of evil. When 
he was eleven years old, he happened to fall in with a 
lot of rough boys using very vile language and telling 
all sorts of indecent and obscene tales causing my boy 



THE ORKN COURT. 



1609 



to feel an irrepressible curiosity about the sexes and 
the generative functions. He wanted an explanation 
and solution for his doubts, and I was compelled either 
to give him that explanation or to let him go to other 
sources of information. Now, I am aware of the nature 
of such sources as are accessible to children and I was 
afraid to trust my boy to them. 

The other day, I know, a boy at a public school 
had heard a word new to him and suggestive of some 
secret and immodest meaning. He went to Webster's 
dictionary which is the book most generally consulted 
by both boys and girls upon these matters, and tried 
to find the word. A teacher (male) happened to see 
him at the book and asked him what word he was 
looking for. The boy told the master. "Oh, that is 
no business of yours," said the teacher. "You told 
us yourself we must look up any word which we do 
not understand," replied the boy. " So you must, 
but not such a kind of word," was the teacher's direc- 
tion when he sent the boy away. What would the 
boy do then ? — go somewhere else and be more eager 
than before to find out that thing which his teacher 
tried so hard to conceal from him as to actually 
withdraw the rule he had laid down for finding un- 
known words in general. And in future that boy 
will do as all his companions do : he will supply him- 
self with another word beginning with the same lett,ers 
and of an innocent meaning, and when asked what he 
is looking for, he will pronounce that word held in re- 
serve and will, by so doing, practice himself in the art 
of dissimulation in addition to the improper curiosity 
causing him to consult the dictionary. 

I had by all means to avoid bringing such conse